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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

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^  VI 

Given  By 












H.  Res.  113 


PART  29 

FEBRUARY  21  AND  23,  1942 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Select  Committee  Investigating 
National  Defense  Migration 












H.  Res.  113 


PART  29 

FEBRUARY  21  AND  23,  1942 


Printed  for  .be  me  of  toe  Select  Committee  Investigating 
National  Defense  Migration 





WASHINGTON  :   1942 


JUL  13  1942 



JOHN  H.  TOLAN,  California,  Chairman 
JOHN  J.  SPARKMAN,  Alabama  CARL  T.  CURTIS,  Nebraska 


Robert  K.  Lamb,  Staff  Director 




List  of  witnesses vii 

List  of  authors ix 

Saturday,  February  21,  1942,  morning  session 10965 

Testimony  of  A.ngelo  J.  Rossi 10965 

Testimony  of  Charles  W.  Dullea 10970 

Testimony  of  Leland  W.  Cutler 10970 

Testimony  of  Florence  M.  McAuliffe 10971 

Testimony  of  Earl  Warren 10973,  11009 

Statement  bv  Earl  Warren 10973 

Testimony  of  Ricard  H.  Neustadt 11024,  11048,  11058 

Statement  by  Richard  H.  Neustadt 11026 

Testimony  of  Ottorino  Ronchi 1 1057 

Saturday,  February  21,  afternoon  session 11059 

Testimony  of  Lerov  McCormick 11061 

Testimony  of  Wendell  G.  Travoli 11061 

Testimony  of  Robert  H.  Fouke 11068 

Material  submitted  bv  Robert  H.  Fouke 11074 

Testimony  of  H.  L.  Strobel 11087 

Monday,  February  23,  1942,  morning  session 11093 

Testimony  of  John  F.  Hassler 11094 

Testimony  of  Frank  S.  Gaines 11095,  11101 

Statement  bv  Frank  S.  Gaines 11097 

Testimony  of  John  S.  Slavich 11102 

Testimony  of  B.  A.  Wallman 11103 

Testimony  of  Chester  C.  Fisk 11105 

Testimony  of  M.  C.  Godfrey 1110b 

Testimony  of  C.  R.  Schwanenberg 11107 

Testimony  of  Verne  Smith 11108 

Testimony  of  W.  J.  Johnson 11108 

Testimony  of  Mrs.  John  Damato,  testifying  for  Mrs.  Francesca  Cri- 

vello 11117 

Testimony  of  Mrs.  Luciano  Maniscalo 11121 

Testimony  of  Chauncey  Tramutolo 11125 

Statement  by  Chauncey  Tramutolo ' 11131 

Testimony  of  Milano  Rispoli 11132 

Statement  bv  Milano  Rispoli 11133 

Testimony  of  Mike  J.  Masaoka 11137,  11140,  11152 

Statement  by  Mike  M.  Masaoka 11137 

Testimony  of  Henry  Tani 11148 

Statement  by  Henry  Tani 11150 

Testimony  of  Dave  Tatsuno 11153 

Mondav,  Februarv  23,  1942,  afternoon  session -    11157 

Testimony  of  Tom  C.  Clark 11157 

Material  submitted  bv  Tom  C.  Clark -    11173 

Testimony  of  Louis  Goldblatt 11178 

Statement  by  Louis  Goldblatt 11186 

Testimony  of  J.  Murray  Thompson -  -  -   11190 

Statement  by  J.  Murray  Thompson ^  _    11194 

Testimony  of  Dr.  W.  P.  Reagor -    11195 

Testimony  of  Galen  M.  Fisher -    11197 

Statement  by  Galen  M.  Fisher -   11199 

Testimony  of  Rev.  Gordon  K.  Chapman 11203 

Statement  by  Rev.  Gordon  K.  Chapman 11205 

Testimony  of  Rev.  Frank  Herron  Smith 1 1207 

Testimony  of  William  C.  James 1 1208 



Monday,  February  23,  1942,  afternoon  session — Continued.  Page 

Testimony  of  H.  F.  Slade 11214 

Testimony  of  Tatsu  J.  Ogawa 11217 

Testimony  of  Ernest  Iiyama 11220,  11221 

Testimony  of  Michio  Kunitani 11220,  11221 

Testimony  of  Anne  Kunitani 11227 

Testimony  of  James  M.  Omura 11229 

Testimony  of  Caryl  Fumiko  Okuma 1 1232 

Introduction  of  exhibits 1 1235 

Exhibit  1.  Position  of  the  American  Legion,  Department  of  California, 
on  Enemy  Aliens  and  Restricted  Areas,  by  Robert  F.  Garner,  Jr., 
department  commander 1 1235 

Exhibit  2.  Resolution  urging  the  evacuation  and  concentration  of  all 
Japanese  and  their  descendants  to  a  concentration  camp  under 
supervision  of  the  Federal  Government,  by  County  Supervisors 
Association  of  California,  Sacramento,  Calif 11237 

Exhibit  3.  Resolution  of  the  San  Benito  County  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce, by  E.  E.  Sparling,  president,  Hollister,  Calif 11238 

Exhibit  4.  Resolution  re  disposition  of  Japanese  enemy  aliens;  report 
by  Leslie  A.  Cleary,  chairman,  Stanislaus  County  Defense  Council, 
Modesto,  Calif 11239 

Exhibit  5.  A  resolution  adopted  by  the  Fresno  County  Chamber  of 
Commerce  in  relation  to  the  Japanese  and  alien  enemy  situation  on 
the  Pacific  coast 1 1239 

Exhibit  6.  Statement  by  Harry  L.  Kingman,  general  secretary,  Young 
Men's  Christian  Association  of  the  University  of  California,  Berk- 
eley, Calif 11240 

Exhibit  7.  The  Question  of  Transferring  the  Japanese  From  the 
Pacific  Coast — an  Example  of  War  Hysteria  and  a  Plea  for  Sanity 
in  the  Present  Crisis;  report  by  Eric  C.  Bellquist,  Ph.D.,  of  the 
department  of  political  science,  University  of  California,  Berkeley, 
Calif 11240 

Exhibit  8.  Letter  from  Representative  Knute  Hill,  of  Washington, 

enclosing  letter  bearing  on  the  Japanese  situation 11251 

Exhibit  9.  Statement  by  Clarence  E.   Rust,  attorney  at  law,  5837 

San  Pablo  Avenue,  Oakland,  Calif.,  on  enemy  alien  evacuation 11254 

Exhibit  10.  Statement  by  Donald  Younger,  Santa  Cruz,  Calif 11254 

Exhibit  11.  Statement  by  Stuart  R.  Ward,  1035  Tehema  Ave.,  Menlo 

Park,  Calif 11260 

Exhibit  12.  Japanese- American  loyalty  to  the  United  States;  report 
by  Karl  G.  Yoneda,  San  Francisco  Doho  correspondent,  San  Fran- 
cisco, Calif 11265 

Exhibit  13.  Letter  to  Lt.  Gen.  John  L.  DeWitt  from  Lincoln  Kanai, 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  making  recommendations  on 
the  problems  of  evacuations  from  military  areas 11266 

Exhibit  14.  An  Appeal  in  Behalf  of  Anti-Fascist  Aliens;  report  by 
Charles  H.  Tutt,  secretary,  San  Francisco  chapter,  Mazzini  Society, 
San  Francisco,  Calif 1 1267 

Exhibit  15.  Hardship  Cases  Created  by  Evacuation  Orders;  report  by 

Minnette  Luckner,  1377  Broadway,  Alameda,  Calif 11269 

Exhibit  16.  Letter  discussing  the  refugee  problem  from  Hugo  D.  New- 
house,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11270 

Exhibit    17.  Report    by    San    Francisco    Committee   for    Service    to 

Emigres  (Federation  of  Jewish  Charities),  San  Francisco,  Calif 11270 

Exhibit  18.  Refugees  from  Axis  Countries;  report  by  Monroe  E. 
Deutsch,  vice  president  and  provost,  University  of  California, 
Berkeley,  Calif 11273 

Exhibit  19.  Text  of  a  radio  address  given  by  Hon.  Ralph  L.  Carr, 

Governor  of  Colorado,  on  February  28,  1942 11275 

Exhibit  20.  Statement  on  problems  of  German-Jewish  refugees  by 

Edward  Schreiber,  February  25,  1942 11277 

Exhibit  21.  The  Jewish  Refugee  and  the  Enemy  Alien  Problem;  report 

by  Rabbi  S.  P.  Wohlgelernter,  104  Seventeenth  St.,  Seattle,  Wash.    11278 

Exhibit  22.  Status  of  Descendants  of  Nationals  of  Axis  Countries 
with  the  California  State  Personnel  Board,  by  William  K.  Smith, 
acting  executive  officer,  Sacramento,  Calif 11279 


Introduction  of  exhibits — Continued.  Pase 

Exhibit  23    The  Japanese  Farmer;  report  bv  Lowell  W.  Berry,  owner, 

the  Best  Fertilizers  Co.,  1459  Third  Street,  Oakland,  Calif 11282 

Exhibit  24.  Japanese  Farm  Labor;  report  by  Wm.  A.  Ay  res,  editor, 

California  Grange  News,  Sacramento,  Calif 11283 

Exhibit  25.  The  Japanese  and  the  Oyster  Industry;  report  by  J. 
Burton  Bowman,  Olympia  Oyster  Growers  Protective  Association, 
Shelton,  Wash 11283 

Exhibit  26.  Correspondence  from  T.  M.  Bunn,  Salinas  Valley  Vege- 
table Exchange,  Salinas,  Calif.,  on  evacuation  and  the  farm  labor 
problem 1 1284 

Exhibit  27.  Farm  labor  in  the  sugar-beet  area  and  the  Japanese  evac- 
uations, by  Missoula  Countv  Farm  Labor  Committee,  Missoula, 
Mont.! - H286 

Exhibit  28.  The  Garbage  Collection  Problem  in  Alameda,  Calif.,  by 

Randal  F.  Dickey,  California  Legislature,  Alameda,  Calif 11288 

Exhibit  29.  Number  and  Status  of  Men  Engaged  in  Garbage  Collec- 
tion in  San  Francisco,  Affected  by  Enemy  Alien  Restrictions,  by 
John  B.  Molinari,  attorney  for  Scavengers'  Protective  Association, 
Inc.,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11289 

Exhibit  30.  Petition  to  be  relieved  from  order  of  evacuation,  sub- 
mitted to  Hon.  Francis  Biddle  by  Frederick  Dubovsky,  attorney, 
1916  Broadway,  Oakland,  Calif 11289 

Exhibit  31.  Statement  by  the  International  Institute  for  Service  to 
Immigrants  and  New  Americans,  1860  Washington  Street,  San 
Francisco,  Calif.,  submitted  by  Annie  Clo  Watson,  executive 
secretary 11291 

Exhibit  32.  Statement  by  Stanley  S.  Shimabukuro,  the  Japanese 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  1530  Buchanan  St.,  San 
Francisco,  Calif 11292 

Exhibit  33.  Position  of  the  Japanese  Church  Federation  of  Northern 
California,  1500  Post  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  on  the  Resettle- 
ment Problems  Attending  Japanese  Evacuation;  submitted  by 
Richard  M.  Neustadt,  regional  director,  Social  Security  Board,  San 
Francisco,  Calif 11293 

Exhibit  34.  The  Expatriated  German  Jew;  submitted  by  H.  M.  Jonas, 

L.  L.  D.,  569  Twelfth  Avenue,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11297 

Exhibit  35.  Letter  on  enemy  alien  evacuation  submitted  by  Hon. 
Earl  Warren,  attorney  general  of  California,  State  Building,  San 

Francisco,  Calif 1 1298 

Index  (see  last  pages  part  31). 


San  Francisco  Hearings,  February  21,  23,  1942 

Chapman,  Rev.  Gordon  K.,  field  representative  for  Japanese  work  on  the 
Pacific  coast,  Board  of  National  Missions  of  the  Presbyterian  Church, 

228  McAllister  Street,  San  Francisoc,  Calif 11203 

Clark,  Tom  C,  coordinator  of  the  enemy  alien  control  for  the  western 
defense  command,  Department  of  Justice,  Federal  Building,  Los  Angeles, 

Calif-  _  11157 

Crivella,  Mrs.Francesca,  2751  Hyde  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11117 

Cutler,  Leland  W.,  chairman  of  the  Subcommittee  of  the  Morale  Service  on 
Racial  and  National  Problems  in  San  Francisco,  Financial  Center  Build- 
ing, San  Francisco,  Calif |"??IS 

Damato,  Mrs.  John,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11117 

Dullea,  Charles  W.,  chief  of  police  of  the  city  and  county  of  San  Francisco, 

Calif 10970 

Fisher,  Galen  M.,  adviser  to  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  and  secretary 
to  the  Committee  on  National  Security  and  Fair  Play,  260  California 

Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11197 

Fisk,  Chester  C,  city  manager,  Berkeley,  Calif 11105 

Fouke,  Robert  H.,  attorney  representing  the  California  Joint  Immigration 

Committee,  Russ  Building,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11068 

Gaines,  Frank  S.,  mavor,  Berkeley,  Calif 11095,  11101 

Godfrey,  M.  C,  mayor,  Alameda,  Calif 11106 

Goldblatt,   Louis,  secretary,   California  State  Industrial  Union   Council, 

Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11178 

Hassler,  John  F.,  city  manager,  Oakland,  Calif 11094 

Iiyama,  Ernest,  president,  Nisei  Democratic  Club  of  Oakland,  Calif-   11220,  11221 

James,  William  C,  clerk,  Society  of  Friends,  Berkeley,  Calif 11208 

Johnson,  W.  J.,  captain  of  police,  Berkeley,  Calif 11108 

Kunitani,  Mrs.  Anne,  Berkeley,  Calif 11227 

Kunitani,  Michio,  Berkeley,  Calif 11220,  11221 

Maniscalo,  Mrs.  Luciano,  1846  Powell  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11121 

Masoaka,  Mike,  national  secretary  and  field  executive,  Japanese- American 

Citizens  League,  2031  Bush  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif--   11137,  11140,  11152 
McAuliffe,  Florence  M.,  chief  of  the  morale  service  of  the  San  Francisco 

Civilian  Defense  Council,  San  Francisco,  Calif 10971 

McCormick,  Leroy,  assistant  district  attorney,  Tulare  County,  Orosi,  Calif-    11061 
Neustadt,  Richard  H.,  regional  director,  Social  Security  Board,  and  regional 
director,    Office    of    Defense,    Health    and    Welfare    Services,    Federal 

Security  Agency,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11024,  11048,  11058 

Ogawa,  Tatsu  J.,  Berkelev,  Calif 11217 

Okuma,   Caryl  Fumiko,  managing  editor,   Current  Life,   San  Francisco, 

Qalif^ 11232 

Omura,~James~M.,  editor  and  publisher,  Current  Life,  San  Francisco,  Calif-   11229 
Reagor,  Dr.  W.  P.,  pastor,  First  Christian  Church  of  Oakland  and  presi- 
dent, California  Council  of  Churches,  Oakland,  Calif 11195 

Rispoli,  Milano,  executive  secretary,  Italian  Welfare  Agency,  San  Francisco, 

Caijf 11132 

Ronchi,  Ottorino,  former  professor  of  Italian  at  University  of  California  and 

former  editor  of  La  Voce  del  Popolo,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11057 

Rossi,  Angelo  J.,  mayor,  San  Francisco,  Calif 10965 

Schwanenberg,  C.  R.,  citv  manager,  Alameda,  Calif 11107 

Slade,  H.  F.,  assistant  cashier,  Federal  Reserve  Bank,  San  Francisco,  Calif.    11214 

Slavich,  John  S.,  mayor,  Okland,  Calif 11102 

Superintendent,  Board  of  Missions  and  church  extension  of  the  Methodist 

Church,  2816  Hillegar  Avenue,  Berkeley,  Calif 11207 

Smith,  Verne,  chief  of  police,  Alameda,  Calif 11108 




Strobel,  H.  L.,  farmer,  Monterey  County,  Calif _ 11087 

Tani,   Henry,   executive  secretary,   Japanese-American   Citizens   League, 

2031  Bush  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11148 

Tatsuno,    Dave,    president,    San    Francisco    chapter,    Japanese-American 

Citizens  League,  2031  Bush  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11153 

Thompson,  J.  Murray,  chief,  Economic  Section,  Western  Division,  Agri- 
cultural   Adjustment    Administration,    United    States    Department    of 

Agriculture,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11190 

Tramutolo,    Chauncey,    attorney,    Alexander    Building,    San    Francisco, 

Calif '- 1H25 

Travoli,  Wendell  G.,  representing  the  Tulare  County  Citizens  Committee, 

Tulare  County,  Orosi,  Calif 11061 

Wallman,  B.  A.,  chief  of  police,  Oakland,  Calif 11103 

Warren,  Earl,  attorney  general  of  the  State  of  California,  San  Francisco, 

Calif__.__. I 10973,11009 


Of  Prepared  Statements  and  Exhibits 

Ayres,  William  A.,  editor,  California  Grange  News,  Sacramento,  Calif. __  11283 
Bellquist,    Dr.    Eric    C,    department   of   political   science,    University   of 

California,  Berkeley,  Calif 11240 

Berry,   Lowell   W.,   owner,   the  Best  Fertilizers   Co.,    1459  Third  Street, 

Oakland,  Calif 11282 

Bowman,   J.    Burton,   Olympia   Oyster   Growers   Protective   Association, 

Shelton,  Wash 11283 

Bunn,  T.  M.,  Salinas  Valley  Vegetable  Exchange,  Salinas,  Calif 11284 

California  Joint  Immigration  Committee,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11083 

Carr,  Hon.  Ralph  L.,  Governor  of  Colorado,  Denver,  Colo 11275 

Chapman,  Rev.  Gordon  K.,  field  representative  for  Japanese  work  on  the 
Pacific  coast,  Board  of  National  Missions  of  the  Presbyterian  Church, 

228  McAllister  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11205 

Clearv,  Leslie  A.,  chairman,  Stanislaus  County  Defense  Council,  Modesto, 

Calif . .- H239 

County  Supervisors  Association  of  California,  Sacra,  jento,  Calif __   11237 

Deutsch,  Monroe  E.,  vice  president  and  provost,  University  of  California, 

Berkeley,  Calif 11273 

Dickey,  Randal  F.,  Alameda,  Calif 11288 

Dubousky,  Frederick,  attorney,  1916  Broadway,  Oakland,  Calif 11289 

Fisher,  Galen  M.,  adviser  to  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  and  secre- 
tary to  the  Committee  on  National  Security  and  Fair  Play,  260  Cali- 
fornia Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11199 

Fresno  County  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Fresno,  Calif —    11239 

Garner,   Robert  F.,  Jr.,  department  commander,  the  American  Legion, 

Department  of  California,  San  Francisco,  Calif 1 1235 

Goldblatt,  Louis,  secretary-treasurer  of  the  California  State  Industrial 
Union  Council,   Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations,   San  Francisco, 

Calif !__.„_ -r 1H86 

Hill,  Hon.  Knute,  House  of  Representatives,  Washington,  D.  C 11251 

Hagar,  Gerald  H.,  attorney,  1421  Central  Bank  Building,  Oakland,  Calif.-   11298 

Jonas,  Dr.  H.  M.,  569  Twelfth  Avenue,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11297 

Kanai,  Lincoln,  Young  Men's  Christian  Association 11266 

Kingman,  Harry  L.,  general  secretary,  Young  Men's  Christian  Association 

of  the  University  of  California,  Berkeley,  Calif   11 240 

Korematsu,  Hi,  acting  chairman,   Proponent  Committee  for  Evacuated 

Alien  Resettlement  Program,  Berkeley,  Calif 11097 

Luckner,  Minette,  1377  Broadway,  Alameda,  Calif 11269 

Masaoka,  Mike  J.,  national  secretary  and  field  executive,  Japanese- 
American  Citizens  League,  2031  Bush  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11137 

McClatchy,  V.  S.,  executive  secretary,  California  Joint  Immigration  Com- 
mittee. San  Francisco,  Calif 11074 

Missoula  Countv  Farm  Labor  Committee,  Missoula,  Mont 11286 

Molinari,  John  B.,  attorney  for  Scavengers'  Protective  Association,  470 

Columbus,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11289 

Neustadt,  Richard  H.  regional  director,  Social  Security  Board,  and  regional 
director,  Office  of  Defense,  Health  and  Welfare  Services,  Federal  Security 

Agency,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11026,  H293 

Newhouse,  H.  D.,  Russ  Building,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11270 

Rowell,  Chester,  The  San  Francisco  Chronicle,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11242 

Rust,   Clarence  E.,  attorney  at  law,  5837  San  Pablo  Avenue,  Oakland, 

Calif 1J254 

San  Benito  County  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Hollister,  Calif 11238 



San  Francisco  Committee  for  Service  to  Emigres,  Federation  of  Jewish 

Charities,  1600  Scott  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11270 

Schreiber,  Edward 11277 

Shimabukuro,  Stanley  S.,  the  Japanese  Young  Men's  Christian  Associa- 
tion, 1530  Buchanan  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11292 

Smith,   William  K.,  acting  executive  officer,   California  State  Personnel 

Board,  Sacramento,  Calif 11279 

Tani,    Henry,    executive    secretary,    San    Francisco    chapter,    Japanese- 
American  Citizens  League,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11150 

Thompson,  J.  Murray,  Chief,  Economic  Section,  Western  Division,  Agri- 
cultural   Adjustment    Administration,    United    States    Department    of 

Agriculture,  San  Francisco,  Calif 11194 

Tutt,    Charles  H.,   secretary,    San  Francisco  chapter,    Mazzini   Society, 

San  Francisco,  Calif 11267 

Ward,  Stuart  R.,  1035  Tehema  Avenue,  Menlo  Park,  Calif 11260 

Warren,  Hon.  Earl,  attorney  general  of  the  State  of  California,  San  Fran- 
cisco, Calif 10973 

Watson,    Annie    Clo,    executive    secretary,    International    Institute    for 
Service  to  Immigrants  and  New  Americans,  1860  Washington  Street, 

San  Francisco,  Calif 11291 

Western  Montana  Beet  Growers  Association,  Missoula,  Mont 11286 

Wohlgelernter,  Rabbi  S.  P.,  104  Seventeenth  Street,  Seattle,  Wash 11278 

Yoneda,   Karl  G.,   San  Francisco   Doho   Correspondent,    San   Francisco, 

Calif 11265 

Younger,   Donald,   attorney,   Santa   Cruz  Theater  Building,    150  Pacific 

Avenue,  Post  Office  Drawer  1000,  Santa  Cruz,  Calif 11254 



morning  session 

House  of  Representatives, 
Select  Committee  Investigating 

National  Defense  Migration, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

The  committee  met  at  9:45  a.  m.,  in  the  Post  Office  Building,  San 
Francisco,  Calif.,  Hon.  John  H.  Tolan  (chairman),  presiding. 

Present  were:  Representatives  John  H.  Tolan  (chairman),  of 
California;  Laurence  F.  Arnold,  of  Illinois;  and  John  J.  Sparkman,  of 

Also  present:  Dr.  Robert  K.  Lamb,  staff  director;  John  W.  Abbott, 
chief  field  investigator;  Leonard  A.  Thomas,  counsel;  and  F.  P.  Weber, 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  please  come  to  order. 


The  Chairman.  Mr.  Mayor,  we  appreciate  your  coming  here  this 
morning.  We  would  like  to  say  to  you  that  at  the  request  of  several 
departments  in  Washington  we  were  asked  to  come  out  here  and  obtain 
from  the  people  of  the  Pacific  coast  the  facts  about  the  war  conditions 
here  and  any  recommendations  that  the  people  of  the  Pacific  coast 
want  to  give  to  this  committee  concerning  the  problems  associated 
with  evacuations  from  military  areas  here,  so  that  we  may  transmit 
them  to  Congress.  This  committee  wants  to  make  clear  that  we  are 
not  here  to  cross-examine  any  witnesses  or  put  anyone  "on  the  spot." 
We  are  here  as  a  fact-finding  body.  I  think  that  some  good  will 
come  from  this  trip  for,  after  all,  the  Pacific  coast  is  3,000  miles  from 
Washington  and  you  would  be  surprised  at  the  number  of  worried 
delegations  going  to  Washington  from  the  Pacific  coast.  So  it  was 
thought  best  to  send  this  committee  out  here  to  get  the  facts.  _ 

Before  I  proceed,  Mr.  Mayor,  will  you  state  who  you  have  with  you, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  record? 

Mayor  Rossi.  Chief  Dullea,  chief  of  police  of  San  Francisco,  Mr. 
Florence  McAuliffe,  chairman  of  the  morale  committee  of  the  civilian 
defense  committee,  and  Mr.  Leland  Cutler,  who  is  chairman  of  the 
subcommittee  of  the  morale  committee. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you.  We  would  like  to  say  to  you  that  we 
realize  that  San  Francisco  is  only  one  of  a  large  number  of  cities  on  the 



west  and  east  coasts  which  face  some  dislocations  in  their  economic 
life  because  of  the  enemy  alien  problem.  All  of  us,  of  course,  are  in 
firm  support  of  President  Roosevelt  and  his  Executive  order  of  yester- 
day, but  we  feel  as  Congressmen  that  these  problems,  which  must  be 
considered  first  from  the  military  standpoint,  have  a  number  of  other 
aspects  which  require  public  discussion.  For  example,  evacuation 
orders  seriously  affect  the  economic  life  of  various  communities  and 
will  in  many  areas  create  artificial  labor  shortages  of  a  temporary 
nature.  In  addition,  there  is  the  social  question  of  the  sort  of  labor 
which  evacuees  should  be  required  to  undertake,  where  they  should 
be  located,  and  what  Federal  agencies  are  best  able  to  handle  their 

In  addition,  there  is  the  question  of  whether  there  is  need  for  a 
flexible  policy  of  exceptions  which  will  have  to  be  made  to  any  general 
wholesale  evacuation  order.  It  would  seem  impossible  to  treat  alien 
mothers  of  soldiers  in  the  United  States  Army  in  the  same  way  as 
dangerous  enemy  aliens. 

Another  aspect  of  the  far-reaching  ramifications  of  evacuation  orders 
is  the  question  of  what  will  happen  to  the  property  of  aliens.  You  can 
see,  therefore,  that  there  are  many  aspects  of  the  removal  of  aliens  or 
other  persons  from  military  areas  which  demand  very  careful  and 
serious  attention  on  the  part  of  public  officials  and  of  Congress. 

In  other  words,  Mr.  Mayor,  it  has  been  shown  in  other  countries 
and  will  be  shown  here,  I  am  sure,  that  you  cannot  separate  civilian 
morale  from  Army  and  Navy  morale.  We  have  all  got  to  work  to- 
gether. Now,  I  understand  that  you  have  a  brief  prepared  statement 
that  you  would  like  to  read  at  this  time. 

Mayor  Rossi.  I  have,  Mr.  Tolan. 

The  Chairman.  So  you  may  proceed. 

Mayor  Rossi.  I  shall  be  very  happy  to  read  this  statement. 

At  the  outset  I  wish  the  members  of  this  committee  to  know  that 
I  consider  the  alien  problem  to  be  one  that  is  definitely  under  Federal 
jurisdiction.  This  conclusion  is  confirmed  by  the  Executive  order 
issued  yesterday  afternoon  by  President  Roosevelt. 

Heretofore,  the  officials  of  San  Francisco  have  been  informed  by 
Federal  authorities  that  it  was  not  only  a  Federal  problem  but  that 
it  wa&  one  to  which  they,  themselves,  intended  to  and  would  give 
exclusive  attention.  Although  heed  was  given  to  this  admonition, 
nevertheless,  whenever  requested,  full  cooperation  has  been  furnished 
to  the  Federal  authorities  by  the  officials  of  San  Francisco,  particularly 
by  those  connected  with  its  police  department. 

While  I  am  glad  to  furnish  this  committee  with  my  views  upon  this 
most  important  subject — important  to  the  individual  involved,  as 
well  as  to  the  city,  State  and  Nation — I  can  readily  appreciate  that 
any  opinion  expressed  by  me  must  and  undoubtedly  will  be  assumed 
to  be  my  personal  opinion.  However,  my  consideration  of  the 
problems  here  involved  has  led  me  to  form  certain  rather  definite 


I  am  of  the  belief  that  the  seriousness  of  having  alien  enemies  in 
our  midst  is  self-evident.  Their  presence  might  not  only  affect  the 
property  of  our  citizenry  and  our  Government  but  it  might  also 


affect  the  very  lives  and  welfare  of  all  of  our  people.  The  problem 
is  a  most  difficult  one,  but  we  are  living  in  times  when  a  delicate 
problem  must  be  firmly  dealt  with.  It  is  true  that  the  recent  drastic 
measures  against  enemy  aliens  have  caused  great  anxiety  and  distress 
among  this  group  of  people.  It  is  true  also  that  as  a  result  of  these 
measures  many  San  Francisco  families  will  be  deprived  of  their 
livelihood.  Many  families  will  have  to  abandon  their  homes,  their 
businesses,  and  their  occupations ;  parents  will  have  to  abandon  their 
children  and  go  elsewhere.  The  great  majority  of  noncitizens  in 
this  area  is  made  up  of  elderly  men  and  women  whom  I  believe  for 
the  most  part  to  be  industrious,  peaceful  and  law-abiding  residents  of 
this  community.  Most  of  them  have  native-born  children.  Many 
of  them  have  sons  in  the  armed  forces  and  both  sons  and  daughters 
engaged  in  defense  industries  and  civilian  defense  activities.  It  is 
the  well-considered  opinion  of  many  that  most  of  these  people  are 
entirely  loyal  to  this  Nation;  are  in  accord  with  its  form  of  Govern- 
ment, believe  in  its  ideals  and  have  an  affection  for  its  traditions  and 
that  under  no  circumstances  would  they  engage  in  any  subversive 
activities  or  conduct. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  measures  which  are  proposed  to  be  taken 
against  these  aliens,  instead  of  making  for  national  solidarity  and 
unity  of  effort  in  this  emergency  may  cause  dissatisfaction  and  resent- 
ment among  those  of  alien  parentage.  In  my  opinion  all  of  the  above- 
mentioned  elements  should  be  given  serious  consideration  before  any 
more  drastic  measures  are  taken.  In  my  opinion  the  above-mentioned 
facts  apply  particularly  to  the  German  and  Italian  alien  problems. 
Their  problems  should  be  considered  separately  from  those  of  the 

The  Japanese  situation  should  be  given  immediate  attention.  It 
admits  of  no  delay.  The  activities  of  the  Japanese  saboteurs  and 
fifth  columnists  in  Honolulu  and  on  the  battle  fronts  in  the  Pacific 
have  forced  me  to  the  conclusion  that  every  Japanese  alien  should  be 
removed  from  this  community.  I  am  also  strongly  of  the  conviction 
that  Japanese  who  are  American  citizens  should  be  subjected  to  a 
more  detailed  and  all-encompassing  investigation.  After  investiga- 
tion, if  it  is  found  that  these  citizens  are  not  loyal  to  this  country  they, 
too,  should  be  removed  from  the  community. 

The  general  statements  I  made  at  the  outset,  I  repeat,  pertain 
mainly  to  persons  of  German  and  Italian  origin,  many  of  whom  are 
engaged  in  business,  occupations  pursued  by  them  for  years,  the 
character  of  some  of  which  necessarily  enters  into  the  welfare  of  San 
Francisco.  The  great  majority  of  these  aliens  likewise  have  children, 
most  of  whom  were  born,  reared,  and  educated  in  this  community  and 
are  law-abiding  citizens. 

It  must  be  obvious  that  if  these  alien  residents  about  whom  I  have 
just  made  mention  are  moved  from  San  Francisco,  separated  from 
their  children  and  families,  and  deprived  of  the  occupations  in  which 
they  are  now  and  for  years  have  been  engaged,  they  will  be  subjected 
to  extreme  hardship,  mental  distress,  and  suffering. 

My  opinion  is  that  such  results  should  be  avoided,  and  that  evacu- 
ation of  Axis  aliens,  other  than  Japanese,  should  be  avoided  unless 
deemed  imperative.  If  immediate  removal  is  deemed  necessary,  as 
quickly  thereafter  as  is  conveniently  practical,  such  aliens  should  be 


permitted  to  make  application  to  resume  their  former  places  of  resi- 
dence (other  than  in  prohibited  areas)  and  their  present  occupations 
and  such  applications  should  be  heard  by  some  appropriate  tribunal 
which  could  quickly  and  intelligently  determine  the  same,  and  that 
in  the  event  such  applicant  is  found  to  be  a  person  of  loyalty  and 
integrity,  the  desired  permit  be  issued,  subject,  however,  to  such 
restrictions  as  might  be  deemed  necessary. 


It  is  my  belief  that  what  may  happen  to  German  and  Italian  aliens 
on  and  after  February  24,  1942,  as  a  result  of  their  removal  from  this 
community  should  be  given  immediate  consideration.  I  believe  that 
some  satisfactory  and  equitable  solution  of  the  problems  that  under 
such  circumstances  will  arise  should  be  immediately  brought  about. 
I  refer  particularly  to  fishermen,  janitors,  garbage  collectors,  produce 
and  vegetable  workers  in  markets,  and  the  alien  workers  in  various 
other  fields  of  human  activity,  all  of  whom  will  have  to  be  provided 
with  special  permits  in  order  to  enable  them  to  carry  on  their  occu- 
pations and  engage  in  the  conduct  of  their  business  after  9  p.  m.  if 
the  ordinary  commercial  routine  of  our  city  is  to  be  maintained.  Aside 
from  these  manual  workers  there  are  a  number  of  aliens  engaged  in 
the  practice  of  then  professions  who  likewise  will  be  affected  by  the 
9  p.  m.  regulations  to  which  attention  should  be  given. 

In  my  opinion,  in  order  to  avoid  injustice  being  done,  the  investi- 
gation of  such  individual  case  of  German  and  Italian  aliens  is  abso- 
lutely necessary. 

I  believe  it  is  appropriate  that  I  should  advise  this  committee  that 
we  have  in  our  community  many  outstanding  citizens  of  high  stand- 
ing of  all  nationalities.  These  citizens  are  willing  to  cooperate  in 
every  possible  way  to  assist  the  duly  constituted  authorities  in  solv- 
ing the  problems  above  mentioned  and  would  be  glad  to  act  upon 
request.  The  Department  of  Morale  of  the  Civilian  Defense  Council 
is  in  touch  with  these  citizens  and  will  gladly  recommend  to  the 
proper  officials  their  names. 

I  wish  to  urge  upon  this  committee  the  necessity  of  executing  every 
effort  to  bring  about  an  increase  in  the  staffs  of  the  local  Federal 
Bureau  of  Investigation,  of  the  Department  of  Naturalization,  and 
the  Department  of  Immigration.  Each  of  these  departments  is  con- 
fronted with  an  enormous  task.  At  the  present  time  all  these  de- 
partments are  understaffed.  The  dependency  of  this  community 
upon  these  three  organizations  is  enormous. 

Gentlemen,  I  submit  these  thoughts  to  you  and  if  you  are  desirous 
of  more  detail  than  I  have  been  able  to  outline,  I  believe  it  would  be 
well  to  call  upon  either  Mr.  Florence  M.  McAuliffe,  chief  of  the 
morale  service  of  the  San  Francisco  Civilian  Defense  Council,  or  Mr. 
Leland  W.  Cutler,  chairman  of  the  subcommittee  of  the  morale  serv- 
ice on  racial  and  national  problems  in  San  Francisco.  His  committee 
has  been  studying  this  problem  for  some  time  past.  I  am  reliably 
informed  that  Attorney  General  Earl  Warren,  who  is  the  chief  law- 
enforcement  officer  of  the  State  of  California,  has  personally  pursued 
an  intensive  investigation  with  respect  to  the  alien  problem  in  this 
State,  and  that  during  the  last  few  days  he  has  personally  commu- 


nicated  by  teletype  with  a  large  number  of  peace  officers  located  at 
various  places  throughout  California  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining 
their  views  respecting  the  subject  matter  of  this  inquiry.  My  under- 
standing is  that  this  information  has  already  been  obtained  by  him. 
It  is  my  opinion  that,  through  Attorney  General  Warren,  reliable  in- 
formation can  be  obtained  respecting  many  of  the  matters  which  are 
here  involved.  Moreover,  his  personal  views  and  judgment  should  be 
of  great  value. 

As  outlined  in  your  letter,  this  committee  is  desirous  of  determining 
whether  a  coordinated  policy  is  being  followed  in  which  all  units  of 
government — local,  State,  and  Federal — are  participating.  This  state- 
ment can  best  be  made  by  Charles  W.  Dullea,  chief  of  police  of  the 
city  and  county  of  San  Francisco  and  local  coordinator  and  director 
of  civilian  defense.  It  is  my  suggestion  that  you  call  upon  Chief 
Dullea  for  such  facts  as  are  within  his  knowledge.     [Ends  reading.] 

The  Chairman.  I  think,  Mr.  Mayor,  that  we  will  hear  all  of  your 
testimony  first,  and  then  if  the  other  gentlemen  on  the  panel  have 
anything'  they  desire  to  say,  they  will  be  heard.  Regarding  Attorney 
General  Warren,  he  is  here  now  and  will  follow  you  on  the  stand. 

Now,  Mr.  Mayor,  the  committee  is  much  interested  in  your  state- 
ment, particularly  in  regard  to  the  effect  of  the  present  evacuation 
orders  on  various  sections  of  the  San  Francisco  population.  Can  you 
tell  us  something  more  about  the  effect  on  fishermen,  on  janitors, 
scavengers,  and  other  occupational  groups  in  the  city  affected  by  the 
order?     Is  there  anything  you  want  to  add? 

Mayor  Rossi.  Well,  Mr.  Chairman,  I  probably  could  add  to  the 
general  statement  which  I  have  made,  but  I  understand  that  Mr. 
Chauncey  Tramutulo  is  to  be  a  witness  later.  He  has  all  those  facts 
and  figures  as  to  the  number  of  aliens  employed  in  those  particular 


The  Chairman.  Thank  you  for  that  suggestion,  because  we  don't 
want  duplication.  We  have  a  full  clay's  work.  As  I  understand  it, 
Mr.  Mayor,  in  your  statement  you  have  suggested  the  establishment 
of  some  system  of  appeal  by  which  each  case  could  be  reviewed  so  that 
loyal  aliens  and  citizens  evacuated  from  military  areas  could  be  per- 
mitted to  return  to  their  civilian  occupation.  Do  you  believe  that 
such  a  system  is  necessary  in  order  to  give  us  a  flexible  approach  to 
the  handling  of  this  problem? 

Mayor  Rossi.  There  is  no  question  about  that. 

The  Chairman.  You  think  that  the  right  of  appeal  would  be  a  good 

Mayor  Rossi.  Yes;  and  federally  constituted  authorities  should  set 
up  such  a  tribunal. 

The  Chairman.  Without  going  into  too  much  detail,  could  you  tell 
us  of  any  hardship  cases  that  you  think  might  result  here  on  account 
of  the  evacuation  order? 

Mayor  Rossi.  I  am  satisfied  that  Mr.  McAuliffe  or  Mr.  Cutler, 
who  have  made  a  study  of  this  problem  for  the  past  year,  can  best 
answer  that  question. 

The  Chairman.  Fine.  Do  you  know,  Mr.  Mayor,  if  any  plans 
have  been  made  regarding  the  disposition  of  property  here  as  a  result 
of  the  evacuation? 


Mayor  Rossi.  You  mean  insofar  as  the  aliens  are  concerned? 
The  Chairman.  Yes.     Is  there  an  office  of  the  Alien  Property 
Custodian  on  the  west  coast  in  San  Francisco  that  you  know  of? 
Mayor  Rossi.  Not  that  I  know  of. 


Chief  Dullea.  The  property  that  was  recently  taken  up  as  a 
result  of  a  Federal  order,  that  is,  the  radios  and  cameras,  are  held  in 
custody  by  the  police  and  they  are  in  the  process  of  being;  turned  over 
to  the  United  States  marshal.  United  States  Marshal  Vice  is  going 
to  take  them  over.  I  don't  think  there  is  an  alien  property  custodian 

The  marshal  is  making  arrangements  to  take  over  now.  We  are 
holding  about  6,000  pieces. 

The  Chairman.  It  also  occurs  to  me  at  this  time  that  there  is  such 
property  as  furniture,  livestock,  and  things  of  that  kind.  But  you 
don't  know  of  any  regional  office  here  so  far,  do  you?  I  may  say  to 
you,  Chief,  that  we  tried  to  ascertain  just  what  the  set-up  was  yester- 
day by  telephoning  Washington.  However,  we  intend  to  get  first- 
hand information  about  just  what  has  been  done  and  what  should  be 
done.     It  is  going  to  be  a  terrific  problem,  is  it  not? 

Chief  Dullea.  Well,  I  can  tell  you  all  I  know.  In  the  surrender  of 
the  cameras  and  the  radios,  approximately  6,000  pieces  were  taken  into 
possession  by  the  police  and  they  are  being  held  at  our  district  stations 
until  such  time  as  the  marshal  can  take  them  over. 

The  Chairman.  As  the  larger  evacuation  takes  place,  the  property 
taken  will  be  greatly  in  excess  of  radios. 

Chief  Dullea.  This  was  a  minor  surrender. 

The  Chairman.  Don't  you  think  that  there  should  be  a  regional 
office  here  in  San  Francisco  for  that  purpose?  Don't  you  think  that 
there  should  be  a  regional  office  here  of  the  Alien  Property  Custodian? 

Chief  Dullea.  I  know  the  property  of  the  aliens  should  be  protected 
and  taken  into  custody. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Mayor,  I  might  ask  you  this  question.  Has 
there  been  any  confusion  in  the  authority  or  coordination  of  the  agen- 
cies here  in  San  Francisco  ? 

Mayor  Rossi.  None  that  I  know  of. 

The  Chairman.  As  far  as  you  know,  they  are  working  in  harmony? 

Mayor  Rossi.  Absolutely.  And,  as  I  say,  Chief  Dullea  has  been 
working  with  the  State  and  Federal  authorities,  cooperating  with  them 
in  every  possible  way. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Cutler,  was  there  anything  that  you  wanted 
to  add  at  this  time? 


Mr.  Cutler.  The  members  of  my  committee,  which  deals  directly 
with  the  racial  and  nationality  groups  and  the  alien  problem,  would 
without  exception  endorse  fully  everything  that  Mayor  Rossi  reported. 


I  know  the  great  relief  he  felt  in  the  Executive  order  of  the  President 
yesterday, which  expressed  the  opinion  of  the  community  without  ques- 
tion. The  only  thing  that  we  hope  for  is  that  there  be  great  flexibility 
in  dealing  with  the  problem  of  the  regulations  concerning  these  aliens 
after  9  o'clock  at  night,  who  have  a  great  deal  to  do  with  the  routine 
business  of  our  city.  It  is  very  important  that  there  should  be  great 

But  as  to  the  different  treatment  of  the  Germans  and  Italians  and 
Japanese,  we  also  agree  very  fully  with  the  mayor's  attitude  on  that. 
However,  we  do  stress  the  advisability  of  flexibility. 

The  Chairman.  Do  any  of  you  gentlemen  know  anything  about 
Maurice  Harrison's  committee?  I  just  heard  about  that  this  morn- 

Mr.  Cutler.  Under  Attorney  General  Biddle  there  was  set  up  a 
commission  of  which  Mr.  Ira  Lillick  was  the  chairman,  and  Mr. 
Maurice  Harrison  a  member,  both  attorneys,  and  Mr.  Marshall  Dill. 
This  committee  heard  immediate  cases  which  came  before  them  and 
made  the  decision  as  to  whether  those  cases  should  be  interned  or  set 
free.  They  worked  very  steadily  at  it  for  a  period  of  months  and  dis- 
posed of  a  great  many  immediate  cases. 

I  think  the  mayor  had  in  mind  a  similar  committee  which  might 
be  set  up  by  the  Federal  Government  to  take  care  of  these  cases. 

Is  that  substantially  correct,  Mr.  Mayor  and  Mr.  McAuliffe? 

Mayor  Rossi.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  McAuliffe.  That  is  correct. 


Mr.  McAuliffe.  If  I  may  interrupt  right  there,  I  believe  that  the 
mayor's  statement  is  all-inclusive  and  states  the  opinion  of  San 
Francisco.  The  only  supplemental  remark  I  would  make  is  this: 
That  we  in  San  Francisco  know  we  are  in  a  theater  of  war  operations 
and  know  that  the  general  of  the  Fourth  Corps  Area  is  our  com- 
manding officer,  and  nothing  that  we  say  here  today  should  be  inter- 
preted as  making  any  suggestions  of  a  military  nature  of  any  kind. 
We  are  quite  content  to  take  his  leadership.  We  do,  however,  believe 
that  if  some  steps  could  be  taken  to  put  a  tribunal  of  some  kind,  either 
under  the  Army  or  under  some  other  agency  of  the  Government,  to 
pass  on  these  worthy  cases  of  alien  citizens  so  that  particular  harm 
shall  not  be  done  to  good  citizens  of  San  Francisco  or  their  children 
and  their  dependents,  that  would  break  a  bottleneck  and  would  not 
in  any  way  interfere  with  the  orderly  affairs  of  the  Army  in  this 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  after  the  war  is  over  we  still  have 
to  live  in  tins  country,  don't  we? 

Mr.  McAuliffe.  Correct. 

The  Chairman.  Chief,  is  there  anything  else  you  have  to  offer? 

60306— 42— pt.  20- 



Chief  Dullea.  No;  only  that  I  want  to  repeat  what  the  mayor  said 
as  to  the  cooperation  that  exists  between  the  local  police  and  the 
State  and  Federal  agencies.  We  work  in  the  closest  cooperative  spirit 
and  absolute  harmony,  interchanging  ideas  and  assistance.  The 
F.  B.  I.  and  some  other  agencies  are  not  as  strongly  manned  as  local 
police  departments  and  they  frequently  call  upon  us  for  manpower, 
as  they  did  this  morning.  It  is  no  longer  a  secret,  but  we  have  about 
150  men  working  right  at  this  minute  with  the  F.  B.  I.  on  a  round-up 
here  in  San  Francisco.     They  reported  at  8  o'clock  this  morning. 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  Chief.  We  have  heard  about  your  good  work 
away  back  in  Washington. 

Chief  Dullea.  Thank  you. 

The  Chairman.  Is  there  anything  else,  gentlemen?  If  not,  we  will 
excuse  you  and  with  deep  appreciation  on  the  part  of  the  committee. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  There  is  one  question,  Mayor,  that  I  want  to  ask 
you  gentlemen  before  you  leave. 

I  was  interested  in  the  suggestion  that  all  of  you  made  with  reference 
to  some  tribunal  to  review  these  cases  in  order  to  lend  flexibility  to 
the  enforcement  of  any  evacuation  that  we  have.  What  would  that 
tribunal  be?     Would  it  be  civilian  or  military? 

Mr.  McAuliffe.  That  would  be  up  to  General  DeWitt.  What- 
ever he  said  would  be  satisfactory  to  this  community. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  That  is  what  I  wanted  to  be  certain  about.  In 
other  words,  you  would  advocate  flexibility,  but  you  would  leave  the 
whole  thing  up  to  the  one  who  has  charge  of  the  defenses  of  the  area? 

Mr.  McAuliffe.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Are  you  all  in  agreement  with  that? 

Mr.  Cutler.  We  are. 

Mr.  McAuliffe.  That  is  correct.  We  are  all  in  concurrence  with 
that.  The  only  recommendation  that  Mayor  Rossi  makes  in  his 
statement  is  that  any  assistance  that  the  authorities  desire,  we  are 
prepared  to  give.  We  have  a  group  of  people  in  San  Francisco  who 
are  quite  all  right.     They  can  render  valuable  assistance  if  asked  for. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  But  you  would  leave  final  enforcement  entirely  to 
the  person  who  has  final  responsibility  for  the  defense  of  this  area? 

Mayor  Rossi.  Absolutely. 

Mr.  Cutler.  Without  any  questions  whatever. 

Air.  Sparkman.  I  wanted  to  be  sure  that  we  were  clear  on  that. 

Mayor  Rossi.  There  is  no  question  about  that. 

The  Chairman.  I  want  to  say  before  you  gentlemen  go  that  this 
committee  hasn't  any  idea  of  coming  out  here  and  dictating  to  the 
Army  any  more  than  you  have,  but  the  Army  and  the  Navy  and  the 
Department  of  Justice  in  Washington  waiited  us  to  come  out  here 
and  get  the  views  of  the  people  of  the  Pacific  coast,  as  they  may  be  of 
great  assistance  to  the  Army.  That  is  our  position  and  I  think  that 
is  your  position,  too,  is  it  not? 

Mayor  Rossi.  That  is  right. 

Chief  Dullea.  Right. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much.  We  appreciate  your  com- 
ing here.     It  is  going  to  be  a  very  valuable  contribution. 

Mayor  Rossi.  Mr.  Chairman  and  members  of  the  committee,  we 
appreciate  you  gentlemen  coming  out  here  to  get  the  facts  at  first- 


hand,  and  we  consider  it  a  privilege  to  appear  before  you.  If  you  wish 
any  further  information  we  would  be  very  happy  to  give  it  to  you. 

The  Chairman.  I  would  say,  furthermore,  if  there  is  anything  that 
occurs  to  you  as  a  result  of  the  hearings  here  in  San  Francisco  that  you 
think  should  go  in  the  record,  we  will  hold  it  open  for  you. 

Mayor  Rossi.  Thank  you  very  much. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Warren. 


The  Chairman.  Attorney  General  Warren,  will  you  be  seated 
please?  I  want  to  say  to  you  that  we  appreciate  your  coming  here 
because  we  think  that  you  have  some  very  valuable  information. 
We  shall  give  you  the  widest  latitude.  We  are  not  here  to  cross- 
examine  any  witnesses — not  that  you  could  not  take  care  of  your- 
self. I  found  out  25  years  ago  that  in  the  trial  of  a  lawsuit  you 
take  very  good  care  of  yourself.  But  we  do  want  to  get  the  thought 
over  to  you  gentlemen  that  you  are  to  proceed  in  your  own  way. 
The  statement  you  submitted  will  be  incorporated  in  the  record  at 
this  point. 

(Statement  referred  to  above  is  as  follows:) 


Location  of  Japanese  in  California  as  Shown  by  Maps  of  the  Counties 

Early  in  February  1942,  I  requested  the  district  attorneys  of  those  counties  of 
the  State  having  a  Japanese  population  to  have  prepared  maps  of  their  counties 
showing  all  lands  owned,  occupied,  or  controlled  by  Japanese,  including  American- 
born  Japanese  as  well  as  Japanese  aliens.  The  district  attorneys,  with  the 
assistance  of  their  sheriffs,  county  agricultural  commissioners,  and  county  and 
city  assessors,  have  now  completed  such  maps  for  the  following  counties  of  the 
State : 



Santa  Cruz 







Contra  Costa 







San  Diego 



San  Francisco 



San  Joaquin 



San  Luis  Obispo 



San  Mateo 



Santa  Barbara 



Santa  Clara 

The  originals  of  these  maps  are  in  my  possession  and  duplicates  have  been 
retained  by  the  district  attorney  in  each  county. 

An  inspection  of  these  maps  shows  a  disturbing  situation.  It  shows  that 
along  the  coast  from  Marin  County  to  the  Mexican  border  virtually  every  im- 
portant strategic  location  and  installation  has  one  or  more  Japanese  in  its  imme- 
diate vicinity.  The  same  situation  exists  in  those  counties  of  the  Sacramento 
and  San  Joaquin  Valleys  that  have  any  considerable  Japanese  population,  and 
in  San  Bernardino,  Riverside,  and  Imperial  Counties. 

I  am  attaching  to  this  extension  of  my  testimony  as  exhibit  A  a  list  of  some  of 
the  particular  points  where  Japanese  are  immediately  adjacent  to  strategic 
points  as  shown  by  the  maps  of  counties  of  California.  This  list,  lengthy  though 
it  is,  by  no  means  includes  all  such  points.  It  does  not  even  include  all  such 
points  shown  on  the  maps.     It  is  intended  to  be  merely  illustrative  and  not 


exhaustive.  In  addition,  it  should  be  understood  that  for  obvious  reasons  the 
maps  do  not  show  our  coastal  defense  and  very  few  of  our  war  industries.  That 
there  are  Japanese  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  many  such  establishments  is 
unquestionably  the  fact.  The  sheriff  of  one  coastal  county  has  reported  to  me 
that  in  his  county  Japanese  farmers  are  working  within  a  grenade  throw  of  coast- 
defense  guns;  and  the  sheriff  of  another  that  it  is  necessary  to  pass  through  the 
yards  of  three  Japanese  farmers  to  reach  certain  coast-defense  installations 
located  in  his  county.  That  our  war  industries  also  have  numerous  Japs  in 
their  vicinity  is,  I  believe,  quite  clear  from  the  file  of  letters  from  law  enforcement 
officers  in  all  parts  of  the  State. 

Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  county  maps  showing  the  location  of  Japanese 
lands  have  omitted  most  coastal  defenses  and  war  industries,  still  it  is  plain  from 
them  that  in  our  coastal  counties,  from  Point  Reyes  south,  virtually  every  feasible 
landing  beach,  air  field,  railroad,  highway,  powerhouse,  power  line,  gas  storage 
tank,  gas  pipe  line,  oil  field,  water  reservoir  or  pumping  plant,  water  conduit, 
telephone  transmission  line,  radio  station,  and  other  points  of  strategic  importance 
have  several — and  usually  a  considerable  number — of  Japanese  in  their  immediate 
vicinity.  The  same  situation  prevails  in  all  of  the  interior  counties  that  have  any 
considerable  Japanese  population. 

I  do  not  mean  to  suggest  that  it  should  be  thought  that  all  of  these  Japanese 
who  are  adjacent  to  strategic  points  are  knowing  parties  to  some  vast  conspiracy 
to  destroy  our  State  by  sudden  and  mass  sabotage.  Undoubtedly,  the  presence 
of  many  of  these  persons  in  their  present  locations  is  mere  coincidence,  but  it 
would  seem  equally  beyond  doubt  that  the  presence  of  others  is  not  coincidence. 
It  would  seem  difficult,  for  example,  to  explain  the  situation  in  Santa  Barbara 
County  by  coincidence  alone. 

In  the  northern  end  of  that  county  is  Camp  Cook  where,  I  am  informed,  the 
only  armored  division  on  the  Pacific  coast  will  be  located.  The  only  practical 
entrance  to  Camp  Cook  is  on  the  secondary  road  through  the  town  of  Lompoc. 
The  maps  show  this  entrance  is  flanked  with  Japanese  property,  and  it  is  impossible 
to  move  a  single  man  or  a  piece  of  equipment  in  or  out  of  Camp  Cook  without 
having  it  pass  under  the  scrutiny  of  numerous  Japanese.  I  have  been  informed 
that  the  destruction  of  the  bridges  along  the  road  to  Camp  Cook  would  effectually 
bottle  up  that  establishment  for  an  indefinite  time,  exit  to  the  south  being  im- 
possible because  of  extremely  high  mountains  and  to  the  north  because  of  a  num- 
ber of  washes  with  vertical  banks  50  to  60  feet  deep.  There  are  numerous 
Japanese  close  to  these  bridges. 

Immediately  north  of  Camp  Cook  is  a  stretch  of  open  beach  ideally  suited  for 
landing  purposes,  extending  for  15  or  20  miles,  on  which  almost  the  only  inhabi- 
tants are  Japanese. 

Throughout  the  Santa  Maria  Valley  and  including  the  cities  of  Santa  Maria 
and  Guadalupe  every  utility,  airfield,  bridge,  telephone,  and  power  line  or  other 
facility  of  importance  is  flanked  by  Japanese,  and  they  even  surround  the  oil  fields 
in  this  area.  Only  a  few  miles  south,  however,  is  the  Santa  Ynez  Valley,  an  area 
equally  as  productive  agriculturally  as  the  Santa  Maria  Valley  and  with  lands 
equally  available  for  purchase  and  lease,  but  without  any  strategic  installations 
whatever.     There  are  no  Japanese  in  the  Santa  Ynez  Valley. 

Similarly,  along  the  coastal  plain  of  Santa  Barbara  County  from  Gaviota  south, 
the  entire  plain,  though  narrow,  is  subject  to  intensive  cultivation.  Yet  the  only 
Japanese  in  this  area  are  located  immediately  adjacent  to  such  widely  separated 
points  as  the  El  Capitan  oil  field,  Elwood  oil  field,  Summerland  oil  field,  Santa 
Barbara  Airport,  and  Santa  Barbara  Lighthouse  and  Harbor  entrance,  and  there 
are  no  Japanese  on  the  equally  attractive  lands  between  these  points. 

Such  a  distribution  of  the  Japanese  population  appears  to  manifest  something 
more  than  coincidence.  But,  in  any  case,  it  is  certainly  evident  that  the  Japanese 
population  of  California  is,  as  a  whole,  ideally  situated,  with  reference  to  points  of 
strategic  importance,  to  carry  into  execution  a  tremendous  program  of  sabotage 
on  a  mass  scale  should  any  considerable  number  of  them  be  inclined  to  do  so. 

The  problems  of  a  law-enforcement  officer  presented  by  this  situation  can  only 
be  appreciated  when  it  is  remembered  that  law  enforcement  officers  do  not  know 
which  of  these  Japanese  are  American  citizens  and  which  are  aliens. 


An  additional  factor  in  the  danger  and  one  which  would  probably  not  be 
apparent  to  persons  unfamiliar  with  the  California  Japanese  lies  in  the  fact  that 
the  Japanese  in  this  State  are  very  closely  organized.      There  are  a  large  number 


of  Japanese  organizations  covering  every  branch  of  life.  There  are  Japanese 
agricultural,  commercial,  educational,  social,  religious,  and  patriotic  associations 
in  every  Japanese  community.  Almost  every  Japanese  in  the  State  is  included 
in  one  or  more  of  these  organizations. 

The  actions  of  individual  Japanese  have  been  in  the  past  very  largely  controlled 
by  the  organizations  to  which  they  belong.  Although  the  several  organizations 
in  Japanese  communities  are  concerned  with  different  fields  of  activity,  they  are 
all  quite  closely  integrated  by  means  of  interlocking  directorates  and  officers, 
honorary  advisers,  and  interlocking  membership  among  the  ordinary  members. 
This  organizational  machinery,  reaching  as  it  does  into  every  phase  of  Japanese 
life  and  exercising  very  real  control  over  the  actions  and  conduct  of  most  of  the 
Japanese  in  the  State,  is  a  type  of  organization  that  is  ideally  adapted  to  carrying 
out  a  plan  for  mass  sabotage.  If  the  leadership  of  the  main  Japanese  organizations 
fell  into  the  wrong  hands,  it  is  quite  conceivable  that  some,  though  certainly  not 
all,  of  the  Japanese  organizations  could  be  utilized  for  carrying  on  a  program  of 
sabotage  and  fifth-column  activity. 

State  and  local  law  enforcement  authorities  have  no  other  knowledge  of  the 
purposes  and  objectives  of  Japanese  organizations  than  what  has  been  acquired 
from  common  experience  with  the  Japanese  in  their  several  communities,  the 
investigation  of  all  subversive  matters  having  been  left  to  the  Federal  Bureau 
of  Investigation  in  accord  with  the  request  of  the  President.  However,  the  inter- 
relationship of  the  many  Japanese  associations  and  their  control  over  the  Japanese 
population  of  the  State  has  been  a  matter  of  general  knowledge  and  has  been 
apparent  from  items  appearing  in  the  Japanese  newspapers.  These  Japanese 
newspaper  items  also  show  that  in  the  past  years  there  has  been  a  close  relation- 
ship between  Japanese  associations  in  California  and  parent  or  governmental 
organizations  in  Japan  and  that  on  many  occasions  the  associations  in  California 
have  contributed  to  and  assisted  in  the  war  effort  of  the  Japanese  Government. 

While  we  have  no  complete  information  as  to  the  number  of  Japanese  organiza- 
tions existing  in  California,  Japanese  sources  indicate  that  the  number  is  large. 
Thus  the  public  press  carried  an  item  from  Tokyo  April  25,  1941,  to  the  effect 
that  the  Japanese  "Central  Council  of  Overseas  Organizations  announced  that 
there  are  2,700  Japanese  organizations  in  the  United  States,  representatives  of 
which  will  meet  for  a  convention  in  Tokyo  in  November  1941." 

The  organization  of  Japanese  in  California  follows  a  quite  definite  pattern. 
The  associations  are  almost  invariably  broken  down  into  very  small  units,  de- 
pendent upon  geographical  location  and  graduating  into  larger  and  larger  units 
of  the  association  until  all  are  embraced  in  at  least  a  State-wide  organization. 
A  typical  example  is  the  Japanese  Association  of  the  Gardena  Valley  which  at 
first  glance  would  appear  to  be  a  very  small  organization.  It  is  composed, 
however,  of  a  large  number  of  other  smaller  organizations  and  thus  includes 
within  its  control  a  very  large  number  of  persons.  At  the  same  time  it  is  a 
component  of  larger  district  and  State  organizations.  The  true  situation  appears 
from  a  petition  filed  by  the  Japanese  Association  of  Gardena  Valley  under «date 
of  September  4,  1932,  directed  to  the  Administrator  of  the  National  Industrial 
Recovery  Act,  disclosing  that  the  association  represents  some  11  vegetable 
growers'  associations  in  Gardena  Valley,  consisting  of  approximately  1,200 

Similarly,  a  resolution  adopted  on  September  2,  1934,  by  the  Japanese  Vege- 
table Growers  of  Orange  and  Los  Angeles  Counties,  protesting  against  certain 
provisions  of  the  Code  of  Fair  Competition  for  the  Wholesale  Fresh  Fruit  and 
Vegetable  Distributive  Industries  in  the  cities  of  Vernon  and  Los  Angeles, 
shows  the  resolution  to  have  been  signed  by  a  large  number  of  Japanese,  each 
of  whom  in  turn  was  the  representative  of  a  smaller  Japanese  organization,  the 
total  number  of  individuals  who  are  members  of  all  of  the  associations  being  of 
necessity  quite  large.  In  this  case  the  resolution  was  signed  by  representatives 
of  the  following  Japanese  organizations: 

Irvine  Farmers  Association. 

San  Fernando  Industrial  Association. 

Long  Beach  Farmers  Association. 

Growers  Association  of  San  Gabriel  Valley. 

Vista  Vegetable  Growers  Association. 

Orange  County  Japanese  Association. 

Garden  Grape  and  Berry  Growers  Association. 

Nippon-California  Farmers  Association. 

Burbank  Farmers  Association. 


Laguna  Beach  Farmers  Association. 

Norwalk  Farmers  Association. 

Industrial  Association  of  Montebello. 

Growers  Association  of  San  Pedro. 

Japanese  Association  of  Gardena  Valley. 

Lomita  and  Walteria  Industrial  Association. 

Santa  Ana  Garden  Grove  Japanese  Association. 

San  Gabriel  Valley  Japanese  Association. 

The  Japanese  social,  cultural,  and  educational  associations  have  a  similar 
integrated  structure.  At  the  top  of  the  pyramid  is  the  Japanese  Association  of 
America  in  Northern  California  and  the  Japanese  Central  Association  in  Southern 
California.  The  connection  between  these  associations  and  the  Japanese  Govern- 
ment has  always  been  very  close.  The  Japanese  Association  of  America  was 
organized  many  j~ears  ago  and  its  bylaws  provide: 

"Article  3.  This  association  is  organized  by  the  local  Japanese  association 
under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Japanese  consulate  general  of  San  Francisco." 

That  the  Japanese  associations  as  organizations  have  in  the  past  supported 
and  aided  the  military  campaigns  of  the  Japanese  Government  is  beyond  doubt. 
The  contributions  of  these  associations  toward  the  Japanese  war  effort  have  been 
freely  published  in  Japanese  papers  throughout  California.  Some  of  these  news- 
paper items  are  as  follows: 

"March  13,  1941. — Thirty-two  bales  of  tinfoil  were  shipped  to  Japan  through 
the  Japanese  consulate  general  and  were  contributed  by  Japanese  associations 
of  Fresno  County,  Kern  County,  Delano,  and  San  Bernardino. 

"July  6,  1941. — Central  California  Japanese  Association  announces  the  col- 
lection and  transmission  to  the  War  Ministry  of  the  sum  of  $3,542.05. 

"March  6,  1938. — G.  Yoshida,  San  Francisco  Japanese  Association,  yesterday 
sent  400  pounds  of  tinfoil,  making  a  record  total  of  2,800  pounds  of  tinfoil  which 
he  has  collected,  according  to  the  records  of  the  consul  general's  office." 

The  Japanese  Veterans  Association  was  similarly  engaged: 

"March  20,  1941. — It  is  announced  that  the  War  Veterans  Associations  in 
Japan,  Germany,  and  Italy,  in  keeping  with  the  spirit  of  the  Axis  Treaty,  have 
formed  joint  and  advisory  committees  to  aid  and  establish  the  new  world  order. 
There  are  3y2  million  veterans  and  reservists,  headed  by  General  Irnei,  who  have 
pledged  their  cooperation  to  Axis  aims." 

"July  6,  1941.  The  Japanese  Veterans  Association  of  America,  in  its  sixty-' 
sixth  meeting,  reported  the  collection  of  $5,968.60,  making  a  total  of  829,440.34 
yen  collected  and  transmitted  to  Japan  for  use  of  the  military  services,  the  collec- 
tion being  from  Japanese  organizations  in  the  following  places:  Chico,  Monterey, 
Tulare,  Thornton,  Richmond,  Sonoma  County,  Eden  Township,  Alameda  County, 
Marin  County,  Lodi,  Mountain  View,  Alvarado,  San  Benito  County,  Contra 
Costa  County,  Watsonville,  Santa  Cruz,  Redwood  City,  Vacaville,  San  Mateo, 
Bingham,  Utah,  Berkeley,  Oakland,  San  Francisco,  Pescadero,  Salinas,  Ogden, 
Utah,  Reno,  Nevada,  Honeyville,  Rock  Springs,  Wyoming,  Idaho  Falls,  Idaho, 
Salt  Lake  City." 

The  same  item  announces  that  during  the  5  years  since  the  outbreak  of  the 
China  incident,  the  organization  has  collected  850,000  yen  for  the  aid  of  Japanese 
soldiers  and  a  tremendous  number  of  bundles  for  Japanese  soldiers  overseas.  It 
was  announced  further  that  because  of  the  American  freezing  policy  against 
Japan  it  would  no  longer  be  possible  to  transmit  relief  funds  and  that  the  organiza- 
tion had  decided  to  disband. 

At  one  time  it  is  said  the  association  numbered  8,000  members  and  at  the  meet- 
ing at  which  dissolution  was  decided  upon  some  300  representatives  were  present. 
At  that  meeting  it  was  announced  that  $2,300  which  had  not  been  transmitted  to 
Japan  was  caught  by  the  freezing  order.  The  meeting  clcsed  with  the  showing 
of  a  Japanese  motion  picture  entitled  "Flaming  Skies." 

This  organization  sponsored  the  tour  of  Maj.  G.  Tanaka,  of  the  Japanese  Army, 
and  a  member  of  the  army  general  staff,  who  arrived  in  San  Francisco  January  1, 
1941,  with  full  uniform,  sword,  and  medals  and  toured  the  State  lecturing  before 
various  Japanese  groups,  eventually  returning  to  Japan  via  New  York.  While 
here,  he  is  reported  to  have  said:  "Japan  and  the  United  States  will  go  to  war 
this  autumn." 


These  associations  are  composed  of  natives  of  a  particular  prefecture  living 
in  the  locality  where  the  association  is  located.  They  usually  hold  annual  joint 
conventions  attended  by  natives  from  that  particular  prefecture,  who  come  from 


all  over  the  United  States.  There  are  21  prefectural  societies  in  San  Francisco 
alone.  These  associations,  like  most  other  Japanese  organizations,  have  in  past 
years  actively  engaged  in  the  collection  of  money  and  materials  for  the  Japanese 
war  effort.  Most  of  these  funds  are  accumulated  by  the  associations  as  gifts  from 
members,  usually  made  to  commemorate  some  family  occurrence,  as  a  birth,  death, 
marriage,  or  departure  on  a  trip,  the  money  being  transmitted  to  Japan.  No  one 
knows  how  much  material  and  money  has  been  collected  by  these  organizations, 
but  the  Japanese  newspapers  have  been  replete  for  years  with  items  of  which  the 
following  are  typical: 

"March  6,  1938—  Mr.  Shidgu  Oka,  on  behalf  of  the  Okayama  Overseas  Associa- 
tion, has  been  appointed  by  the  collection  committee  and  is  engaged  in  collecting 
army  service  funds  in  San  Bernardino  from  natives  of  Okayama. 

"Visalia,  February  13,  1939. — Natives  of  Hiroshima  Prefecture,  Anza  Dis- 
trict, village  of  Yakki,  each  contributed  $10  to  buy  bundles  for  the  families  of 
soldiers  sent  overseas  from  the  village.  The  funds  were  sent  to  the  Japanese 
Town  Hall  in  Visalia." 

The  Japanese  produce  associations  have  similarly  supported  the  Japanese 
war  effort.  For  example,  Japanese  papers  in  1937  carried  the  thanks  and  ac- 
knowledgment of  the  Japanese  Minister  of  War  for  contributions  to  army  funds  of 
the  Chula  Vista  Mellon  Growers  Association  as  follows: 

"Referring  to  the  recent  incident  and  the  service  funds  and  packages  con- 
tributed for  the  expeditionary  forces,  I  am  grateful,  and  hereby  express  my  most 
sincere  thanks.  Signed  General  Sugiyama,  Minister  of  War.  Dated  December 
19,  1937. 

"July  27,  1941.  It  was  announced  that  the  Niland  Produce  Association  con- 
tributed $35  to  the  Japanese  military  attache  of  the  Imperial  Embassy  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C." 

Besides  sending  financial  and  material  support  to  Japan,  the  Japanese  associa- 
tions have  also  engaged  as  organizations,  and  almost  uniformly,  in  promoting 
loyalty  to  Japan  and  the  Japanese  Emperor  in  the  hearts  of  all  Japanese  in 

In  Tokyo,  under  date  of  April  25,  1941,  the  Central  Council  of  Overseas  Organi- 
zations announced  that  there  are  2,700  Japanese  organizations  in  the  United 
States,  representatives  of  which  will  meet  for  a  conference  in  Tokyo  in  November 
1941.  The  character  of  the  Central  Council  of  Overseas  Organizations  is  easily 
determined  from  the  nature  of  the  Imperial  Rule  Assistance  Association,  which 
is  the  most  important  organization  in  the  central  council.  The  Imperial  Rule 
Assistance  Association  is  the  Japanese  Fascist  Party  and  its  officers  are  the  present 
heads  of  the  Japanese  Government.  The  Japanese  papers  in  California  have 
from  time  to  time  carried  news  items  concerning  the  Imperial  Rule  Assistance 
Association  which  are  not  without  significance.  For  example,  under  date  of 
October  11,  1941,  it  was  announced  from  Tokyo  that  the  association  has  decided 
(1)  to  assemble  and  study  all  reports  on  the  Far  Eastern  situation;  (2)  to  com- 
pletely propagandize  the  advance  Asia  idea;  (3)  to  work  in  cooperative  planning; 
(4)  to  arrange  to  shift  a  portion  of  the  work  to  Japanese  leaders  and  organizations 

On  September  4.  1941,  the  Imperial  Rule  Assistance  Association  announced  the 
formation  of  a  subsidiary  organization  of  Japanese  youth  over  the  age  of  21  years  to 
follow  the  same  policy  as  the  parent  organization,  with  branches  in  every  pre- 
fecture in  Japan,  to  be  formed  with  the  aid  of  officials  of  the  War,  Navy,  Home, 
and  Education  Ministries.  And  on  September  7,  1941,  the  Congress  of  Japan- 
Italian  Cultural  Society  met  at  Rimini,  Italy,  the  subjects  under  discussion 
including:  (1)  The  Fascist  Party  and  its  political  functions  in  the  lives  of  the  Italian 
people;  (2)  Japanese  nationalists  and  the  function  of  the  Imperial  Rule  Assistance 
Association  in  the  lives  of  the  Japanese  people;  (3)  Japanese  youth  organizations. 

While  ostensibly  there  is  no  branch  of  the  Imperial  Rule  Assistance  Association 
in  the  United  States,  an  organization  in  California  with  similar  aims  is  the  Military 
Virtue  Society  of  North  America,  with  headquarters  at  Alvarado,  Alameda  County, 
and  a  branch  office  in  Tokyo.  The  purpose  of  this  organization  is  to  instill  the 
Japanese  military  code  of  boshido  and  to  teach  fencing  and  other  Japanese  military 
exercises  among  the  Japanese  throughout  North  America.  This  organization  is 
regarded  as  the  most  strongly  nationalistic  Japanese  organization  in  the  country 
and  probably  the  most  dangerous. 

Although  not  organized  until  1931,  its  membership  and  activities  have  been 
widespread  for  several  years.  Simply  as  illustrative  of  its  wide  territorial  extent 
and  rapid  spread,  is  the  following  item: 

"February  13,  1938,  Visalia.  Yesterday  the  local  branch  of  the  Military 
Virtue  Society  of  North  America  in  Dinuba  met  jointly  with  four  other  branches, 


with  all  members  in  attendance.  Henceforth  meetings  will  be  held  Tuesday  night 
every  week.  The  southern  California  branch  of  the  Military  Virtue  Society  will  on 
July  20,  beginning  at  noon  in  the  Koyasan  Hall,  Los  Angeles,  hold  its  yearly 
military  virtue  festival  and  military  (fencing)  exercises  with  groups  from  places  as 
follows  competing:  Brawley,  El  Centro,  Central  School  of  Los  Angeles,  Uptown 
School  of  Los  Angeles,  Keystone,  Gamita,  Redondo  Beach,  Baldwin,  Hawthorne, 
El  Monte,  San  Bernardino,  Riverside,  Coachella,  Pasadena,  Sawtelle,  Santa 
Monica,  Alpine,  Huntington  Beach,  Oceanside,  San  Diego,  and  Chula  Vista,  in  all 
numbering  26  groups.     A  heated  contest  is  anticipated." 

The  manner  in  which  the  Military  Virtue  Society  is  closely  integrated  with  other 
Japanese  organizations,  both  business  and  social,  is  well  illustrated  by  the  postal 
addresses  of  some  of  its  branches.  For  example,  in  Alvarado,  Alameda  County, 
post  office  box  215  is  the  address  of  the  following: 

(1)  Headquarters,  Military  Virtue  Society  of  North  America. 

(2)  Kinyai  Kumia  Finance  Association. 

(3)  Japanese- American  News  correspondent. 

(4)  New  World  Sun  correspondent. 

(5)  Hochi  Shimbun  correspondent. 

(6)  Alvarado  Japanese  School. 

(7)  Takichi  Nakamura  (president),  Military  Virtue  Society  of  North  America. 

In  Sebastopol,  post-office  box  57  is  the  address  of  the  following: 

(1)  Military  Virtue  Society  of  North  America. 

(2)  Japanese  Sunday  school. 

(3)  Hiroshima  Prefectural  Society. 

(4)  Sabura  baseball  team. 

In  Suisun,  post-office  box  252  is  the  address  of: 

(1)  Militarv  Virtue  Society  of  North  America. 

(2)  Mint  Grill. 

(3)  Suisun  Fishing  Club. 

In  Auburn,  post-office  box  57  is  the  address  of: 

(1)  Military  Virtue  Society  of  North  America. 

(2)  Japanese  School. 

(3)  Young  Men's  Buddhist  Association. 

(4)  Young  Women's  Buddhist  Association. 

(5)  Buddhist  Church. 

In  Lindsay,  157  Mount  Vernon  Avenue  is  the  address  of: 

(1)  Military  Virtue  Society  of  North  America. 

(2)  Japanese  School. 

(3)  Lindsay  Women's  Association. 

The  locations  of  the  regional  headquarters  of  the  Military  Virtue  Society  of 
North  America  are: 

Southern  California  area:  230  Terminal  Island. 
Seattle  branch:  503  Main  Street. 
Fresno  area:  832  F  Street. 
Sacramento  area:   1300  Fourth  Street. 

Another  Japanese  organizational  activity  which  is  worth  noting  is  the  Kibei 
Shimin  movement.  The  Kibei  Shimin  movement  was  sponsored  by  Japanese 
Association  of  America  and  had  as  its  policy  the  encouragement  of  the  return  to 
America  from  Japan  of  American-born  Japanese.  At  the  time  the  movement 
commenced  it  was  ascertained  that  there  were  around  50,000  American-born 
Japanese  in  Japan.  The  Japanese  Association  of  America  sent  representatives  to 
Japan  to  confer  with  prefectural  officials  on  the  problems  of  financing  and  trans- 
portation, and  a  policy  of  publicity  to  induce  these  Japanese  to  return  to  America. 
The  Japanese  Association  of  America  also  arranged  with  the  steamship  companies 
for  special  rates  for  groups  of  10  or  more  returning  to  America  and  requested  all 
Japanese  associations  to  secure  employment  for  returning  American-born  Jap- 
anese. In  addition,  they  printed  leaflets  and  sponsored  lectures  throughout 
Japan  to  urge  American-born  Japanese  to  return  to  this  country.  That  this 
campaign  was  successful  in  securing  the  return  of  a  large  number  of  American-born 
Japanese  is  apparent. 


Newspaper  items  such  as  the  following  are  typical: 

"May,  1936.  Tatsuki  Sahada,  president  of  the  Woodland  Japanese  Associa- 
tion, returned  to  America  with  several  American-born  Japanese  whose  return  he 
sponsored,  and  reported  on  his  efforts  on  behalf  of  the  Kibei  movement." 

Though  born  in  America,  most  of  the  Japanese  who  have  returned  to  this 
country  as  a  result  of  the  Kibei  movement  are  unable  to  speak  English.  These 
American-born  Japanese,  educated  in  Japan,  and  who  have  returned  to  this 
country  instilled  with  loyalty  to  the  Emperor  and  with  Japanese  patriotic  fervor, 
have  formed  an  organization  of  their  own  known  as  the  Kibei  Shimin  which  is 
evidently  of  considerable  size.  On  February  24,  1941,  a  San  Francisco  Japanese 
newspaper  carried  the  following  item,  which  gives  some  idea  of  the  extent  of 
the  Kibei  movement: 

"The  convention  committee  of  the  Kibei  Shimin,  together  with  representatives 
of  the  Japanese  organizations  backing  them,  met  at  the  Japanese  Association 
Hall  in  San  Francisco  to  discuss  plans  for  the  convention.  It  was  decided  to  have 
a  contest  for  a  50-word  slogan  for  the  convention  for  which  prizes  would  be  given. 
Slogans  should  be  mailed  to  the  Kibei  Shimin  convention,  1623  Webster  Street, 
San  Francisco." 

That  Japanese  in  California  are  thoroughly  conscious  of  and  interested  in  their 
relationship  to  military  figures  in  Japan  is  illustrated  by  the  following  item: 

[The  Japanese-American  News] 

"San  Francisco,  August  14,  1941.— Admiral  Neimi,  commander  and  chief  of 
our  squadron  dispatched  to  the  South  Pacific,  and  upon  whose  shoulders  rests  the 
full  power  of  the  Japanese  Navy  and  pressure  in  the  South  Pacific,  has  relatives  in 
Fowler  we  heard.  After  seeking  and  looking  for  them  it  was  disclosed  that  in 
the  area  lived  a  farmer  by  name  of  Akira  Soraoka.  We  heard  from  his  wife, 
'He  is  our  younger  cousin,  not  our  brother.  Three  years  ago  Neimi  was  attached 
to  the  party  of  Prince  Chichibu  and  attended  the  crowning  of  the  former  King 
George  VI  of  England,  and  on  his  way  through  the  United  States  back  to  Japan 
we  saw  him  in  Fresno,  and  later  received  from  the  admiral's  elder  sister  Mineko 
detailed  letters  about  our  birthplace  and  about  the  admiral.  Seich  is  a  good  man 
and  we  did  not  think  he  would  go  to  the  front.  However,  having  been  entrusted 
with  great  national  responsibility,  we  pray  from  a  distance  that  he  will  live  com- 
pletely free  from  accident.'  " 

There  are  also  Japanese  organizations  devoted  to  the  worship  of  particular  per- 
sons. For  example,  the  Meiji  Kai,  which  is  devoted  to  the  worship  of  Emperor 
Meiji.  Also  the  Togo  Kai,  devoted  to  the  worship  of  Admiral  Togo  and  holding 
observances,  particularly  on  the  10th  day  of  August,  in  commemoration  of  the 
Battle  of  the  Japan  Sea.  This  society  has  headquarters  in  Japan  and  branches 
throughout  the  United  States;  in  San  Francisco  the  Togo  Society  being  at  1860 
Buchanan  Street;  in  Sacramento  at  1309>2  Fourth  Street.  At  the  same  address  in 
Sacramento  is  also  located  the  Japanese  Association  of  Sacramento,  the  Sacra- 
mento Produce  Association,  and  the  Sacramento  Sewing  School.  The  personnel 
of  the  Togo  Kai  is  thought  to  be  composed  mainly  of  former  naval  officers  and 
reserve  officers. 

Another  important  Japanese  organization  existing  in  California  is  the  Japanese 
Tourist  Bureau,  which,  at  the  suggestion  of  the  Imperial  Rule  Assistance  Asso- 
ciation, changed  its  name  to  the  East  Asia  Travel  Agency.  This  organization 
is  a  subsidiary  of  the  board  of  tourist  industries  operating  under  the  Japanese 
Ministry  of  Communications.  It  maintained  agencies  in  a  number  of  cities  in 
the  United  States,  usually  in  connection  with  Japanese  transportation  companies. 
It  published  a  series  of  pamphlets  in  English  on  Japan,  Japanese  art,  culture,  etc., 
and  made  available  motion-picture  films  through  the  Japanese  consulate  on  Japan. 
It  also  sponsored  broadcasts  in  English  from  Japan  for  the  benefit  of  American- 
born  Japanese. 

One  of  these  persons  thus  sponsored  was  Kazumaro  (Buddy)  Uno,  an  American- 
born  Japanese  formerly  on  the  staff  of  the  New  World  Sun  newspaper.  He  was 
employed  by  the  Japanese  Tourist  Bureau  to  travel  to  Japan,  China,  Korea,  and 
Manchukuo,  and  returned  to  the  United  States  where  he  was  given  office  space 
in  the  office  of  the  consulate  general  in  San  Francisco,  from  which  headquarters 
he  made  trips  over  the  entire  west  coast  making  speeches  to  groups  of  American- 
born  Japanese. 


The  significance  of  these  integrated  Japanese  associations  lies  in  the  fact  that 
through  them  it  is  possible  for  those  at  the  head  to  exercise  control  over  the 
conduct  of  other  Japanese  throughout  the  State.  All  persons  coming  into 
close  contact  with  the  Japanese  in  California  have  seen  repeated  manifestations 
of  such  control.  Many  examples  could  be  cited.  The  experience  of  Mr.  Homer 
Harris,  secretary-manager  of  the  Associated  Produce  Dealers  and  Brokers  of 
Los  Angeles,  a  concern  which  has  one  of  the  largest  produce  markets  in  the  State, 
is  typical.  In  1939  the  commission  merchants  in  his  market  had  under  con- 
sideration the  matter  of  charging  an  increased  percentage  as  commission,  and 
called  a  mass  meeting  of  commission  merchants  in  the  market  to  consider  the 

Although  more  than  half  of  the  commission  houses  in  the  market  were  Japanese, 
only  one  Japanese  came,  and  lie  was  secretary  of  the  Japanese  Produce  Merchants 
Association.  The  white  commission  merchants  insisted  on  talking  to  his  members 
as  being  merchants  like  themselves.  The  Japanese  representative  said  he  would 
try  to  get  his  people  out  for  the  week  following.  When  the  day  arrived,  only  one 
Japanese  merchant  appeared  with  the  secretary.  However,  about  10  days  later 
the  Japanese  commission  men  through  their  secretary  announced  a  willingness  to 
increase  their  commission  rate  and  notices  were  thereupon  sent  out  to  the  growers. 
A  week  later  the  secretary  of  the  Japanese  Produce  Merchants  Association  came 
back  to  the  white  commission  men  and  informed  them  they  could  not  stand  by 
their  agreement  which  they  had  made  and  signed.  When  they  were  asked  why 
they  could  not  the  secretary  informed  Mr.  Harris  that  although  the  Japanese 
commission  men  hated  to  welsh  on  the  agreement  they  were  compelled  to  do  so 
by  the  Central  Japanese  Association,  which  was  insistent  on  no  increase  in  com- 
missions as  a  result  of  representations  made  to  the  Central  Japanese  Association 
by  the  Japanese  Southern  California  Farm  Federation,  an  organization  of  Japanese 
growers.  Indeed  through  his  years  of  experience,  Mr.  Harris  states  that  every 
detail  of  the  business  of  Japanese  commission  men  in  his  market  is  subject  to  the 
control  of  the  Japanese  associations,  and  it  has  always  been  evident  that  no 
Japanese  can  take  any  action  contran^  to  the  orders  and  dictates  of  the  Japanese 
Associations  to  which  he  belongs. 

With  integrated  organizations  such  as  these  exercising  such  complete  control 
over  the  conduct  of  all  Japanese  in  the  State,  it  is  quite  evident  that  it  would  be 
extremely  easy  for  those  at  the  top  to  direct  the  Japanese  throughout  the  State 
and  wherever  located  in  a  widespread  simultaneous  campaign  of  sabotage  which 
could  carry  the  most  serious  consequences. 


The  California  alien  land  law  is  the  only  statute  available  to  law-enforcement 
officers  to  meet  the  situation  presented  by  the  presence  of  Japanese  in  many 
strategic  localities.  The  statute  is,  however,  by  no  means  a  complete  remedy  for 
the  condition.  In  some  of  the  most  menacing  situations  the  citizenship  of  the 
parties  has  been  found  to  be  such  that  the  alien  land  law  has  no  application. 
However,  in  spite  of  its  limitations  I  believe  the  statute  is  applicable  in  enough 
serious  cases  to  be  of  some  assistance  at  least  in  meeting  the  law  enforcement 

The  purpose  of  the  alien  land  law  is  to  reserve  ownership  and  control  of  the  land, 
either  to  citizens  or  to  those  aliens  who  are  eligible  to  become  citizens.  The 
statute  denies  to  aliens  who  are  ineligible  to  citizenship  the  right  to  acquire  or 
possess  real  property  or  any  interest  in  it  except  insofar  as  such  rights  may  be 
conferred  by  a  treaty  between  the  alien  country  and  the  United  States.  The 
statute  declares  a  conspiracy  to  violate  its  terms  to  be  a  felony.  It  also  provides 
that  the  interest  of  any  alien  in  real  property  held  in  violation  of  the  terms  of  the 
law  shall  escheat  to  the  State.  These  are  the  only  sanctions  provided.  In  pre- 
vious efforts  to  enforce  the  alien  land  law  great  difficulty  was  experienced  because 
of  the  lack  of  evidence  to  prove  the  alien's  place  of  birth  from  which  his  lack 
of  citizenship  and  ineligibility  thereto  would  appear.  In  1927  two  sections  were 
added  to  the  statute  which  were  intended  to  place  upon  the  defendant-alien  the 
burden  of  proving  citizenship,  but  these  sections  have  been  held  to  be  uncon- 
stitutional by  the  United  States  Supreme  Court  for  all  practical  purposes.  It  is 
to  be  hoped  that  the  alien  registration  records  of  the  United  States  Immigration 
and  Naturalization  Service  will  be  made  available  for  use  in  evidence  in  alien  land 
law  cases.  I  have  requested  Major  Schofield,  who  is  the  special  assistant  to  the 
United  States  Attorney  General  in  charge  of  Immigration  and  Naturalization 


Service  on  behalf  of  all  of  the  law  enforcement  officers  of  the  State  for  such  per- 

If  the  alien  registration  records  are  not  made  available  no  doubt  the  same 
difficulties  of  proof  will  be  experienced  as  in  former  years.  On  February  2  of 
this  year,  I  called  a  meeting  which  was  attended  by  the  district  attorneys  and 
sheriffs  of  some  40  counties,  at  which  it  was  decided  that  an  immediate  survey 
should  be  made  of  the  land  ownership  in  each  county  and  that  appropriate  pro- 
ceedings should  be  commenced  in  cases  where  the  alien  land  law  was  being  vio- 
lated. The  first  step  in  the  survey  was  the  preparation  of  maps  for  each  county 
showing  all  lands  owned,  leased,  or  occupied  by  Japanese.  It  was  not  until 
these  maps  were  prepared  that  we  realized  how  thoroughly  the  Japanese  had 
infiltrated  themselves  into  every  strategic  spot  in  our  coastal  and  valley  counties. 


Upon  learning  that  the  House  Committee  Investigating  National  Defense 
Migration  desired  to  ascertain  the  nature  and  extent  of  the  law-enforcement 
problem  arising  from  the  presence  of  enemy  aliens  in  California,  I  wrote  to  all 
sheriffs,  district  attorneys,  and  chiefs  of  police  in  the  larger  cities  of  the  State, 
asking  their  views  on  the  matter,  and  particularly  on — 

1.  What,  in  your  opinion,  is  the  extent  of  the  danger  by  way  of  sabotage  and 
fifth-column  activities  in  your  jurisdiction  and  in  the  State  as  a  whole  arising 
from  the  presence  of  enemy  aliens? 

2.  Do  you  believe  that  the  danger  can  be  adequately  controlled  by  treating 
all  enemy  aliens  alike  regardless  of  nationality,  or  do  you  believe  that  we  should 
differentiate  among  them  as  to  nationality? 

3.  What  protective  measures  do  you  believe  should  be  taken  with  reference  to 
each  nationality  or  with  reference  to  enemy  aliens  as  a  whole,  in  order  to  elimi- 
nate the  danger  of  sabotage  and  fifth-column  activities? 

Photostatic  copies  of  the  replies  received  to  this  inquiry  are  attached  hereto  as 
exhibit  B.  These  letters  make  evident,  I  believe,  that  it  is  almost  a  universal 
conviction  among  law  enforcement  officers  in  California  that  there  is  grave  and 
immediate  danger  of  sabotage  and  fifth-column  activities  from  the  Japanese 
population  and  that  their  removal  at  once  from  the  vicinity  of  vital  establish- 
ments and  areas  is  imperative  in  order  to  eliminate  such  danger.  The  letters  also 
express  their  opinions  as  to  the  relative  danger  from  Japanese,  German,  and 
Italian  aliens. 


It  seems  quite  plain  that  the  necessities  of  the  present  situation  require  the 
removal  of  the  Japanese  from  a  considerable  portion  if  not  from  all  of  California. 
Such  a  course  will  obviously  have  a  definite  effect  upon  agriculture  in  this  State. 
While  I  do  not  feel  qualified  to  prophesy  on  this  subject,  I  have  been  asked  to 
present  to  the  committee  the  view  of  a  considerable  number  of  farm  organizations 
which  are  undoubtedly  so  qualified.  Consequently,  I  am  attaching  hereto  as 
exhibit  C  photostatic  copies  of  letters  expressing  the  views  of  the  Grower-Shipper 
Vegetable  Association  of  Salinas,  Western  Growers'  Protective  Association  of  Los 
Angeles,  Associated  Produce  Dealers  and  Brokers  of  Los  Angeles,  and  the  Farm 
Bureaus  of  Butte  County,  Fresno  County,  Imperial  County,  Kern  County,  Los 
Angeles  County,  Merced  County,  Orange  County,  Riverside  County,  Sacramento 
County,  San  Bernardino  County,  San  Joaquin  County,  Siskiyou  County,  Solano 
County,  Sonoma  County,  Stanislaus  County,  Sutter  County,  Tulare  County, 
Yolo  County,  and  Yuba  County.  While  these  letters  must  speak  for  themselves, 
the  organizations  are  consistently  of  the  opinion  that  the  removal  of  Japanese 
from  California  would  have  an  appreciable  but  not  a  serious  effect  upon  California 


During  these  difficult  times  State  and  local  law-enforcement  officers  have 
uniformly  received  the  finest  cooperation  from  the  Intelligence  Services  of  the 
United  States  Navy  and  the  United  States  Army,  as  well  as  from  the  Federal 
Bureau  of  Investigation.  This  latter  organization,  charged  as  it  is  with  our 
internal  security,  and  our  protection  against  espionage  and  sabotage,  has  had  a 
tremendous  task  and  one  of  peculiar  difficulty  in  California  by  reason  of  the  very 


large  number  of  aliens  here,  and  the  numerous  vital  war  industries  and  defense 
installations.  Those  of  us  who  are  sufficiently  close  to  law-enforcement  work  to 
realize  the  size  and  intricacies  of  the  problem  and  the  difficulties  of  investigation 
with  which  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  has  had  to  contend  are  of  the 
opinion  that  the  Bureau  has  always  been  on  the  alert,  diligent  in  its  efforts, 
cooperative  with  State  and  local  authorities,  and  has  done  the  best  job  possible 
under  the  circumstances  to  protect  our  State  against  all  subversive  activities. 

Exhibit  A. — Particular  Points  Where  Japanese  Are  Immediately  Adjacent 
to  Strategic  Points  in  Counties  of  California 

alameda  county 

Japs  adjacent  to  new  Livermore  Military  Airport. 

Japs  adjacent  to  Southern  Pacific  and  Western  Pacific  Railroads. 

Japs  in  vicinity  of  Oakland  Airport. 

Japs  in  vicinity  of  Holt  Caterpillar  Tractor  Co.,  San  Leandro. 

Many  Japs  along  Western  Pacific  and  Southern  Pacific  Railroad  rights-of-way. 

Many  Japs  on  the  approaches  to  the  San  Mateo-Hayward  Bridge. 

Many  Japs  on  the  approaches  to  the  Dumbarton  Bridge,  including  the  high- 
way bridge,  Southern  Pacific  and  Hetch  Hetchy  Aqueduct  Bridges. 

Japs  adjacent  to  the  sugar  refinery  near  Alvarado. 

Four  Japs  directly  on  the  Hetch  Hetchy  Aqueduct,  and  many  more  in  close 

Eight  or  ten  Japs  within  1  mile  of  the  western  portal  of  the  Hetch  Hetchy 


Heavy  sprinkling  of  Japs  in  west  Berkeley  in  vicinity  of  numerous  defense 

Heavy  sprinkling  of  Japs  in  west  Oakland  in  the  vicinity  of  industries  and  the 
United  States  naval  depot. 

In  south  Oakland,  Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  Moore  Ship  Yards,  Southern  Pacific 
and  Western  Pacific  shops,  and  Santa  Fe  freight  yard. 

Numerous  Japs  in  Alameda  within  a  few  minutes  of  the  naval  air  base,  San 
Francisco  Bay  Airdrome  and  Bethlehem  shipyards. 


Jap  adjacent  to  Chico  airport. 

Two  Japs  along  Cherokee  Canal  and  Northern  Canal. 

Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  numerous  highway  and  railroad  bridges  near  Gridley, 
Biggs,  Oroville,  and  Chico. 

Numerous  Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  vital  Feather  River  levees  between  Gridley 
and  Oroville. 


Jap  within  2  miles  of  East  Park  Reservoir  Dam. 

Numerous  Japs  on  vital  Sacramento  River  levees  in  the  neighborhood  of  Colusa 
and  Grimes. 


Numerous  Japs  on  Webb  tract,  Holland  tract,  Orward  tract,  all  of  which 
are  inflammable  islands  enclosed  by  levees. 

Numerous  Japs  on  main  line  Santa  Fe  Railroad  in  the  vicinity  of  Oakley  and 
on  Southern  Pacific  main  line  in  the  vicinity  of  Brentwood  and  Byron. 

Japs  adjacent  to  highway  bridge  across  San  Joaquin  River  between  Byron  and 

Japs  in  vicinity  of  California  Cap  Works  and  within  2  miles  of  Richmond 
shipyards,  Ford  Motor  Co.,  Standard  Oil  refinery,  Standard  Oil  tank  farm,  and 
Giant  powder  works. 

Four  Japs  within  2  miles  of  Broadway  low  level  highway  tunnel. 

Japs  within  1  mile  of  Lafayette  Dam. 

Jap  within  1  mile  of  St.  Mary's  College  to  be  used  as  a  Navy  training  school. 

Jap  at  mouth  of  vital  Santa  Fe  tunnel,  Glen  Frazer. 


Numerous  Japs  within  2  miles  of  very  high  Santa  Fe  viaduct  at  Muir. 
Numerous  Japs  within  a  few  miles  of  Shell  Oil  refinery  at  Martinez. 
Numerous  Japs  within  a  few  miles  of  Associated  Oil  refinery  at  Avon. 
Numerous  Japs  adjacent  to  air  port  at  Concord,  power  station  at  Concord,  and 
Cowell  Portland  Cement  Co. 


Japanese  located  adjacent  to  the  Shell  Oil  tank  farm  in  the  Coalinga  oil  field. 

Three  Japanese  tracts  owned  by  the  State  Farm  Co.,  adjacent  to  the  main 
line  railroad,  main  north  and  south  telephone  line,  and  Tidewater  Associated 
Oil  Co.  pipe  line.  This  corporation  is  known  to  have  engaged  in  shipping  farm 
machinery,  under  subterfuges,  to  Manchukuo. 

A  number  of  Japanese  not  far  from  the  new  Fnant  Dam. 

A  tremendous  dispersal  of  Japanese  throughout  the  Fresno  area,  with  in- 
numerable roads  giving  access  to  main  facilities,  including  railroads,  highways, 
telephone  lines,  pipe  lines,  Chandler  Airport,  and  Hammond  Field  Airport. 


Japanese  oil  company  in  Kettleman  Hills  oil  fields. 
Jap  in  vicinity  of  Kettleman  oil  fields. 

Jap  adjacent  to  Kings  River  Bridge  close  to  Southern  California  Gas  Co.  pipe 
line  and  near  Lemoore  air  base. 


Jap  adjacent  to  Madera  City  waterworks,  and  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  sub- 

Japs  in  close  vicinity  to  highway  and  railway  bridge  across  the  Fresno  River. 
Japanese  in  vicinity  of  important  warehouses. 


Japs  in  Sausalito  close  to  Fort  Baker,  Golden  Gate  Bridge,  with  full  view  of 
traffic  in  and  out  of  San  Francisco  Bay. 

Japanese  in  Belvedere,  with  full  view  of  all  traffic  through  Racoon  Straits  and 
San  Francisco  Bay,  and  within  1  mile  of  naval  depot  at  California  City. 

In  Sausalito,  Jap  across  the  street  from  boat  works. 

Fifteen  Japs  adjacent  to  United  States  Coast  Guard  station,  Drakes  Bay, 
Point  Reyes  Lighthouse,  United  States  naval  compass  station,  telephone  company 
trans-Pacific  broadcasting,  R.  C.  A.  trans-Pacific  broadcasting  and  United  States 
Air  Force  bombing  practice  range.  These  people  also  have  immediate  access  to 
25  miles  of  uninhabited  open  beach. 

Japs  along  water  conduit  supplying  Hamilton  Field. 


Japanese  at  bridge  and  important  levee  at  Hopland. 
Japanese  adjacent  to  airport  at  Ukiah. 


Many  Japs  in  vicinity  of  important  railroad  and  highway  bridges  across  the 
Merced  River. 


Japanese  living  in  close  proximity  to  the  highway  bridge  across  the  Pajaro 
River,  the  sole  highway  connection  between  Fort  McQuaide  and  Camp  Ord. 

On  tracts  8  and  55,  Japanese  are  living  immediately  adjacent  to  Fort  Ord. 

Tract  50  is  located  on  the  highway  over  which  all  traffic  to  Fort  Ord  passes. 

Japanese  tract  No.  75  is  immediately  adjacent  to  the  experimental  station 
where  the  only  guayule  seedlings  in  the  United  States  are  being  grown  and  is 
directly  across  the  road  from  the  Salinas  Airport. 

Tracts  21,  22,  28,  26,  and  29  are  immediately  adjacent  to  an  emergency  landing 

Tracts  82,  34,  and  79  extend  on  both  sides  of  a  railroad  underpass  of  sufficient 
importance  to  warrant  the  continued  presence  of  armed  guards. 


Tract  133  is  on  the  Salinas  River  and  includes  a  stretch  of  levee  regarded  as 
extremely  hazardous  in  the  event  of  a  break  because  it  would  result  in  flooding 
the  Spreckels  Sugar  Refinery. 

Tract  100  is  immediately  adjacent  to  a  quarry  where  explosives  are  stored. 

The  map  of  the  city  of  Salinas  shows  a  large  Japanese  subdivision  adjacent  to 
the  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  substation  and  close  to  the  Southern  Pacific  Railroad 


Japs  in  vicinity  of  the  important  bridge  across  the  Napa  River,  at  Napa. 
Japs  in  vicinity  of  Gordon  Valley  Dam. 


A  large  number  of  Japanese  congregated  in  the  vicinity  of  Auburn  with  easy 
access  to  the  railroad  and  highway  through  Donner  Pass.  These  lines  have  a 
large  number  of  vulnerable  tunnels,  trestles,  and  slides,  and  are  not  only  main 
lines  to  the  East  but  are  supply  lines  between  the  naval  ammunition  dump  at 
Hawthorne,  Nev.,  and  the  Pacific  naval  bases. 

Roseville. — Japanese  adjacent  to  Southern  Pacific  machine  shops,  roundhouses, 
and  freight  yards. 


Many  Japs  along  important   Sacramento   River  levees  and  near  important 
highway  and  railroad  bridges  across  the  river  at  Sacramento  and  other  places. 
Many  Japs  adjacent  to  Sacramento  Municipal  Airport. 
Japs  adjacent  to  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  substation. 
Japs  close  to  Mather  Field. 
Japs  close  to  McClellan  Field. 
Japs  close  to  American  River  bridges. 


Japs  immediately  adjacent  to  State  capitol  and  State  offices,  M  Street  Bridge. 
Southern  Pacific  shops  and  roundhouses,  and  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  power  plants. 


Thirty  miles  of  open  coast  broken  by  small  A\ater  courses  with  a  Jap  on  every 
water  course. 

Thirty  miles  of  main  railroad  and  highway  easily  blocked  by  slides,  etc.,  with 
Japs  throughout  their  entire  length. 

Large  number  cf  Japs  within  few  miles  of  naval  an  munition  depot  and  on 
both  sides  of  main  highway  from  depot. 

Japs  at  bridge  across  San  Luis  Reyes  River  carrying  all  traffic  to  and  from 
ammunition  depot. 

Japs  immediately  adjacent  to  water  wells,  pumps,  and  pipe  lines  supplying 
important  military  reservations. 

Japs  along  water  lines  supplying  all  of  central  portion  of  the  county. 

Jap  adjacent  to  Camp  Callin. 

Jap  adjacent  to  marine  rifle  range. 

Jap  adjacent  to  power  line  supplying  Camp  Callin. 

Japs  adjacent  to  all  highway  and  railroad  bridges  across  the  San  Diego  River. 

Japs  adjacent  to  all  dams  supplying  water  to  San  Diego  and  vicinity. 

Japs  surrounding  Solar  Aircraft  plant  at  National  City. 

Japs  surrounding  Rohr  Aircraft  parts  plant  at  Chula  Vista. 

Japs  close  to  main  water  pumping  plant  supplying  Coronado  and  naval  air 
station  at  North  Island. 

Japs  adjacent  to  Navy  airport  at  Reem  Field. 

Japs  adjacent  to  Army  airport  at  Border  Field. 

Japs  adjacent  to  all  power  lines  supplying  the  city  of  San  Diego  and  vicinity. 

Numerous  Japs  sprinkled  throughout  city  of  Coronado  with  full  view  of  all 
shipping  in  and  out  of  San  Diego  Bay. 

Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  United  States  destroyer,  base. 

Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  United  States  naval  supply  depot. 

Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  Coast  Guard  depot. 

Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  Ryan  Airplane  plant. 

Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  three  Consolidated  Aircraft  plants. 


Japs  in  the  vicinity  of  the  United  States  Marine  Corps  base,  naval  training 
station,  and  Fort  Rosecrans  military  reservation. 
Japs  overlooking  municipal  airport. 


Stockton. — Jap  on  the  Stockton  Deep  Water  Channel  across  from  quarter- 
masters' motor  depot. 

Japs  adjacent  to  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  power  plant  and  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric 
gas  plant. 

Japs  adjacent  to  Western  Pacific  and  Southern  Pacific  railroad  yards. 

Japs  adjacent  to  United  States  Air  Corps  in  transit  depot. 

Japs  adjacent  to  Stockton  Field,  United  States  Army  airport. 

Japs  surrounding  San  Joaquin  County  General  Hospital. 

Japs  along  Southern  Pacific  and  Western  Pacific  rights-of-way. 


Tract  1  is  occupied  by  Japanese  at  Cambria  where  a  submarine  recently 
torpedoed  two  American  ships. 

Tracts  64  to  69,  inclusive,  are  located  on  the  bluffs  along  the  ocean  shore. 
Japanese  in  this  vicinity  have  been  reported  to  be  farming  within  a  grenade 
throw  of  coast  defense  guns. 

The  strip  of  coast  from  Pismo  south  into  Santa  Barbara  County  is  an  extremely 
flat  open  beach,  perfectly  adapted  to  landing  operations  and  is  occupied  almost 
exclusively  by  Japanese. 


Japanese  along  coast  and  in  vicinity  of  Pescadero. 
Japanese  in  vicinity  of  Half  Moon  Bay. 
Jap  near  Half  Moon  Bay  substation. 
Jap  near  San  Mateo  substation. 
Japs  adjacent  to  Belmont  Airport. 

Japs  adjacent  to  important  war  industries  in  San  Carlos. 
Japs  in  vicinity  of  San  Carlos  Airport. 

Japs  on  the  approaches  to  Dumbarton  Bridge,  highway,  railroad,  and  Hetch 
Hetchy  Aqueduct. 


A  strip  of  beach  at  the  north  end  of  the  county  extends  to  Pismo,  which  beach 
is  entirely  open  to  landing  in  both  Santa  Barbara  and  San  Luis  Obispo  Counties, 
and  in  each  county  Japanese  are  living  almost  the  entire  length  of  the  beach. 

In  the  city  of  Santa  Maria  the  following  Japanese-owned  parcels  are  located 
in  the  vicinity  of  strategic  points:  60,  61,  and  63  are  adjacent  to  the  principal 
San  Francisco-Los  Angeles  telephone  lines,  main  power  lines,  and  Pacific  coast 
highway;  58,  102,  and  53  are  close  to  a  gas  storage  plant  and  power  substation ; 
65  is  next  to  the  hospital;  56  is  next  to  the  water  reservoir  and  water  works; 
56  and  96  are  close  to  the  United  States  airport  and  the  latter  tract  is  also  close 
to  a  hospital. 

The  Santa  Maria  oil  field  is  practically  surrounded  by  Japanese-occupied 
lands  on  the  north  side,  and  on  parcel  No.  113  there  are  Japanese  actually  living 
within  the  oil  fields. 

Tract  70  is  adjacent  to  the  water  plant  and  close  to  the  Orcutt  oil  field. 

Japanese  lands  in  the  vicinity  of  Lompoc  completely  cover  the  only  entrance 
to  Camp  Cook  where  the  only  armored  division  of  the  Army  on  the  coast  will  be 
shortly  located.  The  road  to  Camp  Cook  passes  through  the  city  of  Lompoc  and 
all  traffic  to  and  from  the  camp  must  pass  under  the  scrutiny  of  several  Japanese 
occupants  on  various  tracts  of  land.  Those  Japs  are  also  immediately  adjacent 
to  the  Camp  Cook  water  wells.  They  can,  with  very  little  difficulty,  block  the 
entrance  to  Camp  Cook  since  the  southern  end  of  the  camp  is  extremely  moun- 
tainous and  completely  impassable  and  the  northern  end  is  almost  the  same  by 
reason  of  mountains  and  barrancas  with  perpendicular  sides,  some  of  which  are 
50  to  60  feet  deep. 

The  Santa  Ynez  Valley  is  noteworthy  inasmuch  as  it  is  a  valley  equally  fertile 
with  the  Santa  Maria  Vallej',  but  with  no  strategic  points  located  in  it,  and  not  a 
single  Japanese  living  in  it. 


The  El  Capitan  oil  field  is  heavily  infiltrated  with  Japanese.  This  is  a  par- 
ticularly important  oil  field  because  of  the  extremely  high  gravity  of  the  oil 
produced  there.  These  Japanese  and  many  others  farther  south  are  abreast  of 
the  main  railroad,  telephone  lines,  power  line,  and  highway  between  San  Francisco 
and  Los  Angeles,  and  the  only  such  highway  between  Camp  Cook  and  points 
south.  On  the  coast  road  there  are  a  large  number  of  high  trestles  and  bridges, 
the  destruction  of  any  of  which  would  make  the  roads,  both  vehicle  and  rail, 
impassable  and  would  leave  them  in  such  a  condition  that  it  would  take  a  very 
long  time  to  repair  them. 

Japanese  parcel  14  is  close  to  the  Goleta  oil  field.  Japanese  parcels  13,  15,  16, 
18,  and  19  are  in  close  proximity  to  the  Santa  Barbara  Airport,  two  important 
gas  storage  plants,  gas  lines,  main  railroad  line,  main  highway  and  radio  broad- 
casting station  (shelled  by  Jap  submarine). 

In  the  vicinity  of  the  city  of  Santa  Barbara  the  United  States  lighthouse  on  the 
coast  is  completely  surrounded  by  Japanese-occupied  lands  which  are  situated  on 
the  bluff  overlooking  the  sea. 

In  the  vicinity  of  Montecito  the  Summerland  oil  field,  with  oil  wells  located 
on  long  piers  extending  into  the  sea,  is  completely  surrounded  by  Japanese- 
occupied  lands. 

Japanese  properties  in  Santa  Barbara  are  so  located  that  if  their  occupants 
acted  in  unison  they  could,  within  a  space  of  a  few  hours,  destroy  railroad  and 
highway  communications  with  all  points  north  and  south,  make  the  passage 
from  Camp  Cook  south  impossible,  fire  four  important  oil  fields,  destroy  north 
and  south  telephone  connections,  several  large  gas  plants,  a  lighthouse  and  a 
radio  station  and  be  in  a  position  to  assist  an  enemy  landing  on  the  coast. 


Jap  near  Southern  Pacific  Railway  and  highway  overpass  at  Sargent  and 
Pajaro  River  Bridge. 

Many  Japs  along  Southern  Pacific  right-of-way. 

Japs  on  Coyote  Creek  in  vicinity  of  important  dams. 

Number  of  Japs  within  1%  miles  of  Permanente  magnesium  and  cement  plants. 

Japs  adjacent  to  Stanford  Airport. 

Japs  within  less  than  1  mile  from  Palo  Alto  Airport. 

Japs  within  1  mile  of  Maekay  radio  station. 

Moffett  Field  surrounded  by  Japs  on  three  sides. 

Jap  adjacent  to  Hendy  Iron  Works  at  Sunnyvale. 

Japs  on  Southern  Pacific  right-of-way  at  Alviso. 

Japs  in  vicinity  of  radio  station  KQW. 

Japs  along  Southern  Pacific  right-of-way  between  Palo  Alto  and  San  Jose. 

Japs  adjacent  to  San  Jose  Airport. 

Manv  Japs  along  Southern  Pacific  right-of-way  between  San  Jose  and  Morgan 

Japs  along  Southern  Pacific  and  Western  Pacific  rights-of-way  between  San 
Jose  and  Milpitas.     . 


Japs  adjacent  to  Camp  McQuaide. 

Japs  adjacent  to  all  highways  leading  to  Camp  McQuaide. 

Japs  on  Southern  Pacific  right-of-way  between  Aptos  and  Watsonville. 

Japs  along  beach  in  neighborhood  of  Watsonville. 

Japs  at  bridges  across  the  Pajaro  River. 

Japs  in  Chittenden  Pass  through  which  the  main  highway  and  railroad  pass. 


Jap  in  vicinity  of  Hat  Creek  powerhouse  and  dam. 


Fairfield. — Jap  adjacent  to  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  substation  and  Pacific  Gas 
&  Electric  gas  plant. 

Jap  in  vicinity  of  Vacaville  fire  department  and  telephone  exchange. 
Japs  on  Ryer  Island,  Liberty  Island,  and  Prospect  with  important  levees. 



Number  of  Japs  within  2  miles  of  Petaluma  Airport. 


Large  number  of  Japs  in  fire-hazard  area. 

Japanese  in  immediate  vicinity  of  two  important  reservoirs,  one  of  which  is 
emergencv  seaplane  landing  area. 

Jap  at  "Southern  Pacific  railroad  bridge  across  Tuolumne  River  at  Waterford. 

Jap  adjacent  to  Hetch  Hetchy  power  line. 

Jap  within  1  mile  of  Turlock  bomb  factory. 

Japs  in  vicinity  of  explosive-mixing  plant  at  Modesto. 

Japs  at  important  highway  and  railroad  bridges  across  Tuolumne  River. 

Japs  at  important  highway  and  railroad  bridges  across  Stanislaus  River. 

Japs  along  main  north  and  south  telephone  lines,  railroad  lines,  and  Highway 
99  between  Turlock  and  Salida. 

Numerous  Japs  along  railroad  between  bomb  factory  and  Modesto. 

Japs  in  vicinity  of  important  irrigation  pumping  plants. 

Jap  on  main  highway  and  Southern  Pacific  right-of-way  at  Newman. 


Many  Japs  near  important  levees  in  the  vicinity  of  Yuba  City. 

Many  Japs  in  vicinity  of  important  levees  along  Feather  and  Yuba  Rivers. 


Jap  on  Southern  Pacific  right-of-way  near  important  highway  bridge  across 
Sacramento  River. 

Japs  in  vicinity  of  important  highway  bridge  and  Red  Bluff. 


Japs  along  electric  transmission  line  from  Big  Creek  to  Los  Angeles. 

V E N T C R A    C O UNTY 

Jap  in  oil  tank  farm  at  Ventura. 
Japs  surrounding  water  plant  in  Ventura. 

Japs  at  bridge  for  highway,  gas  lines,  power  lines,  and  power  lines  across 
Santa  Clara  River. 

Japs  adjacent  to  power  substations  near  Santa  Paula  and  Oxnard. 

Harbor  at  Heuneme  surrounded  by  Japs. 

Japs  at  important  highway  and  railroad  bridge  across  Santa  Clara  River. 

Japs  along  highway,  natural  gas  and  power  lines  between  Santa  Paula  and  Piru. 


Jap  on  Southern  Pacific  right-of-way  near  Zamora. 

Japs  surrounding  important  warehouses  in  Woodland. 

Many  Japs  along  important  Sacramento  River  levees. 

Japs  along  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric  power  line. 

Japs  adjacent  to  radio  station. 

Japs  adjacent  to  important  railroad  and  highway  bridges  across  Sacramento 
River  at  Sacramento. 

Japs  in  neighborhood  of  important  pumping  plant,  failure  of  which  would  re- 
sult in  flooding  Sacramento  Airport  and  import  ant  industrial  areas. 


Japs  in  vicinity  of  important  levees  around  Marysville. 

Japs  in  vicinity  of  important  railroad  and  highway  bridges  across  Yuba  and 
Feather  Rivers,  Marysville. 

60396— 42— pt.  29- 


Exhibit  B. — Letters  to  Attorney  General  Warren  From  Law  Enforce- 
ment Officers  on  the  Enemy  Alien  Problem 

Department  of  Police, 
Los  Angeles,  Calif.,  February  19,  1943. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  State  of  California, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Dear  Sir:  The  enemy  alien  presents  numerous  problems  to  the  local  law  en- 
forcement agencies  endeavoring  to  keep  them  properly  supervised. 

Undoubtedly  the  most  serious  menaces  are  potential  fifth-column  activities, 
sabotage,  and  espionage.  To  properly  control  these  activities,  it  is  necessary  to 
maintain  constant  police  patrols  and  a  constant  investigative  check  on  the 
activities  of  the  enemy  alien  residing  in  these  districts. 

The  situation  in  the  Los  Angeles  area  is  probably  more  acute  than  in  any  other 
district,  due  to  the  fact  that  there  are  approximately  25,000  Japanese  within  a 
5-minute  walking  distance  of  our  city  hall,  county  hall  of  justice,  hall  of  records, 
and  the  Federal  and  State  buildings.  This  number,  plus  an  additional  five  or  six 
thousand,  are  also  within  a  very  short  driving  distance  of  our  numerous  aviation 
plants  and  other  defense  projects,  and  numerous  army  encampments  which  are 
usually  in  close  proximity  to  a  major  defense  plant. 

The  aviation  industry  presents  the  gravest  situation  because  this  area  represents 
approximately  50  percent  of  the  aviation  production  of  the  entire  United  States. 
While  the  sabotage  possibilities  are  fairly  well  controlled  with  the  protection  now 
afforded,  it  is  an  utter  impossibility  to  completely  control  espionage  activities 
because  the  information  as  to  production  rates,  types,  and  models  of  planes  pro- 
duced can  be  readily  ascertained  from  the  scrutinizing  or  photographing  of  the 
planes  while  on  the  testing  fields  of  these  plants,  by  possible  espionage  agents 
living  or  residing  within  a  reasonable  radius. 

The  method  of  handling  these  types  of  activities  is  that  of  additional  police 
personnel  being  assigned  to  patrol  and  investigate  units  in  these  suspected  areas. 
With  the  limited  personnel  that  this  department  has  at  the  present  time,  the  release 
of  sufficient  officers  from  other  required  duties  to  properly  supervise  this  is  im- 
possible. In  addition  to  the  fire-prevention  activities,  there  is  also  the  increased 
service  of  investigating  suspects  and  patrolling  and  policing  of  major  public 

One  condition  which  creates  a  hazard  is  the  fact  that  near  the  beaches  we  have 
large  open  areas  which  are  utilized  by  Japanese  truck  farmers.  This  is  a  very 
fertile  field  for  short-wave  receiving  and  sending  sets,  as  well  as  signaling  devices. 
A  specific  instance  of  this  presented  itself  here  on  December  8  and  9,  wherein  a 
large  amount  of  loose  hay  was  piled  in  the  shape  of  an  arrow  pointing  to  one  of 
our  major  aviation  plants.  This  was  presumably  done  with  the  intention  of 
directing  aerial  activities  toward  this  location. 

Due  to  the  complex  problems  presented  in  handling  this  enemy  alien  situation, 
I  believe  that  all  enemy  aliens  should  be  removed  from  the  coastal  areas  for  a 
distance  of  250  to  300  miles,  and  be  supervised  in  such  a  manner  that  they  be 
continually  under  surveillance  of  responsible  authorities. 

It  is  my  opinion  that  your  teletype  request  overlooked  one  of  our  most  hazardous 
situations,  which  is  that  of  the  American-born  Japanese.  After  a  thorough  and 
complete  investigation  of  the  relationship  existing  between  parents  and  children, 
and  the  tendencies  of  the  American-born  Japanese,  I  feel  that  they  present  as 
difficult,  if  not  a  more  difficult,  problem  than  the  enemy  alien.  They  are  cognizant 
of  the  American  custom  of  living;  they  are  capable  of  understanding  the  American 
language  and  inference;  and,  subject  to  small  limitations,  are  allowed  to  associate 
and  mingle  with  the  general  American  public. 

It  is  a  well-known  Japanese  family  tradition  that  the  father  of  the  family  is 
the  dominating  and  guiding  factor  for  the  formulating  of  ideas  in  his  children  and 
there  is  no  doubt  that  the  American-born  Japanese  is,  to  a  great  extent,  imbued 
with  the  same  ideas  of  his  parents.  In  addition  to  the  family  traits  and  the 
patriotism  for  the  native  country  of  Japan,  you  have  racial  characteristics,  that 
of  being  a  Mongolian,  which  cannot  be  obliterated  from  these  persons,  regardless 
of  how  many  generations  are  born  in  the  United  States. 

You  have,  also,  one  other  problem,  that  of  about  40  percent  of  American-born 
Japanese  having  returned,  either  voluntarily,  or  at  the  request  of  their  parents,  to 
Japan,  and  having  received  the  greater  portion  of  their  education  in  that  country. 
A  large  number  of  these  Ki-bei  have  even  attended  military  schools  in  Japan  and 


the  fathers  of  a  considerable  number  of  them  have  received  decorations  for  military 
bravery  or  military  administrative  work  while  residing  in  this  country,  either 
prior  to,  or  since,  the  Ki-bei  returned  from  Japan. 

Our  officers  personally  interviewed  a  large  number  of  the  American  born  Japa- 
nese and  while  some  of  them  stanchly  maintained  their  patriotism  to  the  United 
States,  they  all  stated  that  if  Japan  should  be  victorious  in  this  war  they  would 
have  a  certain  amount  of  pride  for  the  accomplishment  of  that  country. 

It  is  my  opinion  that  the  danger,  especially  for  fifth-column  activities  in  this 
district,  is  serious.  This  is  due  to  the  fact  that  there  are  some  twenty-five  to 
thirty  thousand  Japanese  in  this  area  and  the  location  of  a  large  portion  of  these 
are  in  very  strategic  areas.  These  strategic  areas  are  in  the  very  close  proximity 
of  the  coastal  regions  where  an  invasion  party  would  necessarily  be  landed.  I  have 
no  doubt  that  they  would  lend  any  and  all  assistance  possible  to  a  Japanese  land 
invasion,  and  several  of  the  Japanese  who  are  believed  to  be  as  patriotic  as  any, 
have  expressed  the  above  opinion  in  interviews. 

Another  situation  presents  itself  in  that  the  areas  described  above  have  full 
and  complete  view  of  all  navigation  in  and  out  of  our  local  harbor  and  have 
constant  scrutiny  of  the  activities  maintained  in  the  harbor  districts.  Some 
incidents  have  happened  in  our  harbor  district  which  lends  very  strongly  to  the 
opinion  that  espionage  information  is  being,  or  has  been,  disseminated  from  that 

As  to  the  Italian  and  German  aliens,  I  feel  that  they  present  a  lesser  menace 
than  the  Japanese,  due  to  the  fact  that  we  are  fortunate  in  having  a  smaller  number 
in  our  midst.  However,  the  number  is  somewhat  offset  by  the  intelligence  and 
viciousness  of  the  German  alien.  It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  German  aliens, 
before  being  permitted  to  come  into  this  country  by  the  German  Government, 
were  required  to  leave  some  of  their  immediate  relatives  or  family  in  Germany, 
and  that  they  were  allowed  to  come  into  this  country  for  one  specific  purpose  only, 
and  that  was  to  develop  and  return  certain  information  to  the  German  Secret 
Service.  If  this  information  is  not  forwarded,  the  positive  instructions  are  left 
with  these  individuals  that  their  family  and  friends  left  in  Germany  will  be  mis- 
treated or  placed  in  concentration  camps. 

This  same  policy  is  maintained  as  to  several  of  the  countries  which  have  fallen 
under  German  domination  since  the  beginning  of  the  war.  To  realize  the  serious- 
ness of  this  situation,  you  should  consider  the  Army  and  Navy  activities,  etc.,  in 
this  area  and  the  number  of  manufacturing  plants  of  defense  implements  which 
are  readily  accessible  for  sabotage  and  espionage  purpose. 

I  can  see  no  reason  to  differentiate  between  different  types  of  aliens.  In  my 
opinion  there  is  only  one  procedure  to  follow  in  handling  this  situation,  which  is 
the  concentration  of  each  and  every  one  of  the  three  classes  of  enemy  aliens  and 
I  do  not  feel  that  any  material  difference  exists  in  their  potential  danger  to  the 
internal  security  of  this  country. 
Very  truly  yours, 

C.   B.   HORRALL, 

Chief  of  Police. 

County  of  San  Diego, 
San  Diego,  Calif.,  February  19,  191+2. 

Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General  of  the  State  of  California,  State  Building, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Dear  General  Warren:  Replying  to  your  letter  of  February  18,  1942,  in 
which  you  request  that  I  express  my  views  concerning  the  situation  in  this  county 
with  reference  to  enemy  aliens  in  order  that  you  may  be  advised  of  the  sentiment 
locally,  as  well  as  the  conditions  locally,  so  as  to  present  the  entire  matter  to  the 
congressional  committee  on  national  defense  migration,  which  is  to  commence 
its  hearing  in  San  Francisco  on  February  21,  1942,  will  say  that  I  am  making 
this  reply  jointly  on  behalf  of  Sheriff  Bert  L.  Strand  and  myself. 

As  to  the  three  questions  which  you  proposed,  and  which  are  as  follows: 

(1)  What  in  your  opinion  is  the  extent  of  the  danger,  by  way  of  sabotage 
and  fifth-column  activities  in  your  jurisdiction  and  in  the  State  as  a  whole, 
arising  from  the  presence  of  enemy  aliens? 

(2)  Do  you  believe  that  the  danger  can  be  adequately  controlled  by  treating 
all  enemy'aliens  alike,  regardless  of  nationality,  or  do  you  believe  that  we 
should  differentiate  among  them  as  to  nationality? 


(3)   What  protective  measures  do  you  believe  should  be  taken  with  refer- 
ence to  each  nationality  or  with  reference  to  enemy  aliens  as  a  whole  in  order 
to  eliminate  the  danger  of  sabotage  and  fifth-column  activities? 
our  answers  are  as  follows: 

(1)  It  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  extent  of  the  danger  by  way  of  sabotage  and 
fifth-column  activities  in  this  jurisdiction.  This  answer  will  be  amplified,  how- 
ever, by  succeeding  paragraphs  of  this  letter. 

(2)  We  believe  that  the  danger  can  be  adequately  controlled  by  treating  all 
enemy  aliens  alike,  but  we  emphasize  particularly  the  possible  menace  of  the 
Japanese  alien  in  this  area. 

(3)  We  believe  that  all  enemy  aliens  should  be  interned  and  that  they  should  be 
put  to  work  under  armed  guard  in  guarded  portions  of  the  interior  of  the  United 
States  so  that  they  can  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  producing  materials  and  supplies 
for  this  Government. 

I  am  enclosing  a  copy  of  a  resolution  adopted  by  the  San  Diego  County  Defense 
Counsel  at  a  meeting  held  this  morning,  after  a  very  thorough  discussion  of  the 
Japanese  situation  here.  At  the  meeting  held  this  morning  it  was  discussed,  and 
we  believe  it  to  be  a  fact,  that  notwithstanding  that  there  are  a  good  many 
people  born  in  the  United  States  of  Japanese  ancestors,  that  these  people  maintain 
citizenship  in  the  Empire  of  Japan  although  under  our  Constitution  they  are 
deemed  to  be  American  citizens.  It  occurs  to  me  that  this  is  a  matter  that  should 
be  strongly  urged  to  the  congressional  committee,  because  it  seems  to  me  that 
this  particular  situation  calls  for  immediate  Federal  executive  action. 

Under  separate  cover  Mr.  Harry  M.  Baugh,  chief  investigator  of  my  office, 
has  mailed  to  vou  certain  maps  which  have  been  requested  by  your  office,  showing 
the  location  of  land  in  San  Diego  County  occupied  by  Japanese.  The  maps  being 
sent  show  land  or  property  located  within  the  incorporated  area  of  the  city  of 
San  Diego  occupied  by  Japanese  aliens.  Mr.  Baugh,  in  a  letter  addressed  to  you, 
is  also  sending  a  key  by  which  these  maps  may  be  read,  and  which  is  all  explained 
in  his  letter  to  vou  of  this  date. 

Mr.  Baugh,  I  think,  points  out  that  the  maps  are  at  your  earliest  convenience 
to  be  returned  to  him  so  that  he  may  indicate  on  the  maps  all  enemy  aliens,  as  the 
maps  now  show  only  the  location  of  the  Japanese  aliens  in  the  city  of  San  Diego, 
and  the  farm  lands'  in  the  county  of  San  Diego  occupied  by  Japanese,  some  of 
whom  are  citizens  and  some  of  whom  are  Japanese  nationals. 

Trusting  this  gives  you  the  information  you  desire,  at  least  in  part,  I  beg  to 

Very  sincerely  yours, 

Thomas  Whelan, 

District  Attorney. 

County  of  San  Luis  Obispo, 
San  Luis  Obispo,  Calif.,  February  20,  1942. 

Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  Slate  of  California, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Dear  Mr.  Warren:  This  will  acknowledge  your  letter  of  February  18,  and  I 
hasten  to  reply  to  the  questions  mentioned  therein. 

(1)  I  believe  as  long  as  there  is  a  Japanese  alien  within  accessible  distance  by 
foot,  car,  or  train  to  the  militarv  fortifications  and  important  military  objectives 
such  as  oil,  storage  plants,  railway  tunnels,  etc.,  that  there  is  a  definite  danger  of 
sabotage  and  fifth  column  activity.  I  believe  there  is  a  definite  danger  of  sabotage 
and  fifth  column  activities  with  reference  to  the  German  and  Italian  aliens  but 
not  to  the  extent  or  degree  that  is  possible  with  reference  to  the  Japanese.  My 
opinion,  of  course,  refers  onlv  to  the  State  of  California. 

(2)  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  we  should  differentiate  among  the  aliens  as 
to  nationality  and  to  illustrate  my  point  will  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  there 
are  two  or  three  Italians  of  unquestioned  standing  in  this  community  whose  loyalty 
to  this  country  could  not  possibly  be  questioned. 

One  man  has  been  working  for  the  Southern  Pacific  Railroad  Co.  for  25  years ; 
another  man,  as  I  understand  it,  is  an  employee  of  a  bank  and  thought  he  was 
naturalized,  but  because  of  a  technical  difficulty  finds  himself  an  alien.  Another 
case  is  a  German  alien  who  had  taken  her  first  papers  and  was  stopped  from  finish- 
ing her  naturalization  because  of  the  war.  She  has  a  son  with  the  rank  of  lieuten- 
ant in  the  Navy. 


I  can  cite  other  cases  where  I  believe  it  could  be  proven  beyond  any  question 
that  the  Italian  or  German  alien  is  loyal.  However,  I  do  not  mean  to  say  or 
infer  that  there  should  not  be  a  careful  and  thorough  check  of  every  alien.  I 
have  thought  it  would  be  a  very  good  suggestion  that  a  board  be  set  up  in  each 
county  consisting  of  the  sheriff,  district  attorney,  judge  of  the  superior  court 
and  two  or  three  of  the  well-known  or  prominent  citizens,  together  with  the 
Federal  representatives  of  the  Army  and  Navy,  to  determine  the  status  of  certain 
Germans  and  Italians.  I  would  not  apply  this  rule,  however,  to  the  Japanese 
alien  and  believe  that  all  should  be  taken  out  of  California. 

(3)  If  it  were  possible,  I  believe  the  best  way  would  be  to  take  every  Japanese 
alien  in  the  United  States  and  in  the  possessions  of  the  United  States  and  send 
them  to  Japan  or  find  ways  and  means  of  getting  them  there.  I  believe  that 
we  should  have  as  our  ultimate  objective,  the  complete  alienation  from  the  United 
States  soil  of  every  single  Japanese  alien.  There  should  be  some  way  to  get 
them  back  to  Japan. 

As  to  the  German  and  Italian  aliens,  there  should  be  a  determination  of  their 
status  with  regard  to  declaring  their  loyalty  to  the  United  States  by  application 
for  citizenship,  thereby  renouncing  loyalty  to  their  mother  country.  I  would 
apply  the  same  rule  as  to  all  other  German  and  Italian  aliens  who  did  not  renounce 
their  allegiance  to  their  mother  country  and  who  were  not  able  to  convince 
those  in  authority  of  their  loyalty  to  this  country. 

I  believe  to  an  extent  that  if  the  aliens  cannot  be  shipped  out  of  this  country, 
they  should  be  placed  where  they  will  not  compete  against  the  interests  of  the 
American  people.  The  best  place  for  them  is  in  a  concentration  camp  without 
any  frills  and  just  the  bare  necessities  for  their  existence.  I  personally  am  of 
the  opinion  that  the  restricted  areas  of  this  county  are  completely  inadequate 
for  efficient  protection  against  sabotage. 

With  reference  to  the  American-born  Japanese,  there  should  be  a  concentrated 
effort  to  make  them  prove  themselves,  and  in  this  connection,  the  Federal  agencies 
should  call  upon  the  local  law  enforcement  officials  to  assist. 

I  have  heard  of  too  many  cases  where  the  Japanese-American  has  declared 
his  loyalty,  but  his  actions  seemed  to  belie  such  a  declaration.  I  believe  that 
the  situation  will  be  much  improved  as  soon  as  the  Japanese-alien  situation  has 
been  fully  and  completely  taken  care  of  and  by  drastic  offensive  action. 

My  personal  contacts  with  the  average  American  citizen  on  the  street  has 
led  me  to  believe  that  almost  without  exception  they  feel  the  presence  of  the 
Japanese  alien  here  is  a  menace  to  the  country  and  a  hindrance  to  the  war  ac- 
tivities of  our  Government. 

I  will  be  more  than  pleased  to  lend  whatever  assistance  is  within  my  power 
to  effect  any  plan  developed  by  the  Federal  authorities  in  relation  to  the  alien 
problem  as  it  affects  the  county  of  San  Luis  Obispo. 
Respectfully  yours 

A.  H.  Brazil,  District  Attorney. 

City  and  County  of  San  Francisco, 

February  19,  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  State  Building,  Civic  Center, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Dear  General:  I  beg  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  February 
18.  The  letter  refers  to  a  teletype  sent  on  February  17.  Neither  I  nor  my  office 
received  the  teletype.  However,  I  am  informed  by  your  secretary  that  your 
letter  of  February  18  contains  all  the  matters  referred  to  in  your  teletype. 

Before  answering  the  questions  specifically,  it  occurs  to  me  that  I  should  state 
some  general  views  I  have,  that  to  a  great  extent  control  my  answers.  I  believe 
that  if  the  Japanese  should  invade  California,  by  airplane,  submarine,  or  in  any 
other  way,  they  will  have  arranged  to  have  in  advance  the  assistance  of  various 
aides  in  our  State.  I  can  see  no  reason  to  anticipate  that  they  will  omit  the  pre- 
cautions they  took  at  Pearl  Harbor.  Such  assistance  could  take  the  form  of 
destruction  of  water  mains,  interruption  of  telephone  system,  dislocation  of  the 
fire-prevention  measures,  significant  failures  to  comply  with  black-out  order,  dis- 
ruption of  transportation,  and  other  matters. 

I  am  not  in  a  position  to  judge  how  likely  such  an  invasion  is  or  to  what  extent, 
for  the  purpose  of  reasonable  safety,  we  should  guard  against  its  occurrence.  I 
think  those  are  questions  to  be  passed  upon  by  others. 


On  the  subject  of  sabotage,  independent  of  invasion,  I  cannot  set  myself  up  as 
having  full  knowledge  on  the  subject,  but  my  view  is  that  sabotage,  independent 
of  invasion,  must  be  taken  care  of  by  proper  precautions  at  the  industries  that 
would  be  subject  to  sabotage. 

(1)  Directing  my  attention  to  the  first  question,  my  view  is  that  there  is  grave 
danger  of  sabotage  and  fifth-column  activities  in  m3r  jurisdiction,  in  the  event  of 
any  invasion  by  the  Japanese  and,  further,  that  even  in  the  absence  of  such 
invasion,  if  utmost  precautions  are  not  taken,  sabotage  will  be  committed. 

(2)  Directing  my  attention  to  your  second  question,  I  think  that,  as  far  as  any 
general  orders  are  concerned,  there  should  be  no  differentiation  as  to  enemy 
aliens.  Whatever  will  be  the  rule,  it  should  apply  to  all  alike.  This  accomplished, 
then  proper  reconsideration  may  be  afforded  meritorious  cases.  Exceptions  could 
be  considered  as  to  persons  who  can  demonstrate  their  loyalty  and  their  absence 
of  alien  interests,  or  physical  unfitness  to  participate  in  fifth-column  activities  due 
to  age  or  infirmity.  I  would  put  the  burden  of  proof  upon  the  applicant.  This 
would  result,  no  doubt,  in  large  numbers  of  Italians,  for  instance,  being  permitted 
to  return  to  their  dwellings  or  possibly  remain  undisturbed.  But  the  exceptions 
would  be  based,  not  upon  the  nationality,  but  upon  the  evidence  they  produce  of 
their  loyalty  and  lack  of  potentiality  as  dangerous  characters. 

(3)  Directing  my  attention  to  the  third  question,  I  believe  that  a  general  order 
should  be  made  compelling  all  enemy  aliens  to  remove  from  the  jurisdictions  and 
areas  that  could  be  subject  to  sabotage  and  invasion,  but  as  hereinbefore  indicated, 
some  later  reconsideration  be  afforded  upon  a  proper  showing  being  made  by  an 
enemy  alien,  regardless  of  his  nationality,  that  he  should  be  exempted  from  com- 
pliance with  the  order.  I  am  definitely  against  taking  any  chances,  and  although 
I  realize  that  many  hardships  may  result,  there  can  be  no  dispute  that  the  safety 
of  our  commonwealth  and  citizens  is  second  to  no  other  consideration  and  aim. 

How  this  removal  should  be  carried  out,  and  to  what  point  or  points  and  under 
what  conditions,  doubtless  will  call  for  the  combined  views  and  cooperation  of 
Government,  State,  and  city  authorities. 

The  exodus  should  be  made  under  proper  supervision  and  guarding. 
One  other  important  factor  which  comes  to  my  mind  is  the  need  for  careful 
investigation  of  workers  in  shipyards  and  defense  industries,  as  a  means  of  pre- 
venting inside  jobs  of  sabotage. 

Also,  there  should  be  provided  either  by  State  Guard  or  other  agency,  proper 
guarding  of  established  alien  concentration  areas  and  industrial  plants,  bridges 
and  other  vulnerable  places. 

I  trust  the  foregoing  covers  all  of  the  points  on  which  you  desired  my  views. 
Very  sincerely  yours, 

Matthew  Brady, 

District  Attorney, 

City  of  Fresno  Police  Department, 

February  18,  191$. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Dear  Sir:  Received  your  All  Points  Bulletin  teletype  of  February  17,  relative 
to  my  recommendations  concerning  aliens  or  enemy  aliens  in  my  jurisdiction. 

I  have  a  number  of  people  that  I  consider  my  friends  among  the  enemy  aliens  in 
this  particular  community  and  have  never  particularly  felt  there  was  any  danger 
from  having  the  resident  enemy  aliens  continue  to  live  here.  Since  the  Federal 
Government  has  run  all  the  enemy  aliens  off  the  various  coastal  locations  and 
they  have  moved  into  the  valley  it  presents  an  entirely  different  picture.  The 
law  enforcement  officers  are  continuously  investigating  reports  of  oversuspicious 
citizens  and  as  long  as  the  enemy  aliens  are  permitted  to  stay  in  the  combat  zone 
they  are  going  to  be  under  suspicion  by  the  officers  and  the  citizens  as  well. 

I  believe  there  is  great  danger  in  the  entire  San  Joaquin  Valley  of  sabotage, 
particularly  by  fire.  There  is  also  considerable  feeling  against  both  citizen  and 
alien  Japanese  by  the  white  race  of  this  valley  and  I  think  probably  by  the  white 
race  of  the  entire  State.  As  long  as  that  feeling  exists,  we  will  continue  to  get 
exaggerated  reports  of  suspected  sabotage.  I  believe  that  the  danger  can  be  ade- 
quately controlled,  or  at  least  reduced  to  a  minimum,  by  removing  all  enemy  aliens 
from  this  State,  or  whatever  portion  of  this  State  is  considered  by  the  Army  as 
being  the  combat  zone  in  addition  to  not  allowing  them  in  the  vicinity  of  power 
houses,  dams,  etc.,  or  even  in  our  mountains  where  the  fire  danger  is  so  great. 


There  should  in  my  opinion  be  no  difference  among  them  as  to  nationality, 
unless  with  the  possible  Japanese- American  citizens  who  have  at  any  time  during 
the  past  10  years  been  back  to  Japan  and  in  that  case  I  believe  they  should  be 
handled  in  a  like  manner  as  the  enemy  aliens  themselves. 

In  the  event  no  action  is  taken  relative  to  moving  the  enemy  aliens  out  of  the 
State,  I  would  suggest  that  each  alien  registration  card  should  show  the  name  and 
address,  as  well  as  the  occupation  of  the  alien,  and  should  show  a  definite  area 
to  which  he  should  be  restricted  until  such  time  as  he  applies  for  and  receives  a 
new  registration  card  allowing  him  to  change  his  place  of  living  or  working. 

Trusting  these  few  suggestions  will  be  of  some  material  help  and  reaching  a 
decision  as  to  what  should  be  done,  and  assuring  you  of  my  willingness  at  all  times 
to  cooperate,  I  am, 

Very  truly  yours, 

R.  T.  Wallace,  Chief  of  Police. 

City  of  Sacramento, 
State  of  California,  Department  of  Police, 

February  19,  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  State  of  California,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Dear  Mr.  Warren:  Please  see  your  letter  of  February  18th,  with  regard  to 
the  nature  and  extent  of  law-enforcement  problems  arising  from  the  presence  of 
enemy  aliens  in  this  State.     It  is  a  pleasure  to  submit  below  answers  to  the  re- 
spective questions  contained  in  your  letter. 

(1)  I  do  not  believe  there  is  any  immediate  danger  of  a  serious  epidemic  of 
sabotage  and  other  fifth-column  activity  in  the  vicinity  of  Sacramento  arising 
from  the  presence  of  enemy  aliens.  Nevertheless,  if  at  any  time  in  the  future 
the  military  might  of  Japan  should  be  directed  against  the  Pacific  coast  or  the 
State  of  California,  I  believe  a  great  percentage  of  those  of  Japaense  descent  in 
the  locality  being  subject  to  attack  would  employ  every  possible  means  to  assist 
the  Japanese  invaders. 

(2)  I  do  not  believe  the  danger  can  be  adequately  controlled  by  treating  all 
enemy  aliens  alike — I  believe  we  should  differentiate  among  them  as  to  nationality. 

I  do  not  believe  the  aliens  of  Italian  birth  should  be  considered  dangerous; 
neither  do  I  believe  that  the  aliens  of  German  birth  residing  on  the  Pacific  coast 
will  prove  to  be  a  very  grave  menace.  Also,  I  do  not  believe  that  a  combination 
of  Italian,  German,  and  Japanese  aliens  will  constitute  a  serious  hazard  because 
there  is  no  unification  of  effort  between  these  forces.  This  belief  is  substantiated 
by  the  fact  that  many  of  the  Japanese  aliens  in  the  Sacramento  area  who  have 
been  questioned  by  the  authorities  have  stated  positively  that  in  case  of  an  at- 
tempted invasion  by  Japanese  forces  that  they  would  assist  Japan.  However, 
these  same  Japanese  aliens  have  stated  just  as  positively  that  they  would  fight 
against  an  attempted  German  invasion  of  the  United  States.  So  it  seems  to  be  a 
matter  of  loyalty  to  Japan,  their  mother  country. 

(3)  I  believe  all  Japanese  aliens  should  be  removed  from  coastal  regions  with 
the  prohibited  area  extending  at  least  500  miles  inland. 

I  believe  the  German  and  Italian  aliens  should  be  considered  individually. 
With  kindest  personal  regards,  I  remain 
Sincerely  yours, 

A.  K.  McAllister,  Chief  of  Police. 

City  of  Santa  Paula, 
Ventura  County,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Dear  Sir:  Referring  to  your  letter  dated  February  18  regarding  enemy  aliens. 

(1)  In  my  opinion  there  is  great  danger  of  sabotage  to  electric  lines,  high- 
pressure  gas  lines,  bridges,  and  oil  lines  in  my  immediate  jurisdiction,  and  various 
small  oil  fields  which  are  within  a  short  distance  of  this  city. 

(2)  I  can  see  no  reason  why  we  should  attempt  to  control  this  danger  without 
treating  all  enemy  aliens  alike.  While  it  is  true  that  there  are  many  more  Japa- 
nese than  other  enemy  aliens,  at  the  same  time  it  is  easy  to  recognize  a  Japanese  as 
such.  Other  enemy  aliens  can  mix  with  citizens  of  the  United  States  with  less 
chance  of  being  identified  as  enemy  aliens,  especially  as  the  enemy  alien  registra- 
tion records  are  not  available  to  local  law-enforcement  officers. 


(3)  I  believe  that  all  enemy  aliens,  regardless  of  nationality,  should  be  moved 
back  not  less  than  200  miles  from  the  Pacific  coast,  and  in  this  group  I  include  all 
Japanese,  whether  enemy  aliens  or  citizens.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  so  many 
Japanese  hold  dual  citizenship  and  knowing  that  they  are  not  allowed  to  mix 
with  the  white  race,  it  is  natural  to  expect  them  to  sympathize  with  Japan.- 

At  the  writing  of  this  letter  there  are  very  few  Japanese  in  this  city.  However, 
we  do  expect  them  to  move  in  as  they  are  forced  out  of  other  restricted  districts. 

Thanking  you  for  the  opportunity  to  express  my  views  in  this  matter,  I  remain, 
Very  truly  yours, 

S.  T.  Primmer,  Chief  of  Police. 

City  of  Marysville,  Calif.,  Police  Department, 

February  19,  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  State  Building, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Dear  Sir:  In  reply  to  your  telegram  of  February  17,  1942. 
I  feel  that  with  the  Army  cantonment  that  is  to  be  built  in  this  territory  and 
this  city  being  as  close  as  it  is  to  the  coast  the  danger  of  sabotage  and  fifth-column 
activity  in  this  territory  is  very  grave,  as  is  the  danger  to  the  entire  State  of  Cal- 
ifornia. It  is  my  opinion  that  the  Japanese  are  the  gravest  threat  but  that  all 
enemy  aliens  should  be  treated  alike  regardless  of  nationality. 

All  enemy  aliens  should  be  interned  regardless  of  nationality.  In  my  opinion 
all  Japanese  are  a  menace  whether  they  are  American  born  or  not,  however  I 
realize  that  we  probably  cannot  intern  an  American-born  Japanese  but,  if  possible, 
I  believe  that  they  should  be  concentrated  in  certain  areas  so  that  they  can  more 
easily  be  watched. 

I  feel  very  strongly  that  there  should  be  no  exceptions  that  all  enemy  aliens 
should  be  interned  and  that  this  should  be  done  at  once  without  any  more  delay. 
Yours  very  truly, 

Dorell  La  Fortune, 

Chief  of  Police. 

District  Attorney  of  Santa  Clara  County, 

San  Jose,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  State  Building, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 

My  Dear  Mr.  Warren:  In  reply  to  your  inquiry  relative  to  problems  arising 
from  the  presence  of  enemy  aliens  in  this  State,  will  say: 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  one  of  the  most  serious  dangers  that  now  confronts 
our  Government  is,  or  may  shortly  be  brought  about,  by  fifth-columnist  activities. 
In  this  county  we  have  not  as  yet  had  any  demonstration  of  disloyalty  but  as  men 
of  common  sense  we  know  that  it  exists.  We  all  realize  that  fifth-columnist 
activities  are  not  confined  exclusively  to  alien  enemies;  that  we  have  within  our 
borders  men  and  women  springing  from  every  nation  who,  either  for  personal 
gain  or  for  some  real  or  fancied  wrong,  are  not  only  disloyal  to  the  principals  of 
our  Government  but,  also,  are  ready  and  willing  to  participate  in  activities  against 
its  interests.  This  being  so,  we  cannot  reach  a  solution  of  the  present  problem 
exclusively  along  racial  lines.  I  will  admit,  however,  that  I  believe  there  is  a 
great  danger  today  from  the  Japanese  population,  and  particularly  from  those 
Japanese  who,  although  born  here,  have  received  a  liberal  amount  of  their  educa- 
tion in  Japan.  Still,  I  cannot  bring  myself  to  believe  that  the  entire  Japanese 
population  is  disloyal  to  this  country. 

Again  referring  to  Japanese  born  in  this  country  and  educated  in  Japan,  I 
find  that  they  show  a  feeling  of  being  a  little  superior  to  the  Japanese  boy  raised 
and  educated  in  this  country.  This  can  only  be  attributed  to  a  loyalty  to  Japan. 
I  find  among  our  school  children  that  most  of  the  Japanese  students  attending  our 
schools  still  manifest  a  loyalty  to  our  country,  joining  in  patriotic  songs,  etc., 
but  that  occasionally  there  is  a  little  hesitancy  on  the  part  of  some  to  join  in 
patriotic  exercises,  showing  that  there  is  some  tendency  somewhere  to  wean  them 
away  from  us. 

As  to  what  action  is  best  to  take  or  whether  there  should  be  a  wholesale  depor- 
tation of  these  people  is  something  that  I  cannot  answer  until  I  have  completed 


the  survey  that  I  am  making  at  the  present  time.  In  passing,  may  I  state  that 
conditions  here,  in  my  opinion,  do  not  justify  any  action  that  would  disrupt  too 
much  our  productive  ability  and  our  natural  everyday  business  life. 

As  to  differentiating  between  different  nationalities  I  might  add  that,  in  my 
opinion,  there  is  a  difference;  that  many  of  our  old  Italian  people  who  came  here 
years  ago  and  who  worked  and  raised  families,  and  who  have  been  law-abiding 
citizens,  have  very  little,  if  any,  respect  for  their  native  land  and  which  would 
in  no  way  interfere  with  their  loyalty.  Moreover,  conditions  in  European  coun- 
tries are  such  that  many  Italian  people  here  today  feel  that  the  only  solution  for 
their  problem  over  there  is  for  the  United  States  to  win  this  war.  These  people, 
naturally,  are  going  to  be  loyal  to  us.  Locally,  a  very  great  percent  of  our  young 
men  who  are  joining  the  Army  are  of  Italian  parentage,  and  before  any  action 
should  be  taken  to  move  their  parents  away  from  their  homes,  I  believe  we  should 
consider  seriously  the  result  that  that  may  have  upon  them  as  soldiers. 

Trusting  the  above  will  in  some  degree  assist  in  answering  your  questions, 
although  I  realize  that  this  problem  is  one  that  will  take  the  best  thoughts  of  all 
of  us,  I  remain 

Sincerelv  yours, 

John  P.  Fitzgerald, 
District  Attorney  of  Santa  Clara  County. 

City  of  Madera, 
Madera,  Calif.,  February  18,  1942. 
Re  Japanese,  Italians,  and  Germans. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 


Dear  Sir:  The  Japanese  question  on  the  Pacific  coast  appears  to  the  officials 
of  this  community  to  have  two  things  to  be  considered.  One  is  that  if  we  leave  the 
Japanese  loose  they  will  be  in  position  to  do,  and  many  of  them  will  do,  terrific 
damage  if  they  get  an  opportunity.  It  is  impossible  for  the  police  officials  of  the 
community  to  tell  which  Japanese  are  dangerous  and  which  are  not.  For  this 
reason,  although  it  will  work  injustices  to  some  persons,  the  only  safe  procedure 
would  be  to  take  up  all  Japanese  and  intern  them.  There  are  only  two  possible 
objections  to  this  course.  One  is  the  size  of  the  job.  The  size  of  any  job  is 
always  immaterial  if  the  need  is  great  enough,  and  it  would  appear  that  the  need 
here  "is  great  enough.  The  other  objection  is  that  we  need  the  Japanese  to  pro- 
duce vegetables.  There  are  many  large  farmers  in  this  community  capable  of 
developing  vegetable  growing  on  a  large  scale,  providing  they  are  asked  to  do  the 
job.  They  have  both  the  experience  and  the  implements.  A  discussion  with 
some  of  these  leading  farmers  is  that  they  believe  the  job  can  be  done  without  the 


The  general  feeling  about  the  Italians  is  that  they  are  well  assimilated,  and  we 
do  not  regard  even  the  Italian  aliens  as  alien  in  fact.  We  also  know  that  loyal 
Italians  would  quickly  disclose  anything  they  might  discover,  if  others  of  their 
race  are  inclined  to  get  on  the  wrong  side  of  the  picture.  This  is  not  true  with  the 
Japs.  We  feel  it  is  safe  to  let  the  Italians  continue  their  normal  life  in  this 


So  far  as  we  know,  there  are  no  German  aliens  in  this  community.  If  there  are 
any,  they  are  unknown  to  the  officials  and  they  are  probably  regarded  as  nationals 
of  this  countrv. 

This  letter  is  the  result  of  a  discussion  on  the  part  of  the  police  force  with  the 
city  attorney  and  mayor,  and  has  been  signed  by  all  the  parties  as  representing 
their  concurring  opinion. 

John  G.  Gordon,  Mayor. 
Sherwood  Green,  City  Attorney. 
Walter  E.  Thomas,  Chief  of  Police. 


El  Centro,  Calif,. 

February  18,  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  State  of  California, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Dear  Mr.  Warren:  Your  teletype  of  February  17,  1942,  addressed  to  "All 
District  Attorneys,  Sheriffs,  and  Chiefs  of  Police"  received.  This  teletype  was 
called  to  my  attention  by  Sheriff  Ware  and  we  discussed  the  same  at  considerable 
length.  The  sheriff  requested  that  I  prepare  an  answer  incorporating  our  views 
on  the  different  questions  asked  in  said  teletype. 

I  shall,  therefore,  discuss  the  questions  in  the  order  in  which  they  appear  in 
your  teletype. 

FIRST:  "What,  in  your  opinion,  is  the  extent  of  danger  by  way  of  sabotage  and 
fifth-column  activities  in  your  jurisdiction  and  State  as  a  whole  caused  by  present 
enemy  aliens?" 

In  answering  this  question,  it  might  be  well  to  state  that  aside  from  enemy 
Japanese  aliens  we  do  not  have  more  than  six  or  seven  enemy  aliens  of  Germany 
and  Italy  combined  in  this  county.  As  near  as  we  can  estimate,  there  are  ap- 
proximately 800  Japanese  enemy  aliens  in  this  county.  It  is  our  opinion  that 
the  danger  from  sabotage  and  fifth-column  activities  from  these  800  alien  Jap- 
anese enemies  is  tremendous  and  very  serious.  As  you  know,  this  is  strictly 
an  agricultural  community  which  is  entirely  dependent  upon  water  and  the  dis- 
tribution thereof  through  a  gigantic  irrigation  system.  The  water  is  brought 
to  this  system  from  the  Colorado  River  and  consists  of  thousands  of  miles  of 
main-line  canals.  There  are  thousands  of  tons  of  alfalfa  hay  scattered  throughout 
the  rural  territory.  There  are  thousands  of  acres  of  barley,  wheat,  and  flax 
which  is  scattered  over  an  area  of  approximately  850,000  acres.  There  are 
hundreds  of  miles  of  transmission  lines  which  serve  the  people  of  this  county 
with  hydroelectric  energy.  The  800  alien  enemies,  above  mentioned,  are  scat- 
tered over  this  vast  territory,  and  it  would  be  absolutely  humanly  impossible 
for  the  small  force  now  available  in  the  sheriff's  office  of  this  county  to  make  even 
a  pretense  of  guarding  this  tremendous  farm  territory  and  the  irrigation  system 
necessary  for  its  preservation.  The  sheriff  of  this  county  has  only  18  paid 
deputies.  In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  the  county  of  Imperial  is  a  border 
county.  Immediately  to  the  south  of  Imperial  County  lies  Baja,  Calif.,  in  the 
Republic  of  Mexico.  The  Gulf  of  Lower  California  is  only  about  65  miles  from 
Imperial  County.  All  of  these  factors,  combined,  make  this  a  very  vulnerable 
field  for  sabotage  and  fifth-column  activities.  The  only  sane  and  sensible  solu- 
tion to  the  entire  problem  is  to  evacuate  every  alien  Japanese  enemy  from  this 
county.  This  we  have  been  demanding  continuously  since  December  7,  1941. 
Many  telegrams  have  been  sent  to  the  Attorney  General  of  the  United  States 
and  other  Federal  authorities  demanding  that  steps  be  taken  to  evacuate  the 
Japanese  enemy  aliens  in  this  area.  On  February  14,  1942,  32  alien  Japanese 
enemies  were  removed  from  this  county  by  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation. 
It  is  our  belief  that  the  balance  of  the  Japanese  alien  enemies  should  be  treated 
in  a  similar  manner  in  order  to  adequately  protect  the  county  of  Imperial. 

Second:  "Do  you  believe  that  danger  can  be  adequately  controlled  by  treating 
all  enemy  aliens  alike  regardless  of  nationality,  or  do  you  believe  that  we  should 
differentiate  among  them  as  to  nationality?" 

All  of  our  alien  enemies  are  joined  together  in  a  very  closely  knit  alliance  com- 
monly known  as  the  Axis  Powers  and  they  should  all  be  treated  in  the  same  man- 
ner. They  are  all  dominated  and  controlled  by  the  same  ideals  and  principles, 
namely,  to  overthrow  and  destroy  the  democracies  and  subjugate  the  free  peoples 
of  this  world;  consequently,  all  alien  enemies  should  be  treated  alike  regardless 
of  their  nationality. 

Third:  "What  measures  do  you  believe  should  be  taken  with  reference  to  each 
nationality  or  enemy  aliens  as  a  whole  in  order  to  eliminate  danger  of  sabotage 
and  fifth  column  activities? 

It  is  our  belief  that  immediate  evacuation  of  all  enemy  aliens  is  the  only  solution 
of  the  problem.  It  is  absolutely  impossible  with  the  small  force  of  police  officers 
available  in  any  county  of  the  State  of  California  to  provide  adequate  protection 
against  the  depredations  and  sabotage  which  will  be  committed  in  the  future. 
The  territory  involved  is  so  great  and  the  number  of  enemy  aliens  so  large  that 
it  would  be  impossible  for  the  small  forces  available  to  cover  the  territory. 

In  conclusion,  we  believe  that  the  Federal  Government  is  the  only  agency  which 
can   adequately  handle  this  gigantic  problem.     The  Federal  Government  has 


exclusive  jurisdiction  over  aliens  and  unless  the  Government  exercises  this  juris- 
diction local  authorities  are  helpless  to  protect  the  people  in  their  community. 
Criminal  prosecutions  under  peacetime  conditions  are  wholly  inadequate  to  meet 
the  urgency  of  the  present  situation.  Any  criminal  prosecution  is  subject  to  long 
delays,  and  the  result  obtained  is  wholly  inadequate  to  meet  wartime  conditions. 
What  we  must  have  at  this  time  is  immediate,  swift,  and  certain  action.  This 
can  only  be  provided  by  the  Federal  Government  itself  through  evacuation  of  all 
alien  enemies  and  their  concentration  in  internment  centers  provided  by  the  United 
States  Government.  Some  argument  has  been  put  forward  that  we  need  these 
alien  enemies  to  perform  labor  on  farms  and  industries.  Our  answer  to  this 
contention  is  that  the  American  people  must  realize  that  it  is  their  duty  to  pro- 
vide adequate  national  defense,  including  agricultural  production,  and  the  pro- 
duction of  war  materials,  and  they  cannot  depend  upon  their  alien  enemies  to 
perform  this  task. 

We  again  earnestly  and  seriously  state  and  urge  that,  in  our  opinion,  the  only 
solution  to  this  problem  is  immediate  evacuation  of  all  alien  enemies  from  this 
county.     We  shall  both  be  very  glad  to  appear  in  person  before  the  committee 
if  you  believe  it  advisable. 
Very  truly  yours, 

Elmer  W.  Heald, 
District  Attorney,  County  of  Imperial. 

R.  W.  Ware, 
Sheriff,  County  of  Imperial. 

Office  of  District  Attorney  of~Madera  County, 

Madera,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General  of  California, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Dear  General  Warren:  As  requested  in  your  letter  of  the  18th,  I  am  setting 
forth  my  views  in  respect  to  the  situation  arising  from  the  presence  of  enemy 

1.  At  the  present  time  there  appears  to  be  no  imminent  danger  of  sabotage. 
However,  when  the  dry  season  comes  on,  the  season  from  about  May  until 
October,  when  rainfall  is  practically  nonexistent  in  this  part  of  the  State,  the 
plains  are  covered  with  dry  grass  and  dry  grain  and  stubble  fields,  and  the  hills 
and  lower  mountains  with  dry  grass,  brush,  and  fallen  leaves  and  limbs,  the 
whole  country  is  in  a  highly  inflammable  condition.  A  systematic  campaign  of 
incendiarism  would  cause  terrific  disaster. 

The  opportunity  for  causing  incalculable  loss  in  this  way  is  so  obvious  that  we 
expect  it  as  a  matter  of  course,  and  are  providing  extraordinary  fire-fighting 

We  cannot  tell  what  fifth-column  activities  are  going  on,  but  we  believe  they 
are  going  on.  As  an  instance,  both  before  and  after  December  7,  the  most 
influential  Japanese  in  the  county  had  an  unusual  number  of  Japanese  calling 
at  his  residence  at  all  hours  of  the  day  and  night.  These  callers  had  good  cars 
and  seem  to  be  persons  of  sorts.     He  had  never  had  such  string  of  callers  before. 

2.  I  do  not  think  that  all  aliens  should  be  treated  alike  regardless  of  nationality. 
We  should  differentiate  between  them,  both  as  to  nationality  and  as  to  citizens 

and  noncitizens,  and  as  to  native-born  and  alien-born. 

They  should  be  handled  by  classes  and  perhaps  individually  besides.  It  is 
impossible  to  deal  with  them,  particularly  with  the  Japanese,  individually. 

3.  Our  State  and  Federal  laws,  supported  by  a  bill  of  rights,  are  entirely  inade- 
quate to  meet  the  situation.  If  we  are  not  to  run  the  risk  of  disaster  we  must 
forget  such  things  as  the  writ  of  habeas  corpus,  and  the  prohibition  against  un- 
reasonable searches  and  seizures.  The  right  of  self-defense,  self-preservation,  on 
behalf  of  the  people,  is  higher  than  the  bill  of  rights. 

Martial  law  should  be  declared  over  aU  of  California.  Military  authorities 
and  militarv  police  should  then:  . 

(a)  Remove  all  Japanese  irrespective  of  age,  sex,  or  citizenship  from  consider- 
able areas  near  vital  defense  industries,  and  from  places  furnishing  an  oppor- 
tunity for  considerable  sabotage,  and  for  conveying  information  to  the  enemy, 
say  as  far  as  east  of  the  Sierras.  .  ,   ~  ■. 

(b)  Remove  all  other  enemy  aliens  and  their  families  (Italian  and  German; 
from  aU  zones  where  they  may  be  a  menace,  but  not  such  a  wide  movement  as 
with  Japanese. 


(c)  Remove  all  persons  irrespective  of  race  or  nationality  or  citizenship  from 
such  areas. 

(d)  Intern  all  enemy  aliens  and  their  families  who  are  suspected  of  being 
dangerous  to  the  public  safety,  or  keep  them  under  surveilance. 

This  may  result  in  claims  for  damages  after  the  war  is  over.  It  will  be  time 
enough  then  to  adjust  it.  It  may  result  in  injustice  but  we  cannot  help  it.  This 
is  the  fortune  of  war. 

If  there  are  then  any  Japanese  who  can  show  that  they  should  be  allowed  to 
establish  themselves  in  other  places  than  where  interned,  adjust  this  as  the 
occasion  arises. 

Sheriff  Justice  agrees  substantially  with  the  above  views. 
Respectfully  yours, 

George  Mordecai,  District  Attorney. 

Sheriff's  Office,  Merced  County, 

Merced,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
In  re  Enemy  aliens. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Dear  Mr.  Warren:    Replying  to  your  letter  of* February  18,  the  following 
are  my  opinions: 

(1)  I  believe  that  this  county  and  the  State  of  California  as  a  whole  are  in 
great  danger  of  a  large-scale  sabotage  plot  and  fifth-column  activity,  due  to  the 
presence  in  our  midst  of  so  many  enemy  aliens.  I  will  add  that  that  is  the  opinion 
of  everyone  with  whom  I  come  in  contact. 

(2)  I  think  the  danger  can  be  adequately  controlled  by  treating  all  enemy 
aliens  alike,  regardless  of  nationality,  if  they  are  placed  in  concentration  camps 
under  military  guard.  Too,  that  we  should  not  try  to  differentiate  among  them 
as  to  nationality  because  I  do  not  believe  it  can  be  done  without  running  into  a 
great  deal  of  difficulty. 

(3)  In  answer  to  this  question,  I  think  that  the  only  sure  way  to  protect  the 
State  against  sabotage  and  fifth-column  activity  is  to  place  all  enemy  aliens  under 
military  guard.  To  us  here  in  America,  knowing  that  there  are  many  loyal 
aliens  amongst  us,  this  seems  like  a  very  harsh  procedure  but  after  all  we  are  at 
war  and  there  is  nothing  nice  about  the  whole  business.  It  is  impossible  for  us 
to  do  a  thorough  job  of  picking  between  the  good  and  the  bad;  however,  this 
could  be  done  to  some  extent.  Different  types  of  individuals,  background  and 
history,  could  be  segregated  as  to  type  and  nationality  and  placed  in  suitable 
quarters,  as  near  as  possible  to  their  home  in  this  State.  By  going  into  the  history 
and  background  of  individual  cases  and  placing  them  in  different  groups  and 
having  separate  institutions  for  each  type  of  group  and  nationality.  Due  to 
the  fact,  as  stated  before,  that  there  are  many  loyal  enemy  aliens,  great  care 
must  be  taken  in  this  "sorting"  process  and  proper  quarters  and  environment 
must  be  provided  to  avoid  trouble  now  and  in  the  future. 

To  avoid  disaster,  I  believe  that  action  must  be  taken  to  protect  both  the 
State  and  enemy  aliens,  as  there  are  already  "rumblings"  of  vigilante  activity 
which  has  been  caused  in  the  main,  by  the  influx  of  Japanese  from  the  evacuated 

If  and  when  all  enemy  aliens  are  under  guard  and  properly  segregated  as  to 
type  and  nationality  and  if  the  preferred  class  were  located  in  the  agricultural 
areas,  then  I  think  it  would  be  possible  and  practical  to  allow  great  numbers  of 
them  to  do  agricultural  work  under  proper  guard  and  supervision.  To  handle 
the  Japanese  situation  completely,  and  considering  the  fact  that  in  most  all  cases 
they  are  living  in  Japanese  colonies,  and  also  the  fact  there  is  so  little  trust  in 
them,  I  think  it  would  be  a  good  idea  to  place  military  guards  around  these  areas 
at  once,  which  would  give  immediate  protection  to  the  State  and  would  also 
relieve  the  tension  and  anxiety  of  the  people  at  large.  Then  after  the  alien 
Japanese  have  been  removed,  leave  the  guard  there  with  instructions  suitable  to 
the  circumstances. 

Yours  very  sincerely, 

N.  L.  Cornell,  Sheriff. 


Police  Department, 
City  of  Culver  City,  Calif., 

February  19y  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  Stale  of  California. 
Dear  General:  In  regard  to  your  inquiry  of  February  18,  1942,  and  in  answer 
to  your  questions: 

1.  It  is  my  opinion  that  enemy  aliens,  particularly  in  our  jurisdiction  and  in 
the  State  as  a  whole,  could  and  probably  are  a  decided  threat  to  the  security  of 
our  Nation. 

2.  It  is  my  firm  conviction  that  all  enemy  aliens  should  be  treated  alike  regard- 
less of  nationality  on  a  theory  that  the  enemy  aliens  who  are  not  of  the  Japanese 
race  could  be  more  active  and  a  greater  danger  if  not  so  regulated. 

3.  It  is  my  recommendation  that  careful  and  firm  enforcement  of  total  intern- 
ment is  the  "only  answer  to  the  problem  of  eliminating  the  dangers  of  sabotage 
and  fifth-column  activities. 

I  am  firmly  convinced  that  internment  of  all  alien  enemies  and  in  the  par- 
ticular instance  of  Japanese,  I  would  strongly  recommend  that  the  Xishi  be 
■interned  together  with  the  Ishi,  for  the  reason  that  those  who  have  been  born  in 
this  country  are  considered  to  be  American  citizens  and  until  they  are  truly  proved 
to  be  such  in  their  hearts,  they  should  be  more  than  pleased  to  submit  to  intern- 
ment rather  than  place  the  security  of  our  Nation  in  jeopardy.  It  of  course  stands 
to  reason  that  if  they  should  object  to  such  treatment,  they  could  not  be  looked 
upon  as  being  true  and  loyal  Americans. 

Trusting  that  the  above  personal  opinions  will  be  of  assistance,  I  am, 
Very  truly  yours, 

W.  A.  McDonald,  Chief  of  Police,. 

Offtce  of  Chief  of  Police, 
South  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  February  19,  f94&~ 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 
Attorney  General, 

Sacrar<>ento.   Calif. 

Honorable  Sir:  In  reply  to  your  letter  of  February  18,  regarding  your  teletype 
message  issued  on  February  17  to  all  sheriffs,  district  attorneys,  and  chiefs  of 
police,  please  be  advised  that  to  date  we  have  not  received  a  copy  of  same. 

However,  in  response  to  your  inquiry  regarding  enemy  aliens  I  wish  to  note  the 
following.  Here  in  South  San  Francisco  their  are  42  major  industrial  plants  all  in 
production  of  defense  materials.  Some  of  these  plants  are:  W.  P.  Fuller,  Swift  & 
Co.,  Armour  Co.,  United  Packing,  Union  stockyards,  Marine  Chemical  Co.,. 
Metal  &  Thermit  Co.,  Bethlehem  Steel  Co.,  Enterprise  Foundry,  Edwards  Wire 
Rope  Co.,  Western  Pipe  &  Steel  Co.  Shipbuilding  plant,  DuPont  Paint  Co.,. 
Hammond  Aircraft,  and  Mills  Field,  known  as  San  Francisco  Airport. 

As  to  regards  of  extent  of  danger  from  sabotage,  please  be  advised  that  severaL 
of  these  are  large  concerns  such  as  Western  Pipe  &  Steel,  Bethlehem  Steel  Co.,. 
Enterprise  Foundry  and  many  others  engaged  in  defense  work.  Quite  a  number  of 
these  factories  are  within  500  feet  of  the  Bayshore  Highway.  There  are  several 
spc  t*  from  Southern  Pacific  tunnel  No.  5  to  Mills  Field  where  a  small  mortar  could 
be  placed  at  night  and  within  a  half  hour  several  million  dollars  worth  of  damage 
could  be  done. 

Absolutely  no  protection  is  being  furnished  to  forestall  fifth  column  activities 
along  this  highway.  Saboteurs  could  go  without  restriction  to  the  gates  and 
fences  of  many  of  these  factories  as  there  are  so  many  enemy  aliens  in  the  sur- 
rounding territory  the  danger  here  from  fifth-column  activities  is  very  pro- 
nounced, and  the  opportunities  offered  are  extremely  obvious. 

Our  opinion  is  that  all  Japanese  should  be  forced  to  leave  defense  areas  and  other 
enemy  aliens  controlled  as  to  movements  and  places  of  residence.  None  allowed 
within  one-half  mile  of  any  defense  plant. 

United  States  Army  should  adequately  patrol  the  Bayshore  Highway  from  the' 
Southern  Pacific  Tunnel  to  a  point  beyond  Mills  Field  and  particularly  within  close 
proximity  to  the  factories  along  the  Bayshore  Highway.  A  survey  by  someone  in 
high  authority  should  immediately  be  made  to  determine  the  extent  of  danger  in 
leaving  this  area  unguarded. 


I  have  tried  to  obtain  a  list  of  enemy  aliens  here  in  South  San  Francisco  accord- 
ing to  the  last  alien  registration  and  from  the  Federal  Government  but  have  been 
unable  to  do  so.  Your  help  in  this  matter  would  be  greatly  appreciated.  There 
are  no  Japanese  enemy  aliens  here  in  South  San  Francisco. 

If  there  should  be  any  further  information  that  you  may  want  regarding  this, 
kindly  let  me  know. 

'  Respectfully  yours, 

Louis  Belloni,  Chief  of  Folicc. 

Exhibit  C. — Communication  From  the  Files  of  Attorney  General  Warren 
on  the  Agricultural  Aspect  of  Enemy  Alien  Evacuation 

Grower-Shipper  Vegetable  Association, 

Salinas,  Calif.,  February  20,  1942. 
Mr.  Warren  Olney, 

Assistant  Attorney  General,  State  Building, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Dear  Mr.  Olney:  In  line  with  our  conversation  of  yesterday,  we  are  forward- 
ing you  complete  data  on  the  Japanese  acreage  situation  as  compiled  by  our 
president,  Mr.  E.  M.  Seifert,  Jr. 

We  think  that  this  statement  will  give  you  some  of  the  vital  facts  that  you  have 
been  looking  for  the  past  2  or  3  weeks,  and  we  sincerely  hope  it  will  assist  you  in 
convincing  Congressman  Tolan's  committee  that  our  stories  in  reference  to  the 
American  farmer  being  able  to  produce  all  the  necessary  vegetables  required  by 
our  Nation  and  that  the  loss  of  the  Japanese  farmer  certainly  will  not  affect 
California  production. 
Sincerelv  yours, 

Austin  E.  Anson,  Secretary- Manager. 

Only  1  percent  (0.00995)  of  all  the  vegetables  produced  in  the  United  States  for 
processing  (canning,  freezing,  etc.,  excluding  canned  tomatoes)  is  grown  or  con- 
trolled by  Japanese  growers  in  California 

Authority  for  this  statement  is  taken  from  the  United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture  Crop  Reporting  Board  of  Acreage  and  Production  of  Commercial 
Truck  Crops  in  the  United  States  for  1941,  released  as  of  December  1,  1941. 

The  following  statements  are  made  in  an  attempt  to  prove  the  relative  unim- 
portance of  truck  crop  production  in  California  by  Japanese.  Those  studying  this 
report  must  bear  in  mind  that  all  acreage  and  production  figures  are  taken  from 
the  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  report  above  referred  to. 

Only  3^  percent  (0.0356)  of  all  commercial  truck  crops  grown  in  the  United 
States  are  produced  by  Japanese  in  California  (Japanese  here  include  both  aliens 
and  American  citizens.)  . 

Only  4%  percent  (0.04772)  of  all  the  vegetables  produced  in  the  United  States 
for  processing  (canning,  freezing,  etc.,  excluding  canned  tomatoes)  is  grown  in 

Only  Sy>  percent  (0.0868)  of  all  the  vegetables  produced  in  the  United  States 
for  processing  including  canned  tomatoes,  is  grown  in  California. 

The  largest  important  item  for  cannery  purposes,  and  which  is  generally  con- 
sidered a  very  important  item  for  defense  and  for  lend-lease  to  Britain  is  canned 
tomatoes.  _  _  ,.,  .     1<D  . 

Of  all  the  production  in  the  United  States,  California  grows  only  18  percent 
(0  1832)  of  the  cannery  tomatoes,  and  this  percentage  includes  all  Japanese  pro- 
duction. On  a  tonnage  basis,  the  10-year  average  for  the  United  States,  1930-39, 
shows  that  California  produced,  including  Japanese  production,  only  18  percent 
of  the  cannery  tomatoes. 

After  a  careful  canvass  of  those  in  the  industry,  who  should  know,  it  was  esti- 
mated that  of  the  total  acreage  in  California,  on  which  cannery  tomatoes  are 
produced,  the  astoundingly  large  figure  of  60  percent  is  credited  to  Japanese  pro- 
duction, which  means  acreage  either  supervised,  owned,  or  controlled  by  Japanese 
or  on  which  acreage  Japanese  labor  is  used.  Nevertheless  only  11  percent 
(0  1094)  of  the  tomatoes  canned  in  the  United  States  is  produced  by  Japanese  in 


California,  and  it  is  suggested  that  if  this  item  is  important  enough,  canned  to- 
matoes be  rationed  to  our  citizens,  curtailing  supplies  to  them  by  15  percent  and 
we  will  then  have  an  increased  figure  in  canned  tomatoes  produced,  instead  of  a 

Even  if  all  Japanese  acreage  is  completely  eliminated  and  not  any  of  the  so- 
called  abandoned  acreage  is  either  taken  up  by  white  growers  or  new  acreage  pro- 
duced by  white  growers. 

Only  25  percent  (0.2296)  of  all  the  vegetables  produced  in  California  for  fresh 
market  and  for  fresh  consumption  is  grown  by  California  Japanese  or  Japanese 
influence  in  California,  notwithstanding  the  various  reports  we  have  read  and 
heard  in  the  newspapers  and  over  the  radio,  ranging  from  37  to  80  percent. 

Only  4>2  percent  (0.04508)  of  all  the  fresh  vegetables  grown  in  the  United  States 
are  produced  by  California  Japanese  or  Japanese  influence  in  California. 

As  above  stated  the  largest  single  item,  which  seems  to  be  important,  is  canned 
tomatoes.  Thus  far,  no  consideration  has  been  given  to  whites  taking  over 
evacuated  Japanese  acreage  or  evacuated  acreage  being  replaced  by  new  acreage 
grown  by  whites. 

In  the  Wasco,  Shafter,  and  Bakersfield  area,  approximately  35,000  acres  of 
early  potatoes  are  grown,  most  of  which  are  harvested  during  April  and  May. 
The  need  for  a  replacement  of  probable  evacuated  Japanese  acreage  was  brought 
to  the  attention  of  one  grower  in  Bakersfield,  who  personally  increased  his  already 
large  acreage  by  500  acres  of  canning  tomatoes,  and  has  called  a  meeting  for  Fri- 
day noon,  February  19,  at  which  time  a  total  of  2,000  acres  will  be  signed  with 
the  cannery.  The  climate  in  and  around  the  Bakersfield  area  is  suitable  to  the 
production  of  tomato  plants  on  lettuce  beds  and  open  fields,  whereas  other  dis- 
tricts must  use  hotbeds  or  coldframes.  This  one  firm  is  in  position  to  grow  10 
million  plants  for  use  in  other  districts,  provided  they  can  be  furnished  only  125 
pounds  of  tomato  seed.  By  immediate  action  being  taken,  there  seems  little 
question  but  what  this  district  alone  would  have  an  additional  5,000  acres  on 
which  cannery  tomatoes  could  be  planted. 

In  the  Salinas  district,  where  very  few  tomatoes  had  been  previously  grown, 
already  lettuce  and  carrot  growers  have  signed  with  a  local  cannery  for  almost 
500  acres  of  cannery  tomatoes. 

It  is  safe  to  assume  that  in  even  considering  all  the  new  acreage  which  growers 
could  be  persuaded  to  plant  as  a  patriotic  effort,  undoubtedly  no  less  than  50  per- 
cent of  evacuated  Japanese  acreage  would  be  taken  up  by  white  growers,  thereby 
reducing  the  prospective  shortage  by  the  probable  complete  loss  of  all  Japanese- 
grown  acreage,  to  less  than  5  percent  of  the  pack  for  the  United  States. 

No  actual  figures  are  available  showing  the  exact  percentage  of  Japanese-grown 
or  Japanese-influenced  acreage  for  the  various  truck  crops  in  California,  but  those 
who  are  in  the  best  position  to  estimate  have  been  conferred  with  and  the  average 
of  their  estimates  has  been  increased,  so  that  the  estimates  used  as  a  basis  for 
the  above  calculations  and  statements  probably  represent  a  higher  percentage 
than  actually  exists.  As  an  example:  It  was  estimated  that  Japanese  grow  or 
influence  or  control  the  production  of  90  percent  of  the  strawberries;  75  percent 
of  the  cucumbers,  onions,  and  spinach  for  fresh  shipment;  and  75  percent  of  the 
cucumbers  and  tomatoes  for  cannery;  65  percent  of  the  fresh  shipment  of  snap 
beans;  60  percent  of  the  canned  tomatoes  acreage;  50  percent  of  the  production 
for  fresh  shipment  of  cauliflower  and  celery;  for  processing — snap  beans  and 
spinach;  which  is  followed  on  through  down  to  10  percent  of  the  potatoes, 
asparagus,  cantaloups,  honeydews,  honeyballs,  and  watermelons.  The  figure  of 
10  percent  is  the  lowest  one  used  ui  any  case. 

Broccoli,  brussel  sprouts,  chicory,  parsley,  parsnips,  rhubarb,  radishes,  squash, 
turnips,  and  sweetpotatoes  were  omitted  only  because  they  are  not  included  in  the 
United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  report  used. 

Allowing  for  errors  in  judgment,  it  must  be  conceded  by  those  who  would 
study  these  figures  carefully  and  sincerely — if  all  vegetable  acreage  produced, 
controlled,  or  influenced  by  Japanese  were  completely  eliminated,  the  loss  in 
available  fresh  food  supply  to  the  United  States  and  Canada  would  be  entirely 
insignificant,  not  to  take  into  account  the  large  volume  of  other  foods,  including 
meats  and  grains,  etc.,  which  would  further  reduce  the  percentage  of  loss  in  food 
to  the  people  of  this  country. 



[Authority:  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture] 




All  other 


Asparagus 39,550 

Limas 0 

Snap  beans 640 

Beets 0 

Sweet  corn 0 

Cucumbers 2,890 

Peas S5 

Pimento 730 

Spinach 7. 140 

Tomatoes 83,000 

Total 136. 100 

Exclusive  of  tomatoes 53, 100 

o  1 




72,720  ; 



14,  870 



103, 110  1 





12,  730 




455,  310 

1,  431,  880 
1,  059,  570 

1.  567,  980 
1,  112,  670 


MARKET,  1941 

Artichokes.  - 
Asparagus..  . 
Lima  beans . 
Snap  beans.- 






Corn  (sweet) 
















10. 000 




52,  020 





17,  650 






174,  510 




12,  770 

12,  770 





181,  700 











12.  720 









23, 000 





42,  570 




















158,  770 











2,  750 



















201,  370 


74.  741 


1, 655, 680 


Cantaloups,  honey  dews,  honey  balls,  etc.. 

38,420  1 
3,680  ! 




207, 430 
251, 630 

125,  910 









Processed  vegetables 

Fresh  vegetables 



74.  741 


1,  431, 880 
1,  330,  280 

1.  567, 980 

1.  655,  680 

Total,  vegetables 

Melons,  strawberries ..  .  


135, 622 


2,  762.  160 


Grand  total 




3, 308,  710 

3,  828,  310 

1  Estimates,  and  therefore  acreage  arrived  at  in  accordance  with  explanation  in  body  of  report. 


Cooperative  Extension  Work  in  Agriculture  and  Home  Economics.  State 

of  California 

Universitt  of  California, 
Fairfield,  Calif.,  February  18,  1942. 
Mr.  Roscoe  E.  Bell. 

Bureau  of  Agricultural  Economics, 

.  .  :  Mercantile  Building,  Berkeley,  Calif. 

Dear  Mr.  Bell:  Your  letter  of  February  12  regarding  housing  of  evacuated 
aliens  was  referred  to  the  chairman  and  various  members  of  the  count}-  farm 
labor  subcommittee.     They  have  gathered  the  following  information: 

In  the  Suisun  area,  the  two  members  of  the  committee  believe  that  beginning 
May  1.  they  could  employ  about  500  alien  Japanese.  They  believe,  however, 
that  these  should  be  housed  in  a  central  camp,  so  they  could  be  given  close  super- 
vision, and  so  that  other  workers  in  the  district  would  have  the  first  chance  at 
available  work.  No  definite  arrangements  have  been  made  for  location  of  a  central 
camp.  Perhaps  arrangements  could  be  made  to  use  a  large  unused  packing  house 
for  some  of  these  men. 

In  the  Vacaville  area,  they  could  employ  200  to  300  Japanese  aliens.  There  is 
some  work  available  now.  They  prefer  that  these  aliens  be  housed  in  a  central 
camp  and  guarded  by  Federal  agents.  They  have  a  piece  of  land  available  with 
water,  but  no  buildings. 

The  committee  reports  the  following  from  the  Delta  district : 

In  general,  the  buildings  that  are  available  are  the  asparagus  cutter  camps, 
that  are  not  in  use.  There  are  no  heating  or  cooking  stoves  and  usually  the 
bathing  and  sewage-disposal  systems  would  be  inadequate  for  permanent  resi- 
dence. However,  with  the  expenditure  of  a  nominal  amount  on  each  camp,  they 
could  be  made  usable.     There  are  a  few  exceptional  camps. 

Furthermore,  if  a  central  camp  would  be  more  practical  a  site  could  be  gotten 
from  the  Ryer-Xixon  interests  on  Ryer  Island  free  of  charge,  up  to  about  5  acres. 
Also,  the  work  on  the  individual  camps  could  be  done  under  the  supervision  of  the 
individual  farmers  and  methods  of  payment  for  the  work  would  be  arranged. 
The  accommodations  would  also  be  only  for  single  men  with  the  possibility  of  one 
family  at  each  camp  doing  the  cooking,  etc.,  about  the  camp. 

Our  position  on  this  island  would  make  it  very  easy  to  guard.  Offhand,  it 
seemed  to  be  the  consensus  of  those  that  I  could  contact  that  possibly  a  guard  on 
the  bridge  going  into  the  Holland  Land  would  answer  the  purpose  with  a  possible 
weekly  check-up  of  all  the  individuals.  In  general,  there  seems  to  be  no  appre- 
hension about  taking  care  of  the  aliens  after  they  have  been  okayed  by  the  Federal 
Bureau  of  Investigation. 

In  detail  then,  for  Italian  aliens,  the  set-up  on  Ryer  could  be  as  follows: 

A.  Guidi,  40  men  in  two  camps. 

L.  Brooks,  26  men  in  two  camps. 

De  Gandia,  70  men  in  three  camps. 

F.  Gwerder,  20  men  in  one  camp. 

H.  M.  Karlstad,  15  men  in  one  camp. 

A.  M.  Jongeneel,  25  men  in  one  camp  (needs  more  than  average  fixing^. 

Rio  Farms,  20  men  in  one  camp. 

J.  Gwerder,  20  men  in  one  camp. 

McGaughern,  20  men  in  two  camps. 

In  addition  to  these  286  men,  I  believe  another  40  could  be  placed  with  a  little 
more  thorough  investigation.  Most  of  these  men  (all)  could  find  seasonal  em- 
ployment on  the  island. 

You  know  we  have  many  camps  scattered  around  the  two  Liberty  farm  islands 
but  they  are  all  in  a  radius  of  about  3  miles  and  all  inside  the  levees.  At  present, 
there  is  only  one  entry  at  the  north  end  of  the  Permanent  District  as  the  ferry  is 
closed  due  to  the  flood  and  will  be  for  several  months. 

Liberty  Farms  Co.  owns  all  the  buildings  and  could  be  considered  the  farmers. 

We  have  both  Japanese  and  Italians  on  this  island  so  either  would  be  acceptable 
but  I  believe  in  our  case  that  Japanese  would  be  preferred  as  they  would  better 
fit  into  our  program. 

60396— 42— pt.  29- 


Here  are  the  camps  on  the  Permanent  District  and  the  capacities: 

Camp  2,  20  single  men. 

Camp  4,  15  single  men. 

Camp  5,  15  single  men. 

Camp  8,  10  single  men. 

Camp  9,  20  single  men,  plus  camp  place  for  up  to  300  people  if  tents  are  sup- 
plied.    Water  and  toilets  O.  K. 

Camp  1,  family  unit. 

The  following  camps  are  on  the  bypass  and  won't  be  available  for  at  least  6  weeks: 

Camp  11,  20  single  men  and  1  family  unit. 

Camp  14,  25  single  men  and  2  family  units. 

Camp  15,  15  single  men. 

Camp  15}^,  30  single  men. 

Probably  the  California  Packing  Corporation  could  take  care  of  100  men 
additional:  Ed  Emigh,  15  additional  also. 

The  committee  reports  that  aliens  would  not  be  acceptable  on  most  of  the 
ranches  in  the  Montezuma  Hills.  The  exceptions  are  these:  The  Fontana  Farms 
Co.  would  like  10  single  alien  Italians  or  Germans.  They  have  a  camp  available 
for  that  number,  with  electricity,  and  should  have  work  for  them  about  May  1. 
Mrs.  Bertha  Williams  would  like  an  alien  German  or  Italian  man  and  wife  to  live 
and  work  at  her  farm.     She  has  housing. 

The  committee  reports  for  the  Dixon  District  as  follows:  James  Fulmer  could 
use  25  single  alien  Italians  or  Germans.  He  has  a  sugar  beet  camp  to  house  them. 
Roy  Gill  could  use  6  married  men  and  about  19  single  men,  all  Italian  or  German 
aliens.  He  has  housing  scattered  around  his  various  farms.  Both  these  men 
point  out  that  they  would  reserve  the  right  to  fire  these  men  if  their  work  was 
unsatisfactory  and  would  expect  to  pay  only  the  usual  wages  in  the  community. 

As  yet,  no  report  has  been  received  from  the  Wolfskill  District.  We  expect 
this  report  some  time  this  evening  and  will  mail  to  you  in  the  morning. 

At  their  last  meeting,  the  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  War  Board 
discussed  this  matter  and  suggested  that  aliens  brought  to  this  county  should  be 
under  supervision  at  all  times,  either  at  central  camps  or  on  farms  where  the 
operator  agrees  to  furnish  this  supervision. 
Sincerelv  yours, 

V.  W.  De  Tak,  County  Agent. 

Stanislaus  County  Farm  Bureau, 

Modesto,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
(Re  County  housing  facilities  for  alien  labor. 
Mr.  Ray  B.  Wiser, 

President,  California  Farm  Bureau  Federation, 

Berkeley,  Calif. 

Dear  Ray:  Relative  to  your  wire  of  February  18,  I  thought  I  would  write 
you  rather  than  wire  since  there  are  so  many  angles  to  this  problem. 

I  have  been  making  a  check-up  for  the  past  2  weeks  in  our  county  on  the 
question  of  aliens  and  their  labor  situation,  and  find  that  it  is  an  extremely  difficult 
problem  to  make  any  definite  decision  about. 

I  wrote  Mr.  Dave  Davison  that  a  great  many  of  our  farmers  were  very  much 
concerned  about  labor  shortage,  realizing  that  already  our  labor  supply  is  becom- 
ing a  problem  in  California.  With  this  in  mind,  and  since  there  seems  to  be  no 
source  of  labor  that  can  be  brought  into  California,  and  since  it  is  further  apparent 
that  continued  shortages  on  our  labor  supply  will  persist,  many  farmers  who  have 
to  hire  most  of  their  labor  in  the  harvesting  of  their  crops  are  very  much  worried 
over  the  prospect  of  removing  large  numbers  of  aliens  from  the  producing  sections 
of  the  State,  realizing  that  this  large  shortage  will  become  more  embarrassing. 

In  discussing  the  question  with  farmers  who  have  to  hire  to  any  extent,  the 
feeling  seems  to  be  that  if  it  is  at  all  possible,  aliens  should  be  concentrated  in 
camps  in  our  producing  sections  where  they  could  be  made  to  work  in  the  pro- 
duction of  food.  For  instance,  it  has  been  suggested  that  camps  of  500  to  1,000 
might  be  established  in  the  delta  regions  on  the  islands  which  would  perhaps 
require  a  minimum  of  policing,  where  the  aliens  would  employ  themselves  in 
useful  occupations,  and  under  which  condition  they  would  be  much  more  easily 
cared  for,  and  would  be  producing  some  of  the  food  which  the  Federal  Government 
is  so  much  in  need  of. 

On  the  other  hand,  our  townspeople,  and  likewise  some  of  our  farmers  who  are 
not  subject  to  employing  labor,  have  a  very  decided  opinion  that  all  Japanese, 


particularly,  should  be  evacuated  entirely  from  the  State  of  California.  We 
do  not  hear  a  great  deal  of  expression  as  to  the  Italian  and  German  aliens  in  our 
county,  but  the  feeling  is  very  widespread  that  all  Japanese,  whether  foreign 
or  United  States  citizens  should  be  hastily  taken  care  of  in  some  manner,  whether 
concentrated  within  the  State  or  removed  entirely  from  the  State.  There  seems 
to  be  a  very  decided  feeling  along  this  line. 

It  is  my  opinion  that  something  should  be  done  very  speedily  to  change  the 
present  alien  situation,  in  order  that  public  feeling  should  be  allayed. 

Our  county  is  very  limited  in  housing  facilities  for  groups  of  people  such  as 
these  aliens  would  be;  however,  provision  might  be  made  to  take  care  of  small 
numbers.  Stanislaus  County  is  not  greatly  burdened  with  many  Japanese, 
either  foreign  or  United  States  citizens. 

Hoping  this  may  help  to  answer  some  of  your  questions,  I  am 

Sincerelv  yours, 

John  T.  Halford, 
Secretary  County  Farm  Bureau. 

Western  Growers  Protective  Association, 

Los  Angeles,  Calif. 

The  following  recommendation  was  adopted  by  the  board  of  directors  of  the 
Western  Growers  Protective  Association,  at  its  regular  stated  directors'  meeting 
on  February  8,  1942: 

The  Western  Growers  Protective  Association,  whose  membership  is  comprised 
of  approximately  85  percent  of  the  vegetable  movement  from  California  and 
Arizona,  feeling  that  its  experience  with  Japanese  labor — both  alien  and  American 
citizens  of  Japanese  parentage — places  it  in  a  position  to  recognize  the  California 
agricultural  situation  better  than  any  other  body,  calls  to  your  attention  the 
following  facts : 

California  fresh  vegetables  and  melons,  as  grown  for  shipment  to  the  entire 
United  States,  are  grown  by  white  growers  in  about  94  percent.  The  Western 
Growers  Protective  Association  hereby  goes  on  record  as  stating  that  the  flow  of 
California  vegetables  to  the  entire  country  would  not  be  affected  should  either  or 
both  the  alien  Japanese  or  the  American  citizens  of  Japanese  parentage  be  re- 
moved from  the  vegetable  industry. 

The  Western  Growers  Protective  Association  and  its  members,  through  their 
association  with  Japanese  aliens  and  American  citizens  of  Japanese  parentage, 
both  as  employers  and  farmers,  feel  that  they  are  in  a  position  to  better  know  the 
character  and  feelings  of  such  Japanese  than  any  other  group  of  men.  It  is  the 
consensus  of  opinion  of  the  Western  Growers  Protective  Association  and  its 
members  that  no  individual  alien  Japanese,  or  that  no  individual  American  citizen 
of  Japanese  parentage,  can  be  judged  as  to  his  loyalty  solely  by  past  experience. 
It  is  the  opinion  of  said  association  and  its  members  that  a  good  proportion  of 
both  alien  Japanese  and  American  citizens  of  Japanese  parentage  are  loyal  to  che 
United  States  of  America,  yet  that  some  percentage  of  both  aliens  and  citizens 
of  Japanese  parentage  may  be  more  loyal  to  Japan.  Consequently,  said  Western 
Growers  Protective  Association  and  its  members,  realizing  that  both  alien  Jap- 
anese and  American  citizens  of  Japanese  parentage  who  are  loyal  to  the  United 
States  would  be  willing  to  endure  any  hardship  to  eliminate  the  possibility  of  any 
disloyal  action  on  the  part  of  any  of  their  group— petition  that  all  alien  Japanese 
and  American  citizens  of  Japanese  parentage  be  removed  to  a  point  where,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  Army  and  Navy,  there  may  be  no  possibility  of  such  disloyal  action 
affecting  the  security  of  the  United  States. 

And,  in  conjunction  with  the  recommendations  of  the  Los  Angeles  County 
Defense  Committee,  the  Western  Growers  Protective  Association  concur  in  the 
following  recommendations  of  the  said  Los  Angeles  County  Defense  Committee: 

That  Japanese  in  the  following  classifications  be  moved  to  points  in  the  Rocky 
Mountain  sugar-beet  areas,  or  other  areas  deemed  safe  by  the  military  authorities 
where  housing  facilities  are  available,  regardless  of  whether  their  labor  can  im- 
mediately be  used. 

All  Japanese  who  reside  within  50  miles  of  the  Pacific  coast  and  Mexican  border, 
or  who  reside  in  other  areas  within  a  10-mile  radius  of  munition  plants  or  military 
camps;  including — 

(a)  Alien  Japanese  of  all  ages. 

(b)  Nonalien  Japanese  under  18  years  of  age  living  with  alien  parents. 

(c)  All  other  Japanese  who  have  American  citizenship,  this  to  be  attempted  at 
first  by  an  appeal  that  they  remove  themselves  on  their  own  volition.     If  this 


voluntary  action  is  not  immediate  and  fully  effective  the  necessary  Federal  action 
should  be  undertaken. 

Federal  Security  Administration  should  be  charged  with  the  responsibility  of 
developing  housing  facilities.  They  should  use  wherever  possible,  the  present 
facilities  pending  construction  of  other  housing  units. 

The  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  should  be  charged  with  the  respon- 
sibility of  utilizing  this  labor  to  the  fullest  extent  in  the  newly  located  regions. 

The  services  of  the  State  department  of  agriculture  and  the  county  agricultural 
commissioners  be  utilized  to  assist  landlords  and  farm  operators  in  finding  new 
farmers  to  take  over  leased  lands  for  harvesting  of  crops  now  planted  and  planting 
of  new  crops. 

These  recommendations  are  made  with  encouragement  that  action  be  complete 
and  immediate. 


A  substantial  part  of  the  Japanese  population  in  southern  California  is  located 
in  rural  areas.  Farming  operations  particularly  in  the  vegetable  field  are  retarded 
pending  definite  and  detailed  instructions  as  to  their  disposition.  The  Japanese 
population  is  hesitating  to  prepare  land  and  plant  crops,  fearing  that  they  will 
shortly  be  removed  from  their  present  properties  and  other  farmers  are  not  making 
definite  plans  not  knowing  what  the  production  from  Japanese-tilled  farms  will  be. 

Vegetable  production  is  on  the  "must  list"  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture 
and  must  not  only  be  maintained  but  increased  during  the  current  season. 

It  is  fully  recognized  that  there  is  at  present  some  difficulty  in  connection  with 
obtaining  farm  labor,  and  while  the  removal  of  Japanese  will  further  accentuate 
this  problem  temporarily,  it  will  give  a  base  for  developing  labor  plans  which  can 
be  used  during  the  war  emergency  period. 

This  recommendation  is  based  upon  the  fact  that  they  would  be  completely 
removed  from  coastal  areas  and  that  their  labor  could  eventually  be  utilized  to  an 
advantage.  They  could  probably  relieve  other  labor  in  California  from  the 
necessity  of  migrating  to  those  districts  during  the  peak-load  periods  which  are 
the  spring  and  fall  months. 

Land  vacated  by  Japanese  removed  as  hereinabove  outlined  would  probably 
amount  to  15,000  acres  in  Los  Angeles  County.  No  official  figures  from  other 
counties  are  now  available  to  this  committee.  It  is  believed,  however,  that  the 
total  will  exceed  40,000  acres  in  the  counties  from  and  including  San  Luis  Obispo 
southward,  some  of  which  is  not  being  planted  and  will  not  be  in  all  probability 
if  present  conditions  are  continued.  Under  the  supervision  as  outlined  in  the 
above  if  handled  promptly  and  before  the  season  is  further  advanced  the  land  can 
be  put  to  proper  use  and  severe  additional  losses  avoided.  It  may  result  in 
changing  of  soire  crops  inasmuch  as  experienced  labor  would  not  be  available  to 
produce  such  items  as  celery.  Other  crops  required  by  the  Department  of 
Agriculture  would  be  substituted. 

Associated  Produce  Dealers  and  Brokers  of  Los  Angeles, 

Los  Angeles,  Calif.,  February  18,  1942. 
Hon.  Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  State  of  California, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Attention  Mr.  Warren  Olney. 

Dear  Sir:  I  have  been  asked  to  give  you  a  summary  of  what  might  be  ex* 
pected  to  happen  in  the  Los  Angeles  market  with  respect  to  feeding  the  metro- 
politan area  if  all  Japanese  were  removed  from  the  producing,  wholesaling,  and 
retailing  of  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables.  Incidentally,  might  I  say  this  is  now  an 
academic  question,  because  if  the  proper  authorities  do  not  take  prompt  steps 
to  remove  all  Japanese,  whether  alien  or  citizens,  from  the  coastal  areas  of  this 
State,  it  seems  inevitable  that  they  will  be  removed  in  the  near  future  by  the 
public  at  large  either  through  violence  or  insistent  popular  demand.  I  say  this 
because  the  general  public  are  much  more  apprehensive  of  the  continued  presence 
of  Japanese  running  at  large,  with  the  most  nominal  of  supervision,  than  the 
people  in  this  industry,  who  know  the  Japanese  characteristics  and  traits  much 
more  than  the  general  public  and  on  the  basis  of  this  information  should  be  more 
apprehensive  than  the  general  public. 

There  were  in  the  3  Los  Angeles  wholesale  markets  as  of  December  6,  1941, 
167  wholesale  fruit  and  vegetable  merchants  handling  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables 
of  which  29  were  Japanese-owned,  94  were  American-owned,  and  44  owned  by 


Chinese  and  Koreans.  There  were,  as  of  the  same  date,  in  the  open-market 
yards  232  permanent  stall  operators,  who  were  conducting  small  wholesale  busi- 
nesses limited  to  merchandise  grown  within  a  radius  of  90  miles  of  Los  Angeles. 
Of  these  134  were  Japanese,  81  were  Americans,  and  17  were  Korean  and  Chi- 
nese. As  of  December  6,  1941,  practically  all  of  the  Japanese  businesses  were 
owned  and  operated  by  alien  Japanese  with  citizen  Japanese  employees  and  sub- 
ordinates. Since  the  war  many  of  the  stall  businesses  and  a  few  of  the  large 
wholesale  businesses  have  been  'sold  or  transferred  by  aliens  to  citizen  Japanese. 

The  exact  figures  are  unavailable  as  there  has  never  been  any  occasion  in  the 
past  to  make  such  studies,  but  it  is  probable  that  the  Japanese  wholesalers  have 
handled  75  percent  of  the  green  vegetables  and  not  more  than  10  percent  of  the 
staple  vegetables  and  fruits  consumed  in  the  Los  Angeles  metropolitan  area.  By 
green  vegetables  is  meant  the  leafy  succulent  vegetables  excluding  staples  such 
as  potatoes,  onions,  squash,  etc.  Since  the  war  began  there  has  been  a  steady 
decreased  volume  of  business  handled  by  the  Japanese  due  primarily  to  the  un- 
willingness of  the  average  housewife  to  buy  from  Japanese  retailers.  These  Jap- 
anese retailers  have  been  the  principal  outlet  for  the  Japanese  wholesalers,  since 
over  a  period  of  years  it  is  well-known  that  the  Japanese  invariably  give  business 
preference  to  others  of  their  own  race.  The  next  reason  of  importance  for  their 
loss  of  business  is  the  fact  that  the  Japanese  growers  who  in  Los  Angeles  County 
have  produced  in  the  past  a  large  percentage  of  the  green  vegetables  are  not 
replanting  their  fields  as  the  season  progresses.  This  was  true  before  closed 
areas  were  set  up  by  the  Federal  Government  and  has  become  much  more 
pronounced  since  that  time. 

It  is  my  considered  opinion,  based  on  21  years  of  constant  service  in  the  Los 
Angeles  markets,  first  as  representative  of  the  United  States  Department  of 
Agriculture  and  for  the  past  14  years  a^  manager  of  the  Associated  Produce  Dealers 
and  Brokers  of  Los  Angeles,  a  trade  association  composed  of  all  wholesale  mer- 
chants in  Los  Angeles,  of  all  nationalities,  that  the  removal  of  all  Japanese  from 
southern  California  will  not  cause  any  serious  dislocation  in  the  feeding  of  this 

There  are  more  than  50  different  vegetables  sold  commercially  in  our  wholesale 
markets  throughout  the  year.  With  the  removal  of  the  Japanese  there  may  be  a 
scarcity  of  nonessential  vegetables  such  as  celery  root,  escarole,  chard,  watercress, 
and  leeks.  However,  there  are  enough  American  growers  already  producing  the 
major  protective  crops  such  as  carrots,  cabbage,  lettuce,  cauliflower,  potatoes, 
onions,  peas,  beans,  and  even  celery  to  take  up  the  slack  in  the  Los  Angeles  mar- 
kets by  slightly  increasing  their  acreage  already  being  planted  for  eastern  ship- 
ment. I  have  talked  to  many  wholesale  growers  of  vegetables  for  the  local  market 
who  have  either  gone  out  of  business  in  the  past  10  years  or  greatly  reduced  their 
operations  due  to  Japanese  competition  of  a  type  which  they  could  not  meet  and 
who  are  willing  to  plant  increased  acreage  especially  for  the  local  rrarket  if  they 
have  any  assurance  they  would  not  have  to  meet  the  competition  of  the  Japanese 

The  Japanese  have  not  made  any  great  inroad  in  the  production  of  large  com- 
mercial acreages  of  vegetables  for  carlot  shipping  to  eastern  markets  because  they 
have  to  compete  with  the  white  grower  on  an  equivalent  basis.  Jn  other  words, 
the  amount  of  Japanese  family  labor  that  can  be  used  is  negligible  in  acreages  from 
500  to  5,000.  Large-scale  Japanese  farmers  employ  Mexican  or  Filipino  labor  the 
same  as  the  white  grower  and  is  on  a  comparable  cost  basis.  Tn  small  acreages 
planted  primarily  for  local  markets  the  Japanese  grower  has  had  an  advantage 
over  the  white  grower  that  has  pretty  well  driven  the  white  grower  out  of  small- 
scale  vegetable  production  in  many  parts  of  Los  Angeles  County.  These  farms 
will  average  around  10  acres  and  the  Japanese  farmer  can  and  does  use  his  wife 
and  children  for  practically  all  of  his  labor  requirements  giving  him  a  production 
cost  substantially  below  that  of  a  small  white  farmer. 

A  comprehensive  system  of  associations  set  up  for  these  small  Japanese  farmers 
has  enabled  them  to*  regulate  market  supplies  and  reduce  prices  at  will,  to  the 
point  that  the  competing  white  grower  has  been  forced  out  of  production.  How- 
ever, there  is  a  vast  reserve  of  skilled  white  farmers  who  will  resume  the  production 
of  vegetables  whenever  they  have  any  idea  that  it  can  be  done  without  going  up 
against  this  type  of  Japanese  competition.  This  will  not  entail  any  serious  rise  in 
prices,  generally  speaking,  as  the  difference  between  the  Japanese  controlled  whole- 
sale price  is  only  a  few  cents  per  package  less  than  the  white  growers'  actual  cost 
of  production.  However,  if  white  growers  are  to  take  up  the  production  of  vege- 
tables in  place  of  Japanese  quick  action  is  imperative.     The  season  is  progressing 


and  as  stated  above  many  Japanese  growers  are  not  replanting  their  fields  as  the 
planting  season  comes  along.  If  this  problem  is  dallied  around  with  many  weeks 
longer  there  will  develop  a  shortage  of  green  vegetables  during  the  summer  months 
whether  the  Japanese  are  permitted  to  stay  on  the  farm  or  whether  they  are 
removed  by  either  proper  governmental  authority  or  public  sentiment. 
Yours  very  truly, 

Associated  Produce  Dealers  and  Brokers  of  Los  Angeles, 
By  Homer  A.  Harris,  Secretary-Manager. 

Fresno  County  Farm  Bureau, 

Fresno,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
Mr.  Ray  Wiser, 

President,  California  Farm  Bureau  Federation, 

Berkeley,  Calif. 
Dear  Mr.  Wiser:  As  to  your  first  question  of  your  telegram  dated  February 
18,  there  is  a  Government  camp  at  Firebaugh,  Fresno  County.     I  do  not  know 
what  the  available  space  is  there.      My  information  is  that  the  farmers  do  not 
desire  such  a  camp  in  Fresno  County. 

The  other  question,  "Do  farmers'in  your  county  wish  to  provide  employment 
for  such  labor  and  to  what  extent?"  My  answer  and  information  is  No.  How- 
ever, we  are  requesting  from  this  county  that  the  Japanese  who  are  now  here 
remain  here  under  the  proper  constituted  supervision,  local,  State,  and  Federal, 
if  necessary. 

We  believe  that  the  Japanese  who  are  now  performing  agricultural  labor  in 
Fresno  County  should  remain  here  for  that  purpose,  but  agriculture  does  not 
favor  any  addition  of  Japanese  from  other  areas. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Fresno  County  Farm  Bureau, 
A.  J.  Quist,  President. 

Bakersfield,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
Ray  B.  Wiser, 

President,  California  State  Farm  Bureau  Federation, 

Berkeley,  Calif. 
Kern  County  Farm  Bureau,  board  of  supervisors,  agricultural  committee, 
county  defense  council,  and  county-wide  agricultural  labor  committee,  all  have 
gone  on  record  recommending  that  all  Japs  be  removed  from  California  and 
placed  under  adequate  guard  at  once  and  plans  for  utilizing  their  labor  be  made 
later.     Letter  follows. 

Frank  Stockton, 
President,  Kern  County  Farm  Bureau. 

Hemet,  Calif.,  February  20,  1942. 
California  Farm  Bureau, 

2161  Allston  Way. 
We  absolutely  object  to  Japanese  being  located  anywhere  in  vicinitj'  of  Hemet 
to  be  used  as  agriculture  laborers. 

Hemet  Valley  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

Riverside,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 

California  Farm  Bureau  Federation, 

2161  Allston  Way. 
Advise  assemble  committee  our  emphatic  objection  to  any  Japanese  being 
located  anywhere  in  Riverside  County  for  use  as  farm  labor. 

Riverside  County  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

El  Centro,   Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
Ray  B.  Wiser, 

President,  California  Farm  Bureau  Federation. 
Your  wire  secretary  Imperial   County  Farm   Bureau  concerning  evacuation 
Japanese  families  to  Imperial  County  called  to  attention  of  this  office.     Have 
had  serious  trouble  between  Japanese  and  Filipinos  in  this  county.     Some  Jap- 
anese have  been  killed.     Any  evacuation  of  Japanese  to,  this  county  would  be 


grave  mistake  at  this  time  as  it  would  only  tend  to  aggravate  present  tense  situa- 
tion. All  Japanese  have  been  evacuated  from  Baja,  California,  Republic  of  Mex- 
ico, just  across  international  boundary  line  from  Imperial  County  to  interior  of 
Mexico.  Any  proposition  bringing  additional  Japanese  into  this  area  strictly 
opposed  by  Mexican  authorities.  Evacuation  of  any  Japanese  citizen  or  alien  to 
this  county  would  create  a  very  serious  and  unsatisfactory  situation.  Making 
every  effort  at  this  time  to  have  the  Federal  Government  evacuate  all  alien  Jap- 
anese from  this  county  to  some  point  of  internment  in  the  interior  of  the  United 
States.  Many  alien  Japanese  have  already  been  arrested  by  Federal  Bureau  of 
Investigation  in  this  county  and  taken  into  internment  centers.  The  bringing 
of  any  additional  Japanese  to  this  county  at  present  time  would  only  tend  to 
aggravate  and  multiply  present  difficult  law  enforcement  problems.  For  fore- 
going reasons  would  be  opposed  to  any  attempt  to  bring  any  additional  Japanese 
into  this  territory. 

Elmer  W.  Heald, 
District  Attorney,  County  of  Imperial. 

Visalia,  Calif.,  February  20,  1942. 
Ray  B.  Wiser, 

President,  California  Farm  Bureau  Federation,  Berkeley,  Calif. 
Under  existing  conditions  as  developed  in  the  past  few  hours  these  alien  Jap- 
anese or  dual  citizens  could  not  be  moved  into  the  county  unless  the  United  States 
Armv  has  charge  of  them.  There  are  camps  available  for  Japs  on  the  large 
ranches  but  due  to  public  opinion  we  do  not  believe  that  Tulare  County  needs 
any  more  Japs  unless  as  stated  the  Army  has  complete  control  over  this  situation. 
At  the  present  time  there  is  not  strict  enough  regulation  on  the  enemy  alien  in 
Tulare  County  especially  the  Jap  dual  citizen  or  alien. 

Tulare  County  Farm  Bureau, 
J.  E.  Jordan,  President. 


Attorney  General  Warren.  Mr.  Chairman,  we  feel  in  California 
that  it  is  a  fortuitous  circumstance  that  this  committee  is  here  at  this 
particular  time.  We  believe  that  there  has  been  no  time  in  our  entire 
crisis  when  the  need  of  clarification  of  the  alien  situation  is  as  apparent 
as  it  is  today.  There  are  some  things  transpiring  in  our  State  at  the 
present  moment  that  are  rather  dangerous  and  we  believe  that  there 
is  only  one  way  that  they  can  be  prevented,  and  that  is  by  a  speedy 
solution  of  the  alien  problem. 

I  had  intended  to  present  a  prepared  statement  to  the  committee, 
but  I  have  been  working  so  diligently  with  the  law  enforcement  officers 
since  I  received  word  from  you  in  order  to  get  the  consensus  of  opinion 
from  them  that  it  has  been  impossible  for  me  to  do  so. 

The  Chairman.  We  will  hold  our  record  open  for  you  to  send  in  a 
prepared  statement  within  the  next  10  days  or  2  weeks.  Will  that 
be  plenty  of  time  within  which  to  prepare  it? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Thank  you.  I  think  that  would  be 
more  informative  to  the  committee  than  what  I  have  to  say  at  the 
present  time.1 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  But  had  I  prepared  a  statement  prior 
to  late  yesterday  afternoon,  I  think  that  the  necessity  of  saying  many 
of  the  things  that  I  had  intended  to  say  have  been  obviated  by  reason 
of  the  latest  order  of  the  President  in  relation  to  this  matter.  We 
believe  that  the  action  that  the  President  took  yesterday  was  most 
wise  and  that  it  at  least  points  the  way  to  a  real  solution  of  our 

i  This  material  was  submitted  later  and  is  included  in  the  witness'  statement  beginning  on  p.  10973. 


The  Chairman.  If  I  may  interrupt  there,  I  might  give  you  a  little 
background  of  that  recommendation  to  the  President.  The  con- 
gressional delegations  of  Oregon,  Washington,  and  California  met 
almost  daily  trying  to  decide  what  recommendations  we  would  make 
to  the  President  on  this  alien  problem.  I  have  in  mind  Senators 
Downey,  Johnson,  Congressman  Welch,  Congressman  Rolph.  I 
mention  them  particularly  because  this  is  their  district.  They  were 
in  constant  attendance  and  took  deep  interest.  So,  as  the  attorney 
general  of  the  State  of  California,  you  know  better  than  any  of  us 
the  legal  complications  involved  striking  at  any  portion  of  our  Ameri- 
can citizenship.  That  Executive  order  yesterday  was  the  recommen- 
dation, in  almost  the  same  words,  of  the  Pacific  coast  delegation. 

You  may  proceed  now,  Mr.  Warren.  I  just  wanted  to  give  you  a 
little  background  on  that. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes.  I  am  happy  to  have  that;  I  had 
heard  that  from  the  press.  We  were  following  your  action  very 
closely  and  with  great  interest. 


For  some  time  I  have  been  of  the  opinion  that  the  solution  of  our 
alien  enemy  problem  with  all  its  ramifications,  which  include  the 
descendants  of  aliens,  is  not  only  a  Federal  problem  but  is  a  military 
problem.  We  believe  that  all  of  the  decisions  in  that  regard  must  be 
made  by  the  military  command  that  is  charged  with  the  security  of 
this  area.  I  am  convinced  that  the  fifth-column  activities  of  our 
enemy  call  for  the  participation  of  people  who  are  in  fact  American 
citizens,  and  that  if  we  are  to  deal  realistically  with  the  problem  we 
must  realize  that  we  will  be  obliged  in  time  of  stress  to  deal  with  sub- 
versive elements  of  our  own  citizenry. 

If  that  be  true,  it  creates  almost  an  impossible  situation  for  the 
civil  authorities  because  the  civil  authorities  cannot  take  protective 
measures  against  people  of  that  character.  We  may  suspect  their 
loyalty.  We  may  even  have  some  evidence  or,  perhaps,  substantial 
evidence  of  their  disloyalty.  But  until  we  have  the  whole  pattern  of 
the  enemy  plan,  until  we  are  able  to  go  into  court  and  beyond  the 
exclusion  of  a  reasonable  doubt  establish  the  guilt  of  those  elements 
among  our  American  citizens,  there  is  no  way  that  civil  government 
can  cope  with  the  situation. 

On  the  other  hand,  we  believe  that  in  an  area,  such  as  in  California, 
which  has  been  designated  as  a  combat  zone,  when  things  have  hap- 
pened such  as  have  happened  here  on  the  coast,  something  should  be 
done  and  done  immediately.  We  believe  that  any  delay  in  the  adop- 
tion of  the  necessary  protective  measures  is  to  invite  disaster.  It 
means  that  we,  too,  will  have  in  California  a  Pearl  Harbor  incident. 

I  believe  that  up  to  the  present  and  perhaps  for  a  long  time  to  come 
the  greatest  danger  to  continental  United  States  is  that  from  well 
organized  sabotage  and  fifth-column  activity. 


California  presents,  perhaps,  the  most  likely  objective  in  the  Nation 
for  such  activities.     There  are  many  reasons  whv  that  is  true.     First, 


the  size  and  number  of  our  naval  nad  military  establishments  in 
California  would  make  it  attractive  to  our  enemies  as  a  field  of  sabo- 
tage. Our  geographical  position  with  relation  to  our  enemy  and  to  the 
war  in  the  Pacific  is  also  a  tremendous  factor.  The  number  and  the 
diversification  of  our  war  industries  is  extremely  vital.  The  fire 
hazards  due  to  our  climate,  our  forest  areas,  and  the  type  of  building 
construction  make  us  very  susceptible  to  fire  sabotage.  Then  the 
tremendous  number  of  aliens  that  we  have  resident  here  makes  it 
almost  an  impossible  problem  from  the  standpoint  of  law  enforcement. 

A  wave  of  organized  sabotage  in  California  accompanied  by  an 
actual  air  raid  or  even  by  a  prolonged  black-out  could  not  oniy  be 
more  destructive  to  life  and  property  but  could  result  in  retarding  the 
entire  war  effort  of  tins  Nation  far  more  than  the  treacherous  bomb- 
ing of  Pearl  Harbor. 

I  hesitate  to  think  what  the  result  would  be  of  the  destruction  of 
any  of  our  big  airplane  factories  in  this  State.  It  will  interest  you 
to  know  that  some  of  our  airplane  factories  in  this  State  are  entirely 
surrounded  by  Japanese  land  ownership  or  occupancy.  It  is  a  situa- 
tion that  is  fraught  with  the  greatest  danger  and  under  no  circum- 
stances should  it  ever  be  permitted  to  exist. 

I  have  some  maps  here  that  will  show  the  specific  instances  of 
that  character.  In  order  to  advise  the  committee  more  accurately 
on  this  subject  I  have  asked  the  various  district  attorneys  through- 
out the  State  to  submit  maps  to  me  showing  every  Japanese  owner- 
ship and  occupancy  in  the  State.  Those  maps  tell  a  story,  a  story 
that  is  not  very  heartening  to  anyone  who  has  the  responsibility  of 
protecting  life  and  property  either  in  time  of  peace  or  in  war. 

To  assume  that  the  enemy  has  not  planned  fifth  column  activities 
for  us  in  a  wave  of  sabotage  is  simply  to  live  in  a  fool's  paradise. 
These  activities,  whether  you  call  them  "fifth  column  activities"  or 
"sabotage"  or  "war  behind  the  lines  upon  civilians,"  or  whatever  you 
may  call  it,  are  just  as  much  an  integral  part  of  Axis  warfare  as  any 
of  their  military  and  naval  operations.  When  I  say  that  I  refer  to 
all  of  the  Axis  powers  with  which  we  are  at  war. 

It  has  developed  into  a  science  and  a  technique  that  has  been  used 
most  effectively  against  every  nation  with  which  the  Axis  powers  are  at 
war.  It  has  been  developed  to  a  degree  almost  beyond  the  belief 
of  our  American  citizens.  That  is  one  of  the  reasons  it  is  so  difficult 
for  our  people  to  become  aroused  and  appreciate  the  danger  of  such 
activities.  Those  activities  are  now  being  used  actively  in  the  war  in 
the  Pacific,  in  every  field  of  operations  about  which  I  have  read.  They 
have  unquestionably,  gentlemen,  planned  such  activities  for  California. 
For  us  to  believe  to  the  contrary  is  just  not  realistic. 

Unfortunately,  however,  many  of  our  people  and  some  of  our 
authorities  and,  I  am  afraid,  many  of  our  people  in  other  parts  of  the 
country  are  of  the  opinion  that  because  we  have  had  no  sabotage  and 
no  fifth  column  activities  in  this  State  since  the  beginning  of  the  war, 
that  means  that  none  have  been  planned  for  us.  But  I  take  the  view 
that  that  is  the  most  ominous  sign  in  our  whole  situation.  It  con- 
vinces me  more  than  perhaps  any  other  factor  that  the  sabotage  that 
we  are  to  get,  the  fifth  column  activities  that  we  are  to  get,  are  timed 


just  like  Pearl  Harbor  was  timed  and  just  like  the  invasion  of  France, 
and  of  Denmark,  and  of  Norway,  and  all  of  those  other  countries. 


I  believe  that  we  are  just  being  lulled  into  a  false  sense  of  security 
and  that  the  only  reason  we  haven't  had  disaster  in  California  is  be- 
cause it  has  been  timed  for  a  different  date,  and  that  when  that  time 
comes  if  we  don't  do  something  about  it  it  is  going  to  mean  disaster 
both  to  California  and  to  our  Nation.  Our  day  of  reckoning  is  bound 
to  come  in  that  regard.  When,  nobody  knows,  of  course,  but  we  are 
approaching  an  invisible  deadline. 

The  Chairman.  On  that  point,  when  that  came  up  in  our  committee 
hearings  there  was  not  a  single  case  of  sabotage  reported  on  the  Pacific 
coast,  we  heard  the  heads  of  the  Navy  and  the  Army,  and  they  all 
tell  us  that  the  Pacific  coast  can  be  attacked.  The  sabotage  would 
come  coincident  with  that  attack,  would  it  not? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Exactly. 

The  Chairman.  They  would  be  fools  to  tip  their  hands  now, 
wouldn't  they? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Exactly.  If  there  were  sporadic  sabo- 
tage at  this  time  or  if  there  had  been  for  the  last  2  months,  the 
people  of  California  or  the  Federal  authorities  would  be  on  the  alert  to 
such  an  extent  that  they  could  not  possibly  have  any  real  fifth  column 
activities  when  the  M-day  comes.  And  I  think  that  that  should 
figure  very  largely  in  our  conclusions  on  this  subject. 

Approaching  an  invisible  deadline  as  we  do,  it  seems  to  me  that  no 
time  can  be  wasted  in  making  the  protective  measures  that  are  essen- 
tial to  the  security  of  this  State.  And  when  I  say  "this  State"  I 
mean  all  of  the  coast,  of  course.  I  believe  that  Oregon  and  Wash- 
ington are  entitled  to  the  same  sort  of  consideration  as  the  zone  of 
danger  as  California.  Perhaps  our  danger  is  intensified  by  the  num- 
ber of  our  industries  and  the  number  of  our  aliens,  but  it  is  much 
the  same. 

Gentlemen,  it  has  become  no  longer  a  simple  question  of  protecting 
life  and  property  in  this  State,  because  people  can't  fight  in  the  dark 
and  you  can't  protect  against  things  about  which  you  don't  know. 
We  have  all  been  good  soldiers  out  here  and  we  played  the  game.  We 
have  cooperated  with  the  Federal  authorities  in  every  respect,  and 
individual  agencies  have  cooperated  with  us.  As  Chief  Dullea  told 
you,  we  work  in  complete  harmony  with  the  Federal  authorities  and 
I  think  that  we  have  accomplished  something,  but  we  haven't  scratched 
the  surface  and  because  of  certain  fundamental  things. 

In  our  civilian  defense  we  are  supposed  as  State  and  local  officers 
to  protect  the  lives  and  the  property  of  our  people  whether  it  is  in 
normal  times  or  whether  it  is  in  times  of  great  emergency.  But  when 
this  emergency  comes  along  we  are  going  to  have  to  deal  with  enemy 
aliens  and  those  who  are  acting  in  concert  with  them. 

civilian  authorities  instructed  not  to  investigate  subversive 


We  don't  know  in  this  State  who  the  enemy  aliens  are  and  it  is  not 
permitted  for  us  to  know.     In  the  first  place,  the  directive  of  the 


President  (and  I  think  wisely)  at  the  outset  of  this  situation  placed  the 
internal  security  in  the  hands  of  a  Federal  agency,  the  F.  B.  I.  All 
local  and  State  officers  were  instructed  not  to  investigate  subversive 
activities,  but  immediately  upon  the  receipt  of  any  information  to 
turn  it  over  to  the  F.  B.  I. 

We  have  played  the  game  in  California.  We  have  followed  that 
directive,  and  everything  we  have  had  we  have  turned  over  to  them. 
We  have  not  made  independent  investigations  concerning  subversive 
activities  or  espionage  matters  or  things  of  that  kind.  As  a  result, 
we  don't  have  as  local  officers  the  pattern  of  the  Axis  plans  for  fifth 
column  activities  and  sabotage. 

In  addition  to  that,  we  are  not  permitted  to  have  the  names,  even, 
of  the  alien  enemies  in  our  midst.  And  at  the  present  time  every 
police  station  in  this  State,  every  sheriff's  office,  every  law-enforce- 
ment agency  can  be  flanked  by  aliens  with  weapons  that  we  know 
absolutely  nothing  about. 

Gentlemen,  I  say  to  you  that  if  we  expect  local  law  enforcement 
officers  to  compete  against  a  situation  of  that  kind  it  is  just  like 
putting  a  blindfold  over  a  man's  face  and  asking  him  to  go  out  and 
fight  someone  that  he  cannot  see. 

The  Chairman.  What  is  the  objection  to  your  not  having  that 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  am  afraid  you  will  have  to  get  that 
from  the  Department  of  Justice.  The  only  information  I  have  is 
what  I  gathered  at  the  first  Federal-State  Conference  that  we  had  at 
Washington  in  August  1940.  At  that  time  there  was  discussion  as  to 
what  should  be  done  in  these  matters  and  it  was  thought  that  if  local 
authorities  started  independently  to  investigate  things  of  that  kind 
they  would  develop  perhaps  into  witch  hunts  in  some  instances.  In 
other  instances  local  authorities  might  destroy  the  pattern  that  the 
F.  B.  I.  was  working  on.  They  might  stumble  into  something  that 
should  not  be  disclosed  at  the  time  and  in  various  ways  might  cause 
bungling  in  the  counter-espionage  work. 

The  Chairman.  But  we  were  not  at  war  then. 



Attorney  General  Warren.  We  were  not  at  war  at  that  time. 
Then  the  alien  registration  came  along  immediately  after  war  was 
declared,  and  the  local  authorities  then  wanted  to  know  who  the  aliens 
in  their  communities  were,  but  they  were  not  permitted  to  have  their 

The  registration,  as  you  know,  is  through  the  Post  Office  Depart- 
ment, and  the  Postal  authorities  have  their  instructions  not  to  give 
that  information  to  the  local  authorities. 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  same  procedure  applicable  throughout  the 
United  States? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir;  it  is.  Recently  they  had  a 
second  registration.  It  was  thought  at  that  time  that  it  would  be 
done  through  law-enforcement  officers  because  of  the  tremendous 
problems  that  we  have.  But  that  registration  also  was  made  through 
the  Postal  authorities,  and  we  were  denied  the  right  to  get  any  infor- 


mation  concerning  aliens,  even  to  ask  them  a  question  after  they  had 
registered  with  the  Government. 

We  were  investigating  the  alien  land  situation  at  the  time  and,  of 
course,  we  wanted  to  know  who  the  alien  Japanese  were.  We  have 
no  way  of  knowing.  We  have  almost  100,000  Japanese  in  California. 
The  Census  records  show  that  33,000  of  them  are  aliens  and  66,000 
are  American-born.  But  we  have  no  way  on  earth  of  knowing  who 
the  33,000  are  and  who  the  66,000  are.  Still  we  are  obliged  to  protect 
life  and  property  against  any  activities  in  which  they  may  engage 
during  the  war. 

We  believe  that  that  information  should  b'e  made  available  to  the 
law-enforcement  officers  and  that  they  never  can  be  of  substantial 
help  to  any  Federal  agency  that  is  charged  with  the  solution  of  the 
alien  problem  unless  they  do  have  it. 

The  Chairman.  You  see,  that  is  the  very  object  of  these  hearings. 
I  did  not  know  that. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  am  sure  that  very,  very  few  people  in 
the  country  realize  it.  Maybe  some  know  about  it,  but  they  have 
never  thought  of  the  significance  of  it.  But  if  our  civilian  defense 
effort  is  to  be  what  our  Government  wants  it  to  be,  if  we  are  to  assume 
our  full  responsibilities  for  protecting  life  and  property  in  time  of 
emergency,  then  we  must  have  some  tools  to  work  with.  We  have  at 
the  present  time  absolutely  none,  and  I  say  that  without  any  reflection 
upon  any  agency.  They  have  all  been  helpful  within  the  limits  of 
their  instruction. 

So  that  is  one  of  the  things  that  led  us  to  the  conclusion  that  it  was 
entirely  a  military  problem  and  entirely  a  military  decision  as  to  what 
we  do  with  these  aliens.  The  fact  that  so  many  of  them  are  citizens 
makes  the  situation  far  more  dangerous. 


I  want  to  say  that  the  consensus  of  opinion  among  the  law-enforce- 
ment officers  of  this  State  is  that  there  is  more  potential  danger  among 
the  group  of  Japanese  who  are  born  in  this  country  than  from  the 
alien  Japanese  who  were  born  in  Japan.  That  might  seem  an  anomaly 
to  some  people,  but  the  fact  is  that,  in  the  first  place,  there  are  twice 
as  many  of  them.  There  are  33,000  aliens  and  there  are  66,000  born 
in  this  country. 

In  the  second  place,  most  of  the  Japanese  who  were  born  in  Japan 
are  over  55  years  of  age.  There  has  been  practically  no  migration  to 
this  country  since  1924.  But  in  some  instances  the  children  of  those 
people  have  been  sent  to  Japan  for  their  education,  either  in  whole  or 
in  part,  and  while  they  are  over  there  they  are  indoctrinated  with  the 
idea  of  Japanese  imperialism.  They  receive  their  religious  instruction 
which  ties  up  their  religion  with  their  Emperor,  and  they  come  back 
here  imbued  with  the  ideas  and  the  policies  of  Imperial  Japan. 

While  I  do  not  cast  a  reflection  on  every  Japanese  who  is  born  in 
this  country — of  course  we  will  have  loyal  ones — I  do  say  that  the 
consensus  of  opinion  is  that  taking  the  groups  by  and  large  there  is 
more  potential  danger  to  this  State  from  the  group  that  is  bom  here 
than  from  the  group  that  is  born  in  Japan. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Let  me  ask  }^ou  a  question  at  this  point. 


Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  Congressman. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  have  any  way  of  knowing  whether  any  one 
of  this  group  that  you  mention  is  loyal  to  this  country  or  loyal  to 


Attorney  General  Warren.  Congressman,  there  is  no  way  that  we 
can  establish  that  fact.  We  believe  that  when  we  are  dealing  with 
the  Caucasian  race  we  have  methods  that  will  test  the  loyalty  of  them, 
and  we  believe  that  we  can,  in  dealing  with  the  Germans  and  the 
Italians,  arrive  at  some  fairly  sound  conclusions  because  of  our  knowl- 
edge of  the  way  they  live  in  the  community  and  have  lived  for  many 
years.  But  when  we  deal  with  the  Japanese  we  are  in  an  entirely 
different  field  and  we  cannot  form  any  opinion  that  we  beli-eve  to  be 
sound.  Their  method  of  living,  their  language,  make  for  this  diffi- 
culty. Many  of  them  who  show  you  a  birth  certificate  stating  that 
they  were  born  in  this  State,  perhaps,  or  born  in  Honolulu,  can  hardly 
speak  the  English  language  because,  although  they  were  born  here, 
when  they  were  4  or  5  years  of  age  they  were  sent  over  to  Japan  to  be 
educated  and  they  stayed  over  there  through  their  adolescent  period 
at  least,  and  then  they  came  back  here  thoroughly  Japanese. 

The  Chairman.  There  are  certain  Japanese  schools  here,  are  there 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Then  we  have  the  Japanese  school 
system  here.  There  is  no  way  that  we  know  of  of  determining  that 

I  had  together  about  10  days  ago  about  40  district  attorneys  and 
about  40  sheriffs  in  the  State  to  discuss  this  alien  problem.  I  asked 
all  of  them  collectively  at  that  time  if  in  their  experience  any  Japa- 
nese, whether  California-born  or  Japan-born,  had  ever  given  them 
any  information  on  subversive  activities  or  any  disloyalty  to  this 
country.  The  answer  was  unanimously  that  no  such  information  had 
ever  been  given,  to  them. 

Now,  that  is  almost  unbelievable.  You  see,  when  we  deal  with 
the  German  aliens,  when  we  deal  with  the  Italian  aliens,  we  have 
many  informants  who  are  most  anxious  to  help  the  local  authorities 
and  the  State  and  Federal  authorities  to  solve  this  alien  problem. 
They  come  in  voluntarily  and  give  us  information.  We  get  none 
from  the  other  source. 

Does  that  answer  your  question.  Congressman? 

Mr.  Arnold.  That  answers  it  fully. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  There  is  one  thing  that  concerns  us  at 
the  present  time.  As  I  say,  we  are  very  happy  over  the  order  of  the 
President  yesterday.  We  believe  that  is  the  thing  that  should  be 
done,  but  that  is  only  one-half  of  the  problem,  as  we  see  it.  It  is  one 
thing  to  take  these  people  out  of  the  area  and  it  is  another  thing  to 
do  something  with  them  after  they  get  out.  Even  from  the  small 
areas  that  they  have  left  up  to  the  present  time  there  are  many, 
many  Japanese  who  are  now  roaming  around  the  State  and  roaming 
around  the  Western  States  in  a  condition  that  will  unquestionably 
bring  about  race  riots  and  prejudice  and  hysteria  and  excesses  of  all 


I  hate  to  say  it,  but  we  have  had  some  evidence  of  it  in  our  State 
in  just  the  last  2  or  3  days.  People  do  not  want  these  Japanese  just 
loaded  from  one  community  to  another,  and  as  a  practical  matter  it 
might  be  a  very  bad  thing  to  do  because  we  might  just  be  transposing 
the  danger  from  one  place  to  another. 

So  it  seems  to  me  that  the  next  thing  the  Government  has  to  do 
is  to  find  a  way  of  handling  these  aliens  who  are  removed  from  any 
vital  zone. 

In  the  county  of  Tulare  at  the  present  time  and  in  the  county  of 
San  Benito  and  in  other  counties  there  are  large  numbers  of  the  Jap- 
anese moving  in  and  sometimes  the  suggestion  has  come  from  the 
place  that  they  leave,  that  they  ought  to  go  to  this  other  commu- 
nity. But  when  they  go  there  they  find  a  hostile  situation.  We  are 
very  much  afraid  that  it  will  cause  trouble  unless  there  is  a  very 
prompt  solution  of  this  problem. 


My  own  belief  concerning  vigilantism  is  that  the  people  do  not  en- 
gage in  vigilante  activities  so  long  as  they  believe  that  their  Govern- 
ment through  its  agencies  is  taking  care  of  their  most  serious  prob- 
lem. But  when  they  get  the  idea  that  their  problems  are  not  under- 
stood, when  their  Government  is  not  doing  for  them  the  things  that 
they  believe  should  be  done,  they  start  taking  the  law  into  their  own 

That  is  one  reason  why  we  are  so  happy  that  this  committee  is  out 
here  today  because  we  believe  that  it  will  help  us  solve  this  problem 
quickly,  which  is  just  as  important  as  to  solve  it  permanently. 

The  Chairman.  We  are  certainly  in  a  position  to  get  the  word 
right  to  the  heads  when  we  get  back  to  Washington. 

Attorne3r  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  We  can  give  them  the  facts  that  you  are  just  giv- 
ing us.  We  are  the  parties  that  can  transmit  them.  .  We  can  get  the 
word  there  anyway. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes.  There  has  been  a  lot  of  talk  of 
how  it  would  disturb  the  agricultural  situation  in  the  State  to  move 
the  Japanese.  I  think  that  is  a  very  debatable  question  and  I  think 
that  the  records  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture  or  the  Government 
will  show  that  it  is  not  as  great  a  problem  as  it  is  generally  supposed 
to  be.  We  have  seen  some  very  fantastic  figures  as  to  what  part  the 
Japanese  labor  plays  in  California  agriculture.  I  think  the  facts  will 
not  support  those  figures,  and  this  is  one  thing  that  I  think  should  be 
borne  in  mind  by  your  committee:  That  we  have  a  great  many  large 
Japanese  agricultural  operators  in  this  State,  and  when  they  operate 
on  a  large  scale  they  use  exactly  the  same  kind  of  help  that  white 
operators  use.  In  other  words,  when  their  crops  are  to  be  harvested 
they  don't  necessarily  harvest  them  with  Japanese.  They  harvest 
them  with  Filipinos  and  Mexicans  and  even  white  people.  There  is 
one  thing  this  year  that  makes  it  even  less  desirable  to  have  the 
Japanese  on  the  land,  and  that  is  the  fact  that  the  Filipinos  and 
the  Mexicans  have  resolved  that  they  will  not  harvest  crops  for 
Japanese.     So  they  might  have  their  crops  on  the  ground  and  still 


they  would  not  be  harvested.     If  those  people  don't  work  for  them, 
I  have  an  idea  that  probably  white  people  won't  work  for  them,  either. 
The  Chairman.  We  are  going  to  have  a  representative  from  the 
Department  of  Agriculture  to  get  those  figures. 


Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes.  I  merely  made  that  observation. 
Now,  gentlemen,  I  have  some  maps  which  show  the  character  of  the 
Japanese  land  ownership  and  possessory  interests  in  California.  I 
will  submit  them  at  the  time  I  submit  a  formal  statement  on  the  sub- 
ject. These  maps  show  to  the  law  enforcement  officers  that  it  is  more 
than  just  accident,  that  many  of  those  ownerships  are  located  where 
they  are.  We  base  that  assumption  not  only  upon  the  fact  that  they 
are  located  in  certain  places,  but  also  on  the  time  when  the  ownership 
was  acquired. 

It  seems  strange  to  us  that  airplane  manufacturing  plants  should  be 
entirely  surrounded  by  Japanese  land  occupancies.  It  seems  to  us 
that  it  is  more  than  circumstance  that  after  certain  Government  air 
bases  were  established  Japanese  undertook  farming  operations  in  close 
proximity  to  them.  You  can  hardly  grow  a  jackrabbit  in  some  of  the 
places  where  they  presume  to  be  carrying  on  farming  operations  close 
to  an  Armv  bombing  base. 

Many  of  our  vital  facilities,  and  most  of  our  highways  are  just 
pocketed  by  Japanese  ownerships  that  could  be  of  untold  danger  to 
us  in  time  of  stress. 

So  we  believe,  gentlemen,  that  it  would  be  wise  for  the  military  to 
take  every  protective  measure  that  it  believes  is  necessary  to  protect 
this  State  and  this  Nation  against  the  possible  activities  of  these  people. 
Mr.  Arnold.  During  the  past  years  have  the  Japanese  been  shrewd 
investors  when  it  comes  to  buying  property  in  cities?  Could  they 
have  bought  this  land  near  these  airplane  factories  because  of  shrewd- 
ness in  their  investment  ability? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  that  could  be,  Congressman. 
Mr.  Arnold.  I  mean,  does  the  history  of  the  past  50  years  show 
any  shrewdness  in  that  respect? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  The  Japanese  have  been  good  farming 
operators.  They  have  competed  on  very  favorable  terms  with  our 
white  farmers. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  I  mean  is,  you  say  some  of  this  farming  land 
surrounding  factories  is  not  very  productive.  It  might  increase  in 
value  because  of  the  large  industry.  Have  they  shown  ability  m  the 
past  to  invest  where  land  values  go  up? 

Attorney  General  W^arren.  I  have  no  knowledge  of  that,  Congress- 
man. I  would  be  inclined  to  doubt  it  because  of  the  limited  right 
they  have  to  buy  land  in  this  State.  You  know,  we  have  an  alien 
land  law  which  prevents  them  from  owning  agricultural  lands;  but  it 
has  been  honored  more  in  the  breach  than  in  the  observance  in  recent 
years  because  of  the  fact  that  they  have  placed  the  ownership  m  the 
names  of  their  California-born  children.  They  have  not  been  specu- 
lators in  lands  as  far  as  I  know. 

Mr.  Arnold.  One  thing  you  are  sure  of— it  just  couldn  t  have 
happened  that  way? 



Attorney  General  Warren.  We  don't  believe  that  it  could  in  all 
of  these  instances,  and  knowing  what  happened  at  Pearl  Harbor  and 
other  places  we  believe  that  there  is  a  pattern  to  these  land  owner- 
ships in  California  and  possessory  interests  in  California. 

The  Chairman.  In  the  last  few  years  have  purchases  by  these 
native-born  Japanese  increased  in  the  surroundings  close  to  these  air- 
craft factories? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  was  interested  in  your  whole  statement.  As  you 
were  discussing  it,  I  thought  of  testimony  that  was  given  before  the 
House  Military  Affairs  Committee,  of  which  I  am  a  member,  by  a 
French  officer  who  was  in  the  French  Army  prior  to,  and  at  the  time 
of,  the  French  capitulation.  He  told  us  of  the  difficulties  that  the 
French  had  in  their  own  villages ;  that  always  their  strategy  was  given 
away;  the  enemy  found  out  about  it.  Their  final  solution  to  the 
problem  was  simply,  when  they  started  operating  in  a  territory,  to 
evacuate  everybody,  citizens  and  all.  Of  course,  that  was  the  field 
of  battle. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Your  thought  is  that  this,  too,  is  a  possible  combat 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  those  in  charge  of  operations  should  have  the 
authority  to  evacuate  all  whom  they  feel  should  be  evacuated  for  the 
defense  of  the  area? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Precisely.  And  regardless  of  citizen- 
ship or  alienage. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  is  it  your  understanding  that  the  Executive 
order  of  yesterday  gave  such  authority  to  the  military  commander? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  That  is  the  way  I  read  the  newspaper 
report  and  that  is  the  only  thing  that  I  have.  The  newspapers  stated 
that  specifically. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  do  want  to  add  a  word  to  what  the  chairman  said. 
I  am  sure  you  people  out  here  know  it,  but  your  congressional  delega- 
tion in  both  Houses  of  Congress  has  been  very  much  on  the  alert  in 
discussing  and  making  plans  for  the  defense  of  this  area.  A  week, 
10  days,  or  2  weeks  ago,  this  very  recommendation  was  made  to 
the  President  and,  as  I  read  the  order,  it  follows  out  almost  word  for 
word  the  recommendation  that  was  made  by  your  congressional 

I  have  noticed  suggestions  in  newspaper  stories.  I  noticed  a  tele- 
gram this  morning  with  reference  to  the  civil  rights  of  these  people. 
What  do  you  have  to  say  about  that? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  believe,  sir,  that  in  time  of  war  every 
citizen  must  give  up  some  of  his  normal  rights. 

evacuation  as  military  problem 

I  believe  that  no  good  citizen  should  object  to  it.  I  do  believe, 
however,  that  it  should  be  done  by  proper  authority  and  not  by 
sporadic  action  on  the  part  of  agencies  that  do  not  function  according 


to  the  law.  That  is  the  reason  that  I  believe  that  his  is  a  military 
problem  and  not  a  problem  in  civil  government.  We  have  had  in- 
stances in  this  State  where  extra-legal  action  has  been  taken  with 
regard  to  these  very  people,  without  regard  to  our  statutes  or  our  con- 
stitution or  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States.     Now,  I  think,  that 

is  bad.  . 

Mr.  Sparkman.  May  I  say  there,  when  you  say  "without  regard 
you  don't  consider  this  as  being  without  regard  of  Constitution,  be- 
cause isn't  it  true  that  the  Constitution  makes  provision  for  just  such 
things?  .  . 

Attorney  General  Warren.  You  mean  the  action  the  President 
took  yesterday? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Yes. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  think  that  is  entirely  in  keeping  with 
it  and  that  is  why  I  commend  it  so  highly.  That  is  why  I  believe  so 
sincerely  in  it  because  it  does  transfer  the  solution  of  this  problem 
to  the  military  authorities  who  are  charged  with  the  defense  of  this 
area  and,  therefore,  have  the  right  morally  and  legally  and  every  other 
way  to  take  any  protective  measures  that  are  necessary  to  insure  the 
security  of  the  area. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  there  are  two  alternatives — the 
suspension  of  the  writ  of  habeas  corpus,  or  martial  law.  Is  that 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  We  are  putting  them  all  on  the  same  footing. 
I  think,  like  you,  that  it  is  absolutely  constitutional.  But  if  we  took 
it  direct,  we  would  be  in  the  courts  for  the  duration  of  the  war  fighting 
that  thing  out.     Is  that  not  so? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes. 


The  Chairman.  Well,  we  haven't  the  time  to  fight  it  out  in  the 
courts.     That  is  the  way  we  feel.     Isn't  that  right?  m 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes.  There  was  a  time  in  the  Civil 
War — I  don't  have  the  name  of  the  case  in  mind  at  the  moment,  but 
I  have  it  available— where  the  War  Department  through  the  com- 
mander of  the  Army,  declared  certain  areas  to  be  danger  zones  and 
directed  that  only  those  who  were  given  permits  were  entitled  to  enter 
and  move  about.'  Then  Congress  fortified  that  situation  by  declaring 
it  in  a  statute  to  be  a  danger  zone.  When  it  went  to  the  Supreme 
Court,  the  Supreme  Court  did  not  sustain  the  military  commander 
but  it  did  sustain  the  action  of  Congress  in  declaring  it  to  be  a  zone  of 
danger  in  which  those  things  could  be  done  by  the  military. 

It  may  be  in  this  situation  that  if  there  is  any  question  about  the 
right  of  the  military  to  do  it,  Congress  could  draw  a  line  so  far  in  from 
the  coast  and  say  that,  because  of  the  world  conditions  and  the  things 
that  are  confronting  us,  that  constituted  an  area  in  which  the  military 
could  do  certain  things. 

The  Chairman.  When  you  prepare  your  final  paper,  will  you  give 
us  that  citation?     That  will  be  very  valuable  to  us. 

60396 — 42— pt.  29- 



Attorney  General  Warren.  I  will  be  very  happy  to  do  it. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  General,  you  do  believe  that  these  people  who  are 
evacuated  ought  to  be  moved  with  some  system  or  some  order? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  believe  it  must  be. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  In  other  words,  you  don't  believe  that  the  order 
should  be  simply  given,  "Get  out,"  and  then  leave  it  to  them  to  get 

Attorney  General  Warren.  No,  sir;  I  think  that  the  Government 
must  provide  some  solution  to  that  problem,  because  if  we  don't, 
it  is  not  only  going  to  entail  hardship  on  the  people  who  are  told  to 
move  but  it  is  going  to  entail  hardship  on  every  community  to  which 
they  go. 

We  have  in  California  109,000  enemy  aliens.  How  many  of  those 
will  be  moved  out  none  of  us  knows,  but  assuming  that  a  substantial 
portion  of  them  is  moved  out  and  just  put  on  the  road  indiscrimi- 
nately.    It  would  be  an  unspeakable  situation  for  our  country. 

There  must  be  a  solution  for  them.  There  must  be  some  resettle- 
ment program. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  That,  too,  should  be  handled  by  the  Army,  in  your 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  believe  that  is  a  problem  of  civil  gov- 
ernment. I  believe  that  the  problem  of  the  Army  would  be  to  say, 
"You  cannot  come  into  this  area  because  we  don't  believe  that  it  is 
consistent  with  the  security  of  the  area."  But  once  out  of  the  area, 
it  seems  to  me  that  it  would  be  a  problem  of  civil  government  to  re- 
locate and  resettle  those  people,  unless  they  were  dangerous  people 
that  the  Army  wanted  to  intern  or  otherwise  keep  under  surveillance. 
But  if  they  were  just  doing  it  as  a  protective  measure,  not  knowing 
whether  as  individuals  they  were  dangerous  or  not,  it  would  seem  to 
me  that  it  is  more  of  a  resettlement  program  than  an  Army  problem. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  would  divide  the  evacuees  into  two  groups, 
then:  One  would  be  those  considered  to  be  dangerous? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  The  other  group  simply  those  who  were  not  desir- 
able in  a  particular  defense  area  and  yet  not  considered  necessarily 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir.     I  think  we  must. 

In  one  situation  the  military  would  be  in  charge,  and  in  the  other 
situation  it  would  be  the  civil  government. 

The  Chairman.  Don't  you  see  right  away  the  problem  is  looming 
before  us  as  to  where  they  are  going  to  go  as  the  evacuation  increases 
in  the  Pacific  Coast  States?  It  may  run  into  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
people.  So  we  will  have  to  feel  out — probably  this  committee  will  do 
it — as  to  where  they  are  going  to  go;  that  is,  what  States,  whether 
Nebraska ,  Kansas,  and  so  on.  For  instance,  if  it  were  the  other  way 
around,  and  if  you  evacuated  three  or  four  hundred  thousand  into 
California,  I  don't  know  how  we  would  take  care  of  them  here, 
don't  you  see.1 

Attorney  General  Warren.  That  is  correct.  And  even  in  Cali- 
fornia, that  is  a  problem.     A  community  of  Japanese  moved  out  of 

i  See  pp.  27-30,  House  Report  1911,  preliminary  report  by  this  committee. 


one  city  in  our  State  and  just  moved  over  a  little  range  of  hills  and 
started  moving  into  another  community.  There  was  a  tremendous 
uproar  there  and  it  hasn't  subsided  yet.  Every  time  you  move  them 
en  masse  you  create  big  problems  not  only  for  them  but  for  the 
communities  to  which  they  go. 


Mr.  Sparkman.  In  the  mayor's  statement  he  made  some  mention, 
I  believe,  of  the  hardship  cases  that  might  arise. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Would  you  agree  with  his  panel  to  the  effect  that 
there  should  be  some  tribunal  that  could  review  hardship  cases  and 
perhaps  give  permits  or  licenses  to  reenter? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Well,  Congressman,  I  don't  believe 
that  there  should  be  any  civil  panel  that  would  review  the  action  of 
the  military  commander  taken  as  a  protective  measure. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  didn't  say  "civil  tribunal."  I  simply  said  "a 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  believe  this:  That  the  Army  is  in 
the  very  nature  of  things  not  equipped  to  know  or  to  find  out  by  itself 
who  is  loyal  and  who  is  not  loyal  among  all  of  these  hundreds  of  thou- 
sands of  aliens  that  we  have.  I  believe  that  it  calls  for  the  assistance 
of  all  the  local  authorities.  For  instance,  when  we  are  dealing  with 
Italians  in  San  Francisco,  most  of  them  came  here  years  ago.  They 
have  been  in  established  lines  of  business,  and  I  believe  by  their  con- 
duct through  the  years  the  local  authorities  could  come  pretty  close 
to  telling  the  Army  who  at  least  would  unquestionably  be  loyal.  I 
think  that  the  Army  would  probably  call  upon  the  local  authorities 
and  set  up  some  agency  for  advising  them  and  helping  them  on  that 
subject.  But  I  wouldn't  have  any  council  to  which  a  man  could 
appeal  from  the  decision  of  the  military  commander  in  a  situation 
like  this. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  didn't  intend  to  imply  that.  The  point  I  was 
trying  to  get  is  this.  I  agree  with  you  that  final  decisions  should  rest 
with  those  who  are  charged  with  responsibility  for  defending  the 
area.    That,  of  course,  is  the  military. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  The  point  I  was  trying  to  get  at  is  this:  Do  you 
think  that  there  ought  to  be  flexibility  in  the  order  so  as  to  permit 
those  people  whom  the  military  command  believed  to  be  hardship 
cases  and  worthy  cases  to  allow  them  to  reenter  under  a  permit  or  a 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  do  without  question.  There  are 
thousands  of  people  who  are  in  this  State  who  are  nationals  of  coun- 
tries with  which  we  are  at  war,  who  would  be  just  as  loyal  to  this 
country  as  you  and  I.     I  think  they  can  be  ascertained. 

identification  cards 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Would  you  operate  that  through  a  system  of 
identification  cards  or  permits? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  After  it  was  determined  which  was 


Mr.  Sparkman.  Yes. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  would.  Yes,  sir.  I  am  of  the  opin- 
ion that  in  these  areas  that  are  vital  everybody  ought  to  operate 
under  a  permit.  I  see  no  reason  why  I  shouldn't  have  a  permit  to  go 
into  a  vital  military  area  or  to  move  around,  and  I  think  about  the 
only  way  that  you  can  make  it  effective  in  an  area  is  to  give  every- 
body a  license  or  a  permit,  because  if  you  just  give  the  aliens  a  license 
or  a  permit  all  they  have  to  do  is  to  lose  their  permit  or  fail  to  bring 
it  with  them  and  they  are  in  the  same  position  as  the  rest  of  us.  But 
if  every  man  has  to  have  a  permit  to  move  around  in  that  area,  whether 
he  is  a  citizen  or  whether  he  is  an  alien,  and  he  is  called  upon  to  pro- 
duce his  permit,  it  will  show  at  a  glance  what  his  status  is  and  whether 
he  is  violating  the  orders  of  the  military  in  the  area. 

The  Chairman.  Of  course,  you  are  right  about  that.  Now  even 
Congressmen  going  down  to  the  War  and  Navy  Departments  in 
Washington  have  to  register. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Certainly. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  to  get  a  permit.  What's  wrong  about 
that?     There  is  nothing  wrong  about  it. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  We  don't  consider  that  an  invasion 
of  our  civil  rights. 

The  Chairman.  Not  at  all. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  if  you  or  I  went  over  to  Hamilton  Field  and 
tried  to  go  in,  we  would  certainly  have  to  make  some  showing.  I  have 
no  reluctance  to  carry  my  permit  for  entering  the  public  buildings  in 
the  Nation's  Capital. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  That's  right. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  no  other  person  should  feel  any  infringement 
on  his  civil  rights,  you  feel,  if  he  should  have  to  carry  a  permit  to  go 
about  in  strategic  areas? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Positively.  And  I  think  that  every 
loyal  citizen  should  welcome  such  a  system. 

care  op  property  of  evacuees 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  about  the  care  of  these  alien  properties? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  am  afraid  that  that  is  a  situation 
that  has  not  been  adequately  taken  care  of  up  to  the  present  time. 
There  is  no  Alien  Property  Custodian  in  these  parts. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  believe  the  first  evacuation  is  coming  next  week, 
is  it  not? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  The  24th;  yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  That  is  a  limited  evacuation,  is  it  not? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Well,  it  prohibits  alien  enemies  from 
being  in  certain  very  small  zones,  and  then  there  are  other  restricted 
areas  in  which  they  operate  under  a  curfew  regulation. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  presume  there  are  enemy  aliens  who  own  property 
within  those  areas  from  which  they  are  to  be  prohibited? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  say  there  is  no  provision  so  far  as  you  know 
for  taking  care  of  the  aliens'  property? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  said  there  was  no  Alien  Property 
Custodian  appointed  for  this  area.     The  Federal  Reserve  bank  has 


been  the  agency  of  the  Treasury  Department  handling  the  Trading 
with  the  Enemy  Act,  and  they  may  have  some  prerogatives  in  that 
regard,  I  can't  say.  But  I  believe  that  there  has  been  no  procedure 
set  up  here  for  handling  of  enemy  property  such  as  you  have  men- 

The  Chairman.  General,  there  is  a  little  uncertainty  as  to  the 
jurisdiction.  We  hope  to  get  ironed  out  very  soon  who  shall  have 
the  jurisdiction,  the  Treasury,  the  Army  or  someone  else. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  the  hold-up  in  the  matter. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  is  going  to  happen  to  perishable  goods  that 
are  owned  by  these  people? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  When  they  move  out? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Yes. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  I  suppose  until  there  is  some  plan  for 
taking  care  of  it,  it  is  very  likely  to  result  in  waste. 


Mr.  Sparkman.  Has  there  come  to  your  attention  any  buying  of 
this  property  for  very  low  prices,  speculating  in  it? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  The  statement  was  made  to  me  a  few 
days  ago  that  in  areas  like  the  city  of  Alameda,  where  aliens  are  not 
permitted  to  be,  there  was  considerable  selling  of  household  effects  at 
a  great  sacrifice.  Now,  it  was  a  member  of  a  governmental  agency 
who  told  me  that,  but  I  did  not  investigate  it  to  see  how  widespread  it 
was  or  just  what  the  facts  were. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Is  it  your  feeling  that  there  should  be  an  office  of 
the  Alien  Property  Custodian  established  in  this  region? 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Yes,  sir;  I  think  so  without  question. 
I  don't  believe  that  people  should  be  permitted  to  exploit  even  our 
enemy  aliens.  I  think  there  should  be  some  Federal  agency  that 
would  supervise  those  matters  to  see  that  no  one  is  taken  advantage 
of  by  designing  people. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  That  is  all. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Warren,  on  behalf  of  the  committee  we  want 
to  thank  you.  You  have  certainly  made  a  very  valuable  contribu- 
tion to  our  hearings  here,  and  we  are  very  grateful  to  you.  We  shall 
hold  the  record  open  for  you  so  you  can  send  us  what  you  think 
should  be  included  in  addition  to  what  you  have  said  today. 

Attorney  General  Warren.  Thank  you  very  much,  gentlemen  of 
the  committee.  I  want  to  say  to  you  personally,  Mr.  Chairman, 
that  it  is  a  great  pleasure  to  see  you  back  here  in  California.  I 
might  say  to  you  gentlemen,  he  is  my  Congressman. 

The  Chairman.  We  will  take  a  5-minute  recess. 

(Whereupon  a  short  recess  was  taken.) 

The  Chairman.  Will  the  committee  please  come  to  order? 

Mr.  Neustadt,  will  you  take  that  seat  there,  please? 

This  committee  is  very  pleased  to  have  you  with  us  again.  You 
always  give  us  a  very  valuable  contribution  and  I  know  that  you  will 
help  us  out  on  this  occasion.1  I  wish  you  would  give  your  name, 
please,  to  the  reporter  and  your  official  designation. 

>  See  pp.  4947-4962,  pt.  12,  San  Diego  hearings. 



Mr.  Neustadt.  I  am  the  regional  director  of  the  Social  Security 
Board  and  also  the  regional  director  of  the  Office  of  Defense,  Health, 
and  Welfare  Services. 

The  Chairman.  Over  what  States  do  you  have  jurisdiction? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  In  the  Social  Security  Board  it  is  just  the  four 
States  of  California,  Oregon,  Washington,  and  Nevada.  In  this 
particular  assignment  of  help  to  the  western  command,  I  follow  the 
western  command's  eight-State  region. 

The  Chairman.  Congressman  Arnold,  will  you  interrogate  Mr. 
Neustadt,  please? 

Mr.  Arnold.  Mr.  Neustadt,  the  committee  understands  that  the 
Federal  Security  Agency  has  been  handling  certain  problems  con- 
nected with  the  evacuation  of  enemy  aliens.  In  the  following  ques- 
tions we  will  use  the  term  "alien"  to  designate  aliens  of  Axis  countries. 
Wherever  your  answers  are  also  relative  to  alien  citizens  of  American 
parentage,  will  you  so  indicate? 

In  my  first  questions  I  shall  interrogate  you  with  regard  to  the 
work  of  your  office  prior  to  the  President's  Executive  order  of  yester- 
day. Is  the  committee  correct  in  understanding  that  aliens  to  be 
evacuated  from  prohibited  areas  are  registered  with  the  Social  Security 
Board's  local  offices? 


Mr.  Neustadt.  May  I  make  clear  that,  in  the  first  place,  there  is 
nothing  mandatory  about  that.  We  are  charged  with  the  task,  on 
behalf  of  the  Department  of  Justice,  of  facilitating  the  transfer  of 
enemy  aliens  from  the  prohibited  areas  to  what  are  called  the  restricted 
areas.  There  is  no  compulsion  on  the  part  of  those  people  to  come  to 
our  office.  We  are  a  service  agency  acting  on  behalf  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Justice. 

Do  I  make  myself  clear,  Congressman? 

The  Chairman.  What  do  you  do  for  money,  Mr.  Neustadt? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  The  President  allocated  $500,000  to  Governor 
McNutt  as  Administrator,  and  he,  in  turn,  vested  the  power  in  me 
to  spend  that  money  as  it  was  needed.  The  determination  of  need 
and  the  allocation  of  funds  is  done  in  the  usual  way  upon  the  request 
of  the  individual. 

Right  there,  if  you  care,  I  might  interject  the  fact  that  of  approxi- 
mately 6,500  enemy  aliens  who  have  come  to  our  offices  voluntarily — 
6,500,  out  of  the  expected  nine  to  ten  thousand  who  are  involved  in 
this  transfer — most  of  them  have  come  for  information,  information 
with  respect  to  whether  their  residence  is  in  the  prohibited  zone  or 
whether  where  they  contemplate  moving  to  is  in  another  prohibited 
zone  or  in  a  restricted  area.  Of  those,  only  140  have  asked  for  financial 
assistance  of  any  kind. 

However,  that  small  number  is  not  to  be  taken  as  a  measure  of 
their  need.     Rather,  it  is  to  be  taken  as  a  measure  of  their  pride  and 


their  desire  to  understand  the  reason  for  this  order  and  their  desire 
to  be  as  cooperative  with  the  Government  as  possible.  In  other 
words,  we  know  of  many  cases  who  will  need  money,  who  have  strained 
every  resource  to  move  out  of  the  prohibited  area,  but  they  prefer  to 
exhaust  their  own  resources  before  asking  for  any  aid  of  any  kind. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Then  the  registration  with  your  agency  is  optional. 
Are  these  people  required  to  register  elsewhere? 


Mr.  Neustadt.  If  I  may  follow  the  course  of  the  order,  all  "alien 
enemies,"  as  we  now  call  them,  were  required  to  register  with  the 
Department  of  Justice  through  the  post  office  the  last  week  of  January. 
Then  the  Department  of  Justice  decreed  certain  areas  prohibited. 
Those  who  were  living  within  those  prohibited  areas  had  to  move. 
Under  the  regulations  of  the  Department  of  Justice  they  were  entirely 
free  to  move  outside  of  the  prohibited  areas  anywhere  they  wanted  as 
individuals.  If  they  moved  into  the  B,  or  restricted,  area  they  were 
subject  to  the  regulations  of  the  Department  of  Justice,  which  meant 
the  constant  carrying  of  their  certificates,  observance  of  the  curfew, 
and  the  restriction  not  to  move  beyond  5  miles  of  their  residence  ex- 
cept to  go  to  work  or  to  school.  So  that  movement  was  entirely 
voluntary  on  their  part  except  that  they  could  not  stay  within  the 
prohibited  areas  except  at  the  risk  of  being  arrested. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Is  it  true  that  under  present  evacuation  plans  evacuees 
ordinarily  bear  the  expense  of  this  movement? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  At  the  present  time  that  is  true,  certainly. 

Mr.  Arnold.  How  is  their  nonmovable  property  disposed  of? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Unfortunately,  no  provision  has  been  made,  and 
many  of  them  are  just  sacrificing  it. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  have  knowledge  that  many  are  sacrificing  their 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  can't  give  you  statistics,  but  we  certainly  have 
knowledge  of  many  agriculturalists,  and  also  others,  who  are  sacri- 
ficing such  little  property  as  they  have.  There  has  been  no  provision 
for  any  custodianship  of  any  kind. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Does  your  office  render  purely  informational  service 
or  does  it  provide  assistance  in  cash  at  times  to  aliens  who  lack 
resources  in  moving? 


Mr.  Neustadt.  We  have  provided  cash  and  kind,  mainly  cash,  to 
those  who  have  asked  for  it.  We  are  continuing  to  do  so.  The 
needs  are  mounting,  so  that  we  expect  by  the  24th  there  will  be  many 
more  than  this  140  asking  for  financial  assistance.  We  can  continue 
to  take  care  of  those  with  this  money  so  long  as  this  money  lasts, 
provided  the  order  continues.  We  are  not  sure  whether  or  not  the 
order  of  the  President  last  night  cancels  our  rights  to  give  aid  to 
people  who  have  not  yet  asked  it.  We  know  we  can  continue  to  aid 
so  long  as  the  money  lasts  for  those  who  have  already  applied. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Neustadt,  is  there  any  limitation  on  the 
amount  of  money  to  give  to  the  individual  cases? 


Mr.  Neustadt.  What  we  are  doing,  Congressman,  is  to  take  the 
most  generous  standard  of  aid  given  by  the  State.  In  other  words, 
we  are  not  giving  these  people  more  than  we  would  give  other  people, 
but  we  are  trying  to  give  them  a  liberal,  decent,  minimum  basis. 
The  budget  guide  we  are  using  here  is  the  same  guide  as  California 
uses  for  aid  to  those  with  dependent  children.  If  the  case  is  that  of 
a  single  man,  the  same  aid  is  given  as  that  for  old-age  assistance. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  know  whether  the  Employment  Service  is 
accepting  aliens  for  registration  and  referrals  in  the  normal  course  of 
its  operations? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Most  assuredly  they  are.  The  Employment  Office 
is  where  we  have  put  up  these  centers.  The  United  States  Employ- 
ment Service  is  part  of  those  agencies. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  type  of  employers  are  accepting  these  referrals? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  At  the  moment,  due  to  the  hysteria,  a  great  many 
employers  are  not  accepting  them.  Indeed,  they  are  discharging 
those  that  they  have  in  spite  of  the  President's  desire.  That  is  not 
animosity  on  the  part  of  the  employers  as  much  as  uncertainty.  They 
have  not  known  whether  to  continue  to  employ  these  people.  But  I 
would  say  all  kinds  of  employers  are  employing  aliens  just  as  much 
as  anyone  else,  provided  they  are  not  working  within  a  prohibited 

Mr.  Arnold.  Would  you  be  able  to  provide  the  committee  with  a 
tabular  summary  of  the  data  on  alien  activities  handled  through  your 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Yes.     I  already  have. 

Mr.  Arnold.  That  will  become  a  part  of  the  record  of  this  case. 

(The  statement  referred  to  above  and  supplementary  exhibits  are 
as  follows:) 





I.  General  Information 


Upon  the  request  of  and  on  behalf  of  the  United  States  Attorney  General,  on 
January  31,  1942,  Mr.  Paul  V.  McNutt,  Federal  Security  Administrator  and 
Director  of  Defense,  Health,  and  Welfare  Services,  accepted  the  responsibility 
of  facilitating  the  transfer  of  alien  enemies  from  areas  designated  by  the  Attorney 
General  and  to  relocate  and  reestablish  such  aliens  in  appropriate  places  and  in 
appropriate  activities. 

Under  authority  of  regulation  9  of  the  Presidential  proclamation  of  December 
7  and  8,  1941,  the  Secretary  of  War  recommended  that  certain  areas  be  designated 
by  the  Attorney  General  of  the  United  States  as  prohibited  areas  from  which  all 
alien  enemies  be  absolutely  excluded.  Eighty-eight  areas  in  California  have  as  of 
this  time  been  so  designated. 


The  Department  of  Justice  offered  the  following  as  the  reasons  why  the  Federal 
Security  Administrator's  assistance  was  requested: 

1.  Because  the  Department  of  Justice  is  not  itself  equipped  to  resettle  these 
enemy  aliens.  . 

2.  Because  resettlement  involves  processes  which  are  basically  associated  with 
the  social  services,  including  investigation  of  the  needs  and  means  of  the  aliens 


affected,  helping  them  to  obtain  appropriate  employment,  and  otherwise  assisting 
those  who  are  not  able  to  resettle  and  reestablish  themselves  in  other  locations. 

3.  Because  the  operating  units  of  the  Federal  Security  Agency  already  include 
many  of  the  Federal  services  which  are  involved  in  such  an  undertaking. 

4.  Because,  as  Director  of  the  Office  of  Defense,  Health,  and  Welfare  Services, 
the  Federal  Security  Administrator  had  been  designated  to  coordinate  health 
and  welfare  services  of  all  departments  and  agencies  of  the  Federal  Government, 
and  of  other  agencies,  public  and  private,  to  meet  the  needs  of  States  and  local 
communities  arising  from  the  defense  program  and  make  available  to  States  and 
localities  the  services  of  specialists  to  assist  in  the  planning  and  execution  of  State 
and  local  programs  in  the  field  of  health,  welfare,  and  related  activities. 



The  Federal  Coordinator  of  the  Office  of  Defense,  Health,  and  Welfare  Services 
has  designated  the  director  of  region  XII  of  the  Social  Security  Board  and  regional 
coordinator  of  defense,  health,  and  welfare  services  as  the  person  responsible  for 
developing  and  putting  into  effect  plans  for  the  relocation  and  reestablishment 
of  this  alien  group.  Plans  formulated  so  far  include  the  offering  of  the  following 
types  of  service:  Registration  and  referral  for  employment,  the  issuance  of  unem- 
ployment compensation  to  those  eligible  for  it,  and  the  offering  of  social  and  finan- 
cial assistance.  The  first  two  services  will  be  offered  through  the  regularly  estab- 
lished Federal  employment  offices,  and  other  assistance  will  be  offered  by  a  social 
assistance  staff  located  in  the  employment  offices,  operating  under  the  general 
supervision  of  the  regional  representative  of  the  Bureau  of  Public  Assistance. 


The  purpose  of  this  program  is  to  provide  financial  assistance  and  other  serv- 
ices, on  an  emergency  basis,  to  enemy  aliens  and  their  families  whose  normal  liv- 
ing arrangements  have  been  disrupted  as  a  result  of  residence  in  areas  now  pro- 
hibited to  them.     Forms  of  assistance  offered  include- — ■ 

1.  Information,  or  referral  to  the  proper  source  for  information,  needed  by  aliens 
in  order  that  they  may  conform  to  existing  regulations. 

2.  Services  in  connection  with  resolving  problems  of  housing,  moving,  emer- 
gency medical  care,  and  related  contingencies. 

3.  Financial  assistance  on  an  emergency  basis  to  cover  immediate  expenses 
directly  attributable  to  moving  from  prohibited  areas,  and  for  which  the  alien 
has  no  immediately  available  resources. 

Wherever  available  without  delay,  resources  of  existing  social  agencies  and 
other  organizations  shall  be  used  to  secure  forms  of  assistance  needed  by  clients. 

II.  Organization  of  Social  Assistance  Staff 


The  regional  representative  of  public  assistance,  acting  in  her  capacity  as  a 
member  of  the  Coordinator's  cabinet  on  evacuation  of  enemy  aliens,  is  responsible 
for  the  administration  of  the  assistance  program  to  this  group  of  persons.  All 
of  the  social  service  staff  of  the  program  are  under  her  general  supervision,  and 
through  the  regional  coordinator  she  will  make  joint  plans  with  the  regional  repre- 
sentative of  employment  security  with  respect  to  the  work. 

In  discharging  these  responsibilities,  the  regional  representative  of  public  assist- 
ance will  function  in  the  areas  of  general  administration,  policy  determination,  and 
clearance  with  other  Federal  agencies.  More  immediate  supervision  of  the  staff 
is  assigned  to  one  of  the  assistant  regional  representatives  of  public  assistance. 


The  regional  office  of  the  Social  Security  Board,  785  Market  Street,  will  be 
considered  the  central  office.  To  facilitate  the  offering  of  services  to  the  alien 
group,  it  is  contemplated  that  the  region  will  be  divided  into  four  supervisory 
areas — Washington,  Oregon,  Northern  California  and  Nevada,  and  Southern 
California.  Within  each  area  there  may  be  a  number  of  unit  offices,  some  cover- 
ing portions  of  a  county,  some  covering  one  county  only  and  others  covering 
more  than  one  county.     The  size  of  the  staff  in  each  unit  office  will  vary.     The 


larger  offices  may  be  staffed  by  a  unit  supervisor,  a  case  supervisor,  and  a  staff 
of  intake  interviewers  and  social  workers.  In  some  unit  offices  the  functions  of 
the  unit  supervisor  and  case  supervisor  may  be  combined,  and  in  others  the  func- 
tions of  all  four  groups  of  staff  may  be  performed  by  one  person.  All  selection 
and  assignment  of  staff  will  be  made  through  the  central  office. 

Intake  and  information  centers  within  the  area  covered  by  a  unit  office  will  be 
located  in  the  offices  of  the  United  States  Employment  Service. 


The  unit  supervisor  will  be  responsible  for  the  work  performed  within  the  unit 
and  more  specifically  will  be  responsible  for  setting  up  the  office,  putting  into 
effect  procedures  that  will  assure  smooth  functioning  of  the  office,  and  for  secur- 
ing information  with  respect  to,  and  mobilizing  community  resources. 

The  case  supervisor  will  supervise  the  work  of  the  intake  interviewers  and 
social  workers,  will  interpret  to  staff  rules,  regulations  and  policies,  will  review 
recommendations  of  intake  interviewers  and  social  workers,  and  will  offer  guid- 
ance and  assistance  to  this  staff  in  performing  its  functions. 

The  intake  interviewers  will,  in  general,  perform  the  following  activities: 
(a)  To  interview  persons  referred  to  the  office,  (b)  to  give  information  or  refer  to 
the  proper  source  for  information,  (c)  collect  and  record  all  significant  financial 
and  social  data,  (d)  determine  disposition  to  be  made  of  case,  (e)  develop  and 
execute  assistance  plan  if  such  is  needed,  (/)  plan  additional  investigation  if 
indicated,  (g)  arrange  for  utilization  of  any  available  service  which  may  assist 
in  meeting  problems  directly  connected  with  resettlement. 


A  field  staff  working  out  of  the  central  office  in  San  Francisco  will  offer  con- 
sultant service  to  the  staff  in  unit  employment  security  offices  and  will  act  as 
liaison  officers  between  the  central  office  and  the  unit  offices.  Plans  call  for  one 
field  staff  member  for  each  supervisory  area.  This  field  staff  will  continue  to 
perform  its  other  usual  activities  in  addition  to  the  duties  outlined  above. 

III.  Case  Procedures 


Interviewer  (local  Division  of  Social  Assistance  representative). 

Persons  seeking  assistance  of  any  nature  are  seen  by  the  social-assistance  in- 
terviewer. These  persons  may  come  directly  to  the  interviewer  or  may  be 
referred  by  the  employment  interviewer  or  by  other  agencies. 

Purpose  of  interview. 

The  purpose  of  this  interview  is  to  determine  the  nature  of  the  individual's 
problem,  and  other  problems  which  may  arise  as  a  result  of  his  situation,  and  to 
determine  what  can  be  done  under  the  policies  of  the  division  to  assist  in  the 
solution  of  his  problem.  This  interview  should  result  in  a  definite  decision  as  to 
whether  it  will  be  a  "minor  service  case"  or  a  "major  service  case."  (See  Defi- 
nitions, sec.  Ill— 6.) 

Information  to  be  obtained. 

The  first  step  in  the  interview  is  to  secure  from  the  applicant  his  own  state- 
ment of  the  problem  which  has  brought  him  to  the  office  and  the  assistance  he 
believes  he  needs.  Financial  and  social  factors  should  be  learned  so  that  an  as- 
sistance plan  can  be  formulated.  In  all  instances,  the  inquiry  card  (FSA-dsa-1) 
is  completed.  If  it  is  determined  that  a  major  service  case  classification  will  be 
made,  the  record  card  (FSA-dsa-2)  is  completed  in  this  interview,  if  possible. 

Information  to  be  given  clients. 

If  only  information  has  been  requested,  and  the  need  for  further  assistance 
does  not  appear  probable,  it  should  be  ascertained  that  the  individual's  questions 
have  been  answered  as  completely  as  possible,  and  that  he  has  a  clear  under- 
standing of  the  information  given  him. 

If  any  further  contacts  are  necessary  after  the  first  interview,  as  definite  a 
statement  as  possible  should  be  made  to  the  client  including  (a)  what  assistance 
he  may  be  able  to  secure,  on  the  basis  of  the  information  he  has  given,  and  (b) 
what  arrangements  will  be  made  by  the  worker  to  follow  up  the  first  interview. 


Those  seeking  information  regarding  any  questions  of  United  States  citizenship 
are  to  be  referred  to  the  nearest  office  of  the  Bureau  of  Immigration  and  Natu- 
ralization of  the  Department  of  Justice.  A  list  of  offices  of  this  Bureau  will 
be  provided. 

If  employment  is  needed,  or  an  individual  may  be  eligible  for  unemployment 
compensation  benefits,  he  is  to  be  referred  to  the  United  States  Employment 
Service  staff  in  the  office  in  which  the  Division  of  Social  Assistance  representative 
is  located. 



1.  "Minor  service  case"  means  a  case  in  which  all  necessary  action  is  taken  on 
the  day  of  the  initial  interview,  and  no  further  contact  is  anticipated.  It  may 
not,  therefore,  remain  active  beyond  the  date  of  that  interview.  It  may  be 
reopened  and  changed  to  a  major  service  case  by  preparing  a  case  record,  con- 
taining a  record  card  (FSA-dsa-2),  and  assigning  a  case  number.  A  copy  of  the 
record  card  is  transmitted  to  the  central  office  without  an  injury  card  being 

2.  "Major  service  case"  means  a  case  in  which  contacts  will  continue  beyond 
the  date  of  initial  interview  and  for  which  a  record  card  has  therefore  been  pre- 
pared and  a  case  number  assigned. 

S.  "Active  case"  means  either  a  major  or  minor  service  case  in  which  all 
necessary  action  for  closing  the  case  has  not  been  completed. 

4.  "Closed  case"  means  a  case  in  which  all  action  has  been  completed  and  it  is 
reasonably  certain  that  no  further  contacts  with  the  client  will  occur.  Cases 
will  not  be  closed  because  individuals  move  from  the  vicinity  of  the  local  United 
States  Employment  Service  office.  During  the  emergency  period,  major  service 
cases  will  not  be  closed  in  most  instances. 

Minor  service  case  procedures. 

One  copy  of  completed  inquiry  card  (FSA-dsa-1)  is  filed  alphabetically  in  the 
central  file  containing  these  forms  following  completion  of  the  inquiry.  One 
copy  of  the  form  is  forwarded  to  the  central  office  not  later  than  the  close  of 
business  on  the  date  of  the  initial  interview.  Enter  a  check  in  the  box  opposite 
"Inquiry  completed     *     *     *  this  "  prior  to  filing  and  transmittal  of  the  form. 

Major  service  case  procedures. 

Filing  and  transmittal  of  the  inquiry  card  is  identical  with  that  for  minor  service 
cases,  except  that  a  check  is  entered  in  the  box  opposite  record  card  made,  and 
the  case  number  is  entered  in  the  proper  space.  In  addition,  a  completed  copy 
of  record  card  (FSA-dsa-2)  is  filed  with  other  case  material  in  a  case  folder, 
on  the  tab  of  which  is  placed  the  client's  name  and  case  number.  A  copy  of 
the  record  card,  attached  to  the  central  office  copy  of  the  inquiry  card,  is  trans- 
mitted to  the  central  office  not  later  than  the  date  prepared,  in  as  complete  form 
as  possible. 

Assignment  of  case  number. 

Each  local  office  has  been  assigned  an  identifying  number  in  accordance  with 
the  attached  list.  This  number  will  be  used  as  a  prefix  number  in  connection 
with  numbering  of  all  cases.  Example:  Berkeley  office  is  No.  2.  Case  No.  10 
in  Berkeley  office  will  be  marked  2-10.  This  prefix  and  case  number  will  be  used 
on  all  forms  where  case  number  is  requested. 

The  local  office  number  should  be  used  on  all  forms  to  designate  the  office. 
Use  the  office  number  in  place  of  the  name  of  the  office  as  heretofore. 

The  Division  of  Social  Assistance  representative  in  the  local  office  will  prepare 
a  simple  case  number  register,  consisting  of  a  notebook  in  which  are  listed  num- 
bers 1,  2,  3,  4,  etc.  The  name  of  the  household  head  in  major  service  cases  will 
be  entered  in  ink  to  correspond  with  each  number.  The  number  corresponding 
with  his  name  is  the  family  case  number  for  all  purposes  of  recording,  and  this 
must  be  entered  on  the  record  card  before  it  is  transmitted  to  the  central  office. 
It  must  also  be  entered  on  both  copies  of  the  inquiry  card. 

Procedures  for  closed  cases. 

A  minor  service  case  automatically  becomes  a  closed  case  at  the  close  of  date  the 
interview  is  held.  The  inquiry  card  (FSA-dsa-1)  is  filed  in  the  master  index  file, 
after  indicating  on  it  the  disposition. 

When  a  major  service  case  is  to  be  closed,  a  notice  of  case  change  is  prepared  in 
duplicate,  one  copy  of  which  is  placed  in  the  case  record,  the  other  being  trans- 


mitted  to  the  central  office.     The  case  record  is  then  filed  in  a  location  known  as 

the  closed  case  file. 

Case  records,  files,  and  transmittals. 

1.  Case  records  will  contain  all  case  forms  in  the  United  States  Employment 
Service  office  except  inquiry  cards,  which  are  separately  filed.  Brief  narrative 
entries,  chronologically  identified,  will  when  necessary  be  entered  on  the  reverse  of 
the  record  card  and  on  additional  pages.  The  narrative  will  contain  case  plans 
and  activities  of  the  worker  and  the  client  in  solving  difficulties.  Records  are  not 
to  be  removed  from  the  local  office.  Local  representatives  of  the  Division  of 
Social  Assistance  are  not  authorized  to  release  any  information  contained  in 
records  to  individuals  or  organizations  unless  cooperatively  engaged  in  working 
on  behalf  of  the  client. 

2.  Files. — A  master  file  containing  all  inquiry  cards  will  be  maintained  alpha- 
betically in  the  local  United  States  Employment  Service  office.  A  copy  of  each 
daily  transmittal  will  be  filed  chronologically  in  a  folder.  An  active  case  record 
file  and  a  closed  case  record  file  will  be  maintained  in  local  offices.  Case  records 
will  be  filed  numerically  in  these  files. 

3.  Transmittals.— A  daily  transmittal  (FSA-dsa-5)  will  be  prepared  in  duplicate 
on  each  day  on  which  forms  are  to  be  transmitted  to  the  central  office.  This 
transmittal  is  to  contain  only  the  total  number  of  each  type  of  case  form  being 
forwarded  on  that  day.  One  copy  is  retained  in  the  local  office,  one  going  to  the 
central  office  on  the  date  for  which  it  is  prepared,  accompanied  by  the  forms  listed 
on  it.     No  forms  are  to  be  transmitted  without  being  accompanied  by  this  form. 

LIST      OF     U.     S.     EMPLOYMENT     SERVICE     OFFICES     TO     WHICH      SOCIAL     WORKERS 

Numbers  indicate  the  Division  of  Social  Assistance  number  for  each  location;  these  are  not  the  numbers 
already  in  use  by  each  United  States  Employment  Service  office.  The  numbers  given  here  will  be  used 
as  prefix  for  case  numbers  originating  in  these  offices] 


1.  Alameda,  1536  Park  Street.     Phone:  Lakehurst  2-7300. 

2.  Berkeley,  2459-63  Shattuck  Avenue.     Phone:  Thorn  wall  1389. 

4.  Eureka,  239  G  Street.     Phone:  624. 

5.  Fresno,  2146  Inyo  Street.     Phone:  36184. 

7.  Inglewood,  319  East  Hillcrest  Boulevard. 

8.  Long  Beach,  416  Pine  Avenue. 

9.  Los  Angeles,  623  East  Eighth  Street.     Phone:  Ri.  4181. 

10.  Monterey,  266  Pearl  Street. 

11.  Oakland,  115  Twelfth  Street.     Phone:  Glencourt  3782. 

12.  Pittsburg,  480  Black  Diamond.     Phone:  Pittsburg  413. 

13.  Richmond,  601  Nevin  Avenue. 

14.  San  Diego,  1165  Front  Street. 

15.  San  Francisco,  1690  Mission  Street.     Phone:  Hemlock  3800. 

16.  San  Jose,  393  South  Second  Street.     Phone:  Columbia  4646. 

17.  San  Luis  Obispo,  967  Osos  Street. 

18.  San  Mateo,  15  B  Street. 

19.  San  Pedro,  250  West  17th  Street. 

20.  San  Rafael,  1557  Fourth  Street.     Phone:  S.  R.  1637. 

28.  Santa  Cruz,  23  Front  Street.     Phone:  Calif.  555. 

21.  Santa  Monica,  1558  Fifth  Street. 

22.  Santa  Rosa,  501  Third  Street. 

23.  Stockton,  201  North  San  Joaquin  Street. 

24.  Ukiah,  20  Smith  Street. 

25.  Vallejo,  515  Marin  Street. 

29.  Watsonville,  21  West  Lake  Avenue. 


Responsibility  of  social-assistance  worker. 

The  primary  responsibility  of  the  social-assistance  worker  is  to  assist  the 
applicant  in  making  a  social  plan,  the  need  for  which  has  arisen  because  of  a  re- 
quired move  in  connection  with  Department  of  Justice  orders.  Such  a  plan  must 
have  a  verified  factual  basis  and  should  contain  assurances  that  the  applicant 
will  be  able  to  reestablish  himself  after  relocation.     This  plan  should  take  into 


consideration  employment  opportunities  and  therefore  should  be  made  in  coopera- 
tion with  the  employment  service. 

Referral  for  employment  interview. 

If  an  applicant  is  unemployed  he  should  be  referred  immediately  to  the  em- 
ployment interviewer  for  job  registration  if  he  has  not  already  registered.  Gen- 
erally, the  registration  for  a  job  should  precede  the  discussion  with  the  social 
worker  of  the  plan  for  relocation. 

Home  visit. 

A  home  visit  should  be  made  whenever  possible  in  every  case  when  financial 
assistance  is  requested.  The  primary  purpose  of  the  visit  is  to  verify  the  present 
residence  in  a  prohibited  area  inasmuch  as  assistance  is  granted  only  to  meet  needs 
arising  as  a  result  of  Department  of  Justice  orders  concerning  prohibited  areas. 
Additional  verification  of  need  and  information  necessary  for  the  formulation  of 
a  social  plan  should  also  be  procured  at  the  time  of  the  home  visit. 

Relocation  and  resettlement  plan. 

Insofar  as  possible,  families  should  be  relocated  within  the  county  of  residence 
when  the  worker  does  not  have  full  assurance  that  the  family  will  be  able  to  man- 
age independently  in  another  county.  This  should  be  done  even  though  such  a 
move  may  represent  a  temporary  relocation  which  will  necessitate  a  second 
move  later  on.  The  important  thing  to  remember  is  that  prohibited  areas  must 
be  cleared  by  specified  dates,  and  that  there  may  not  be  sufficient  time  to  work 
out  with  the  individual  or  family  a  complete  plan  for  relocation  and  resettlement 
before  the  deadline  date  for  evacuation  from  the  prohibited  area. 

If  the  individual  or  family  requests  assistance  in  moving  out  of  the  county  of 
residence,  one  of  two  facts  must  be  known — that  there  is  a  job  or  other  employ- 
ment opportunity  available  in  the  county  of  new  residence  and/or  that  there  is 
other  evidence  of  support  in  such  a  county.  There  may  be  some  instances  in 
which,  because  of  the  extent  of  the  prohibited  area,  a  move  outside  the  county  of 
residence  is  necessary  even  though  there  is  no  evidence  of  support  in  the  county  of 
new  residence.  It  is  not  anticipated  that  the  number  of  such  cases  will  be  large, 
and  any  such  plans  should  be  approved  by  a  representative  of  the  Social  Security 
Board  office. 

Generally,  plans  for  moving  out  of  the  State  should  not  be  made.  Any  such 
contemplated  plans  are  to  be  submitted  for  approval  to  the  central  office  with  full 
information  as  to  the  reason  for  the  plan  and  with  some  indication  as  to  how  the 
validity  of  such  a  plan  may  be  verified. 


The  following  are  the  facts  that  should  be  verified  and  the  methods  of  verifica- 
tion to  be  used: 

(a)  Residence  in  a  prohibited  area. — To  be  verified  by  a  home  visit,  unless  the 
worker,  usually  in  a  small  community,  has  other  assurances  that  the  present 
residence  of  the  individual  or  family  is  as  stated  by  him. 

(b)  Need. — To  be  verified  by  a  discussion  with  the  family  of  its  financial  con- 
dition, and  where  necessary  and  feasible,  by  references,  clearance  with  present  or 
past  employer  and  with  banks. 

In  connection  with  need,  it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  there  are  varying 
degrees  of  need.  A  family  with  income,  able  to  meet  all  normal  and  usual  require- 
ments, may  not  be  able  to  meet  the  additional  expense  of  moving  and/or  expenses 
incident  to  moving,  and  in  such  situations,  assistance  may  be  granted  to  meet  these 
extra  expenses. 

(c)  Moving  costs. — If  the  family  plans  to  move  by  common  carrier  and  to 
transport  household  effects  by  a  transfer  or  express  company,  the  cost  is  to  be 
verified  by  a  telephone  call  to  the  companies  concerned. 

If  the  family  plans  to  move  through  the  services  of  friends,  which  services  are 
to  be  reimbursed,  the  cost  is  to  be  verified  by  discussion  with  the  family  and/or 
friends  of  the  estimated  cost,  and  by  checking  the  reasonableness  of  such  esti- 
mated mileage  cost  with  automobile  associations,  gas  and  oil  companies,  etc. 

(d)  Employment  in  a  county  of  nonresidence. — To  be  verified  by  clearance  with 
the  United  States  employment  office  in  which  social  worker  is  located,  with 
United  States  employment  office  in  county  of  nonresidence  or  with  prospective 
employer.  The  clearances  with  employment  offices  and  employers  in  other 
counties  may  be  made  by  wire  or  telephone.  These  wires  and/or  telephone  calls 
may  be  charged  to  the  employment  service  office.     (See  next  item.) 


(e)  Other  evidence  of  support  in  county  of  nonresidence. — If  a  family  claims  sup- 
port by  relatives  or  friends  in  another  county  this  claim  should  be  verified  through 
the  county  welfare  department  of  the  county  of  nonresidence.  In  securing  such 
verification,  a  wire  or  telephone  call  may  be  made  to  such  county  department 
requesting  that  a  visit  be  made  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the  authenticity 
of  the  new  address  and  the  claim  that  continued  support  is  available.  The  reason 
for  the  request  should  be  made  clear  by  indicating  that  it  is  in  connection  with 
evacuation  of  aliens. 

Such  wires  or  letters  should  be  addressed  to  the  director  of  the  county  welfare 
department  and  should  be  signed  by  the  social  worker  as  a  representative  of  the 
Federal  Security  Agency.     These  wires  and/or  telephone  calls  may  be  charged 
to  the  Employment  Security  Office.     The  form  of  the  wire  is  as  follows: 

Director,  County  Welfare  Department. 

Re  enemy  alien  evacuation.  John  Doe  and  family  of  six  children  have  re- 
quested assistance  in  moving  to  201  Main  Street,  X  County.  Claim  that  John 
Brown  brother  will  support  family  in  his  home.  Will  you  please  visit  Brown 
family  and  advise  us  by  wire  or  phone  of  correct  address  and  authenticity  of  Doe 
family  claim. 

Jane  Smith/  Worker,  Social  Security  Board. 

(/)  Employment  and! or  other  evidence  of  support  in  another  State. — Full  informa- 
tion with  respect  to  the  reason  for  such  a  contemplated  move,  the  address  to 
which  the  family  wishes  to  move,  the  addresses  and  names  of  persons  in  the  other 
State  who  know  the  family,  should  be  transmitted  to  the  central  office  by  wire, 
letter,  or  telephone  for  clearance  with  the  other  State.  Such  wires  and/or  tele- 
phone calls  may  be  sent  collect  to  the  Social  Security  Board  office,  785  Market 
Street,  San  Francisco. 

IV.  Determination  of  Assistance  Payments 


Assistance  payments  are  designed  to  provide  for  specified  emergency  needs 
arising  from  removal  of  aliens  and  their  dependents  from  prohibited  areas.  As- 
sistance may  be  in  cash,  kind  or  congregate  care,  and  may  include  transportation 
of  aliens  and  their  dependents  to  approved  destination,  transportation  of  such 
household  and  personal  effects  as  are  immediately  essential  to  maintenance,  and 
assistance  not  to  exceed  the  assistance  standards  of  the  California  aid  to  dependent 
children  program  (Budget  guide  is  in  appendix) . 

Funds  allocated  to  the  Federal  Security  Agency  for  this  program  are  intended 
to  provide  assistance  to  aliens  whose  need  arises  directly  and  immediately  as  a 
result  of  the  actions  of  the  Department  of  Justice  in  prohibiting  the  presence  of 
enemy  aliens  in  certain  areas  and  restricting  or  curtailing  their  activities  in  other 
areas.  In  other  words,  the  funds  have  been  allocated  to  meet  temporary  and 
emergency  needs  essential  to  relocation  and  resettlement  resulting  from  Depart- 
ment of  Justice  actions,  and  in  no  sense  are  they  intended  to  provide  for  another 
category  of  assistance. 

If  the  applicant  is  able  to  provide  for  the  specific  requirements  allowed  in  this 
program,  or  if  his  needs  are  not  the  result  of  the  above-mentioned  actions  of  the 
Department  of  Justice,  he  is  not  eligible  for  financial  assistance.  In  other  words, 
eligibility  for  this  assistance  does  not  depend  solely  on  the  fact  that  the  applicant 
is  an  alien  of  an  enemy  nationality,  but  rather  upon  this  fact  plus  the  fact  that 
his  needs  are  a  result  of  Department  of  Justice  orders.  Where  current  grants  of 
other  forms  of  public  assistance,  received  by  aliens  living  in  prohibited  areas,  do 
not  cover  the  extra  expense  of  moving,  and/or  expenses  incident  to  moving,  sup- 
plementary assistance  to  cover  moving  costs  may  be  given  from  this  program.  If 
moving  plans  are  made  for  such  persons,  they  should  not  interfere  with  this  other 
regular  assistance.  In  general,  it  is  required  that  all  immediately  available  costs 
or  other  resources  be  used  for  meeting  the  needs. 

Eligibility  for  assistance  and  the  amount  to  be  issued  are  determined  by  (a) 
evaluating  a  specified  group  of  needs  and  (b)  determining  what  resources  are  avail- 
able to  the  applicant  for  meeting  them.  If  the  total  under  (b)  is  less  than  that 
under  (a)  that  amount  is  the  amount  of  the  assistance  payment. 



1.  The  base  of  assistance  plan,  wherever  possible,  is  the  portion  of  the  normally 
constituted  family  group  which  remains  intact  during  the  following  resettlement. 
(Example:  An  employed  adult  son  who  is  a  citizen  will  remain  with  his  family 
after  it  moves.  He  would  be  included  in  the  need  section  of  the  assistance  plan, 
and  his  immediately  available  resources  would  be  included  in  the  resources 

2.  If  only  a  portion  of  the  family  moves  from  a  prohibited  area  (i.  e.,  an  alien 
grandfather,  or  an  entire  family  except  for  self-supporting  citizen  members)  the 
assistance  includes  the  portion  of  the  family  which  moves,  and  resources  of  those 
remaining  in  the  prohibited  area  are  considered  in  the  amount  which  is  above 
and  beyond  normal  expenses  of  those  who  remain. 

3.  If,  in  separations  occurring  in  normal  family  groups,  members  of  the  family 
dependent  upon  enemy  aliens  but  separated  from  them  for  some  reason  are 
included  in  separate  assistance  plans  and  given  separate  assistance  payments. 

4.  Unattached  enemy  aliens. 


The  assistance  plan  to  be  followed  is  the  State  of  California  aid  to  dependent 
children  assistance  plan  (budget  guide  included  in  appendix).  Assistance  plans 
are  to  be  made  for  a  2-week  period. 

1.  Requirements. 

Amounts  provided  in  all  budgets  for  requirements  are  determined  as  follows: 

(a)  Food. — One-half  of  monthly  allowance  as  listed  in  the  quantity-cost  budget 
for  each  member  of  the  household,  for  the  county  in  which  the  family  resides. 
Percentage  increases  and  decreases  by  size  of  family  provided  in  the  budget  are 
to  be  followed. 

(b)  Housing. —  Actual  rental  with  a  maximum,  unless  clearly  unfeasible  as 
listed  in  the  standard  budget.  No  allowance  for  housing  if  living  in  own  home 
or  in  the  home  of  friends  or  relatives  permanently  residing  in  the  locality. 

(c)  Utilities. — Light  and  fuel  for  heat  and  cooking  are  allowed  on  the  basis  of 
actual  cost,  with  no  restrictions  as  to  the  type  of  utility  used.  The  standard 
utilities  allowance  provided  in  the  State  department  of  social  welfare  standard 
budget  is  the  maximum  as  a  general  policy,  and  is  the  amount  allowed  if  the  cost 
is  not  known. 

(d)  Moving. — Actual  cost  with  a  maximum  amount.  When  arrangements  are 
made  by  the  applicant  without  any  expenditure,  no  amount  will  be  included  in  the 
plan  as  estimated. 

(e)  Transportation. — Actual  amount  involved  in  going  to  work,  looking  for 
work,  or  properly  located  housing  or  securing  medical  care. 

(/)  Medical  care. — Where  no  medical  facilities  are  available  and  health  problems 
of  a  nature  requiring  immediate  medical  care,  medicine,  diets,  or  nursing  service, 
these  will  be  allowed  on  the  basis  of  verified  need  and  verified  costs  (following  the 
receipt  of  services  and  medicine  by  the  recipient). 

(g)  Clothing. — Will  be  allowed  only  when  the  need  arises  directly  from  condi- 
tions involved  in  resettlement. 

(h)  Other. — Any  special  needs  can  be  authorized  only  when  approval  has  been 
given  by  the  area  supervisor. 

2.  Resources. 

All  resources,  including  real  and  personal  property,  must  be  listed  and  described 
showing  location,  value,  encumbrances,  and  any  other  significant  information. 

Total  family  income  showing  nature  and  source  must  be  recorded.  This  is  to 
include  any  contribution  and  benefits. 

In  computing  needs  immediately  available  resources  (assets  in  usable  liquid 
form)  and  income  are  to  be  deducted  from  estimated  requirements. 

Expenditures  necessary  to  the  maintenance  of  existing  investments  are  not 
considered  immediately  available  for  purposes  of  this  program. 

If  free  housing  and/ or  utilities  are  available  through  funds  or  relatives,  they 
will  not  be  considered  as  requirements  so  therefore  the  means  through  which  they 
are  provided  need  not  be  considered  resources. 

Income  will  be  computed  as  net  income  which  is  the  difference  between  total 
income  secured  and  all  direct  cost  incurred  in  obtaining  it. 



After  determination  of  the  need  for  financial  assistance,  same  will  be  granted  by 
the  social  worker  through  the  medium  of  the  disbursing  order  Form  FSA-dsa-3. 
(Detailed  instructions  in  appendix.) 

The  disbursing  order  provides  for  granting  assistance  in  cash,  and/or  in  kind 
and  services.  The  disbursing  order  is  prepared  by  the  worker  in  four  copies, 
which  are  utilized  and  routed  as  described  below. 

(a)  Cash  grant  of  assistance. — If  a  cash  grant  of  assistance  is  to  be  provided  to  the 
client,  the  social  worker  sends  the  original  (white)  copy  and  the  yellow  copy  of  the 
disbursing  order-,  properly  filled  out,  to  the  local  certifying  officer,  and  the  check, 
in  the  amount  indicated,  will  be  mailed  by  the  certifying  officer  directly  to  the 
client's  address.  Cash  grants  cannot  be  promised  clients  earlier  than  2  days 
after  the  disbursing  order  is  written  by  the  worker.  If  this  is  too  much  of  a 
delay,  other  provisions  should  be  made.     (See  below.) 

Social  workers  in  the  Los  Angeles  area,  San  Diego,  and  San  Luis  Obispo  will 
direct  the  white  and  yellow  copies  of  the  disbursing  order  for  cash  to  the  local 
certifying  officer,  Mr.  Emory  H.  Johnson,  room  446,  United  States  Post  Office  and 
Courthouse  Building,  Los  Angeles.  In  all  other  offices  and  areas  these  copies 
will  be  directed  to  the  regional  office,  Social  Security  Board,  785  Market  Street, 
San  Francisco,  Calif. 

The  green  copy  of  the  disbursing  order  is  mailed  at  the  end  of  the  day  to  the 
regional  office  together  with  Forms  FSA-dsa-1  and  FSA-dsa-2  via  the  transmittal 

The  pink  copy  is  attached  to  the  case  record. 

(b)  Assistance  in  kind  and/ or  in  services  requiring  payment. — If  assistance  is  pro- 
vided by  payment  of  rent,  payment  for  medical  services,  clothing,  transportation 
of  household  goods,  or  any  type  of  merchandise  or  service  in  which  a  third  person 
(the  vendor)  is  involved,  the  worker  gives  the  original  (white)  copy  and  the 
yellow  copy  to  the  client.  The  client  presents  the  disbursing  order  for  delivery  of 
the  e;oods  or  services  in  lieu  of  payment. 

Wherever  possible  the  transportation  of  household  goods  should  be  arranged 
to  be  paid  for  by  the  client  out  of  the  cash  grant.  If  necessary,  a  disbursing 
order  should  be  issued  on  the  draying  or  moving  concern,  same  as  on  any  other 

The  green  copy  of  the  disbursing  order  is  again  mailed  at  the  end  of  the  day 
to  the  regional  office. 

The  pink  copy  is  attached  to  the  case  record. 

(c)  Assistance  in  form  of  transportation  by  rail  or  bus. — Unless  it  seems  more 
desirable  to  cover  the  cost  of  transportation  in  the  client's  cash  grant,  all  trans- 
portation expenses  will  be  provided  through  the  medium  of  the  regular  Govern- 
ment request.  The  workers  are  supplied  with  books  of  Government  requests 
for  transportation.  These  must  be  treated  by  the  worker  as  though  actual  cash 
were  disbursed. 

If  a  Government  request  for  transportation  is  issued  to  the  client,  the  worker 
will  indicate  on  the  disbursing  order  the  number  of  the  request,  on  what  com- 
pany or  railroad,  and  the  amount  represented.  The  value  will  have  to  be  ob- 
tained, prior  to  issuance  of  the  request,  from  the  railroad  or  bus  company 
involved.  Prepare  only  one  request  for  transportation  of  a  family  group.  See 
detail  instructions  for  use  of  Government  requests  for  transportation  in  the 

The  worker  will  obtain  the  client's  signature  in  original  on  the  white  copy  of 
the  disbursing  order  and  in  carbon  on  the  three  remaining  copies  when  she 
delivers  the  travel  request  to  the  client. 

In  these  transactions  the  worker  will  retain  the  white  copies  of  the  disbursing 
order  in  a  separate  personal  file  as  a  receipt  to  account  for  the  requests  issued  to 

The  yellow  and  green  copies  of  the  order  are  mailed  at  the  end  of  the  day  to 
the  regional  office. 

The  pink  copy  is  attached  to  the  case  record. 

V.    Limitations    on    Aliens    of    Enemy    Nationalities    Imposed    by    the 

Department  of  Justice 

use  of  information  in  this  section 

The  conduct  of  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  is  the  responsibility  of  the  United 
States  Department  of  Justice.     Aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  will  have  many 


questions  regarding  the  effect  of  restrictions  imposed  by  the  Department  of 
Justice.  This  statement  of  information  and  interpretation  has  been  prepared  to 
aid  in  answering  many  of  these  questions,  and  has  been  cleared  with  the  Depart- 
ment of  Justice.  The  statement  is  purely  informational,  and  replies  to  any  ques- 
tion of  conduct,  location,  and  activities  of  an  alien  of  enemy  nationality  must  be 
given  with  that  understanding. 


There  are  two  categories  of  restricted  areas: 

Category  A. — Those  areas  within  or  through  which  no  alien  of  enemy  nation- 
ality may  be  permitted  under  any  circumstances. 

Category  B. — Those  areas  through  or  within  which  enemies  of  alien  nationalities 
may  be  permitted  on  pass  or  permit. 

In  your  kits  are  lists  describing  prohibited  and  restricted  areas  in  California, 
as  designated  by  the  Attorney  General,  upon  recommendation  from  the  Army 
and  the  Navy. 

These  lists  also  set  forth  the  effective  date  for  the  restrictions  for  each  of  the 

General  public  notices  have  been  given  through  the  press  and  by  radio  announce- 
ment to  the  effect  that  aliens  of  enemy  nationality  must  move  from  prohibited 
areas  prior  to  the  effective  dates.  No  individual  notices  have  been  given  to  the 
particular  aliens  affected. 


(a)  In  the  official  descriptions  of  the  class  A  areas,  it  is  frequently  stated  which 
side  of  a  street  or  highway  constitutes  the  boundary  line  of  the  prohibited  area. 
This  is  for  the  purpose  of  determining  whether  the  street  or  highway  is  included 
in  or  excluded  from  the  prohibited  area. 

1.  Where  the  boundary  line  is  on  the  side  of  the  street  or  highway  across  from 
or  opposite  to  the  prohibited  area,  the  street  or  highway  is  included  in  the  pro- 
hibited area.  Aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  are  denied  all  use  of  such  streets  or 
highways.  Further,  they  must  vacate  and  will  thereafter  be  denied  access  to 
buildings  and  other  structures  on  both  sides  of  such  prohibited  streets  or  highways. 

2.  Where  the  boundary  line  is  on  the  same  side  of  the  street  or  highway  as  the 
prohibited  area,  the  said  street  or  highway  is  excluded  from  the  prohibited  area. 
In  such  case  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  may  use  and  travel  over  the  said  street 
or  highway.  They  may  remain  in  and  have  access  to  the  buildings  and  other 
structures  on  the  free  or  open  side  of  the  street  or  highway,  but  must  vacate  and 
will  thereafter  be  denied  access  to  the  buildings  and  other  structures  on  the  closed 
side  of  the  street  which  is  within  the  prohibited  area. 

For  example,  the  boundary  of  prohibited  area  No.  19  within  the  city  of  San 
Francisco  is  described  in  part  as  follows: 

"*  *  *  thence  west  along  the  south  line  of  North  Point  Street  to  the  west 
line  of  Van  Ness  Avenue,  thence  south  to  the  north  line  of  Bay  Street,  thence 
west  along  the  said  north  line  of  Bay  Street  to  the  east  line  of  Webster  Street, 
*     *     *"  etc. 

In  this  instance  the  prohibited  area  lies  north  of  the  above  boundary  line. 
Hence  North  Point  Street  is  closed  to  all  enemy  alien  travel  and  must  be  evacuated 
on  both  sides  since  the  boundary  is  on  the  south  line  of  said  street.  On  the  other 
hand,  Bay  Street  is  open  to  enemy  alien  travel  since  the  boundary  line  is  on  the 
north  side  of  said  street. 

(b)  The  official  descriptions  of  other  class  A  prohibited  areas  simply  refer  to 
a  street  or  highway  being  the  boundary  line.  Thus,  prohibited  area  No.  13  is 
described  in  part  as  follows: 

"*  *  *  commencing  at  the  west  end  of  Berkeley  Municipal  Fishing  Pier. 
The  line  runs  then  east  along  said  pier  to  University  Avenue,  then  east  along 
University  Avenue  to  Grove  Street,  then  north  along  Grove  Street  to  Arlington 
Avenue,  then  continues  along  Arlington  Avenue     *     *     *"  etc. 

In  such  cases  the  streets  named  as  the  boundaries  are  not  within  the  prohibited 
areas.  Aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  may  use  and  travel  over  these  boundary 
streets.  They  may  have  access  to  and  remain  in  buildings  and  other  structures 
on  the  free  and  open  side  of  such  streets,  but  must  vacate  and  will  thereafter  be 
denied  access  to  buildings  and  other  structures  on  the  closed  side  of  the  street 
which  is  within  the  prohibited  area. 

60396— 42— pt.  29 6 



The  activities  of  all  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  (i.  e.,  citizens  or  subjects  of 
Germany,  Italy,  or  Japan)  are  subject  to  restrictions  throughout  the  entire 
United  States.'  In  addition,  special  restrictions  on  their  activities  have  been 
imposed  in  the  two  general  classifications  of  areas  described  in  section  V-2. 
Explanation  of  the  special  restrictions  applicable  in  these  two  types  of  areas  is 
set  forth  in  the  ensuing  pages. 

All  aliens  within  the  United  States  were  lequired  to  register  under  the  Alien 
Registration  Act  of  1940.  Since  the  outbreak  of  war  a  special  registration  of 
aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  was  conducted  commencing  Monday,  February  2 
and  closing  on  Monday,  February  9.  In  this  resigtration  aliens  of  enemy  nation- 
alities applied  for  certificates  of  identification,  which  will  be  issued  to  them. 
Enemy  aliens  permanently  confined  to  their  homes  were  not  required  to  register. 
Persons  temporarily  confined  were  required  to  complete  a  special  form  which  was 
obtained  for  them  at  the  post  office  registration  center.  Within  5  days  after  they 
are  no  longer  bedridden  these  persons  must  register. 

You  are  being  supplied  with  Form  AR-AE-26,  Summary  of  proclamations  of 
the  President  of  the  United  States,  etc.,  which  under  items  1  and  2  describes  the 
persons  who  have  been  required  to  apply  for  these  certificates  of  identification. 
A  copy  of  this  summary  was  supplied  to  each  registrant.  Any  persons  who  have 
any  questions  as  to  registration  requirements  should  be  referred  to  the  nearest 
office  of  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service.  A  list  of  these  offices  is 
included  in  vour  set  of  instructions. 

The  fact  must  be  borne  in  mind  at  all  times  that  the  administration  of  all 
regulations  pertaining  to  the  conduct  of  enemy  aliens  has  been  entrusted  to  the 
Department  of  Justice,  and  that  authoritative  answers  to  questions  as  to  the 
administration  and  interpretation  of  the  regulations  may  be  made  only  by  repre- 
sentatives of  that  Department.  For  the  present,  when  questions  arise  for  which 
you  do  not  have  clear  and  explicit  instructions,  you  must  refer  such  questions 
immediately  to  the  regional  office  of  the  Social  Security  Board  in  San  Francisco. 
Accordingly,  you  will  not  make  any  contacts  in  this  regard  with  other  Government 


General  comments. — The  regulations  of  the  Department  of  Justice  pertaining  to 
travel  by  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  generally  have  been  summarized  in  printed 
Form  AR-AE-26,  paragraph  11,  as  follows: 

"No  alien  of  enemy  nationality  shall  travel  or  move  from  place  to  place  without 
having  obtained  permission  of  the  United  States  attorney  for  the  judicial  district 
in  which  he  resides  with  the  exception  that  such  permission  is  not  required  for 
travel  within  the  urban  or  rural  community  in  which  the  alien  resides,  for  com- 
muting to  business  or  for  travel  to  places  of  worship  or  school,  or  to  transact  busi- 
ness with  public  officials.  Such  permission  may  be  granted  by  the  United  States 
attorney  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the  Attorney  General's  revised 

Until  further  modified,  the  foregoing  regulations  will  continue  to  apply  through- 
out the  entire  State  of  California,  with  two  important  exceptions,  viz,  (a)  they 
do  not  apply  in  prohibited  areas  on  and  after  the  effective  date  of  the  prohibitions 
applicable  to  each  such  area  (after  such  effective  date  an  alien  of  enemy  nationality 
may  not  live  or  work  or  travel  or  be  within  a  prohibited  area  for  any  reason  what- 
soever), and  (b)  after  February  24,  1942,  further  restrictions  on  travel  of  aliens 
of  enemy  nationalities  will  apply  in  the  restricted  areas  designated  in  the  orders 
of  the  Attornev  General. 

Restrictions  applicable  in  restricted  areas. — Aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  residing 
and  employed  within  class  B  areas  may  remain  therein,  provided  they  obey  all 
regulations.     The  more  important  of  these  are  as  follows: 

A.  They  must  remain  in  their  residences  from  9  p.  m.  to  6  a.  m. 

(In  special  cases  United  States  attorneys  are  authorized  to  grant  exceptions 
upon  proper  application  to  them.  This  application  must  be  made  in  writing. 
Such  exceptions  will  be  granted  only  for  compelling  reasons  and  after  investiga- 

B.  They  mav  travel  between  their  residences  and  their  places  of  business  or 
employment.  Except  when  they  are  at  work  or  going  to  and  from  work,  they 
must  at  all  times  be  within  5  miles  of  their  residences.  This  means  that  they  may 
be  employed  at  distances  of  more  than  5  miles  from  their  residences  and  may 


travel  to  and  from  work.     For  any  other  purpose,  however,  they  may  not  travel 
more  than  5  miles  from  their  residences. 

(In  special  cases,  United  States  attornevs  are  authorized  to  grant  exceptions 
upon  applications  made  in  writing.  Exceptions  will  be  granted  only  in  compelling 
cases  and  after  suitable  investigation.) 

C.  Exceptions  when  finally  granted  must  be  endorsed  on  the  alien's  certificate 
of  identification  by  the  United  States  attorney. 

D.  Aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  must  obey  such  further  regulations  as  may 
hereafter  be  promulgated. 

Any  alien  of  enemy  nationality  is  liable  to  internment  for  the  duration  of  the 
war  for  any  infraction  of  regulations.  Aliens  not  interned  but  deemed  by  the 
authorities  to  be  undesirable  are  subject  to  removal  from  the  limits  of  class  B 
areas  by  revocation  of  permission  granted.  Revocation  of  the  permission  shall 
be  endorsed  on  the  alien's  identification  certificate  by  the  United  States  attorney. 

Provisions  applicable  in  prohibited  areas.- — Since  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  are 
subject  to  summary  apprehension  and  internment  if  they  violate  the  restrictions 
relating  to  prohibited  areas,  it  is  important  that  all  questions  regarding  the  boun- 
daries of  these  areas  be  referred  immediately  to  the  regional  office  of  the  Social 
Security  Board,  which  will  undertake  to  secure  an  authoritative  answer.  Under 
no  circumstances  should  you  assume  responsibility  for  answering  such  a  doubtful 

No  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  may  be  permitted  within  or  through  a  pro- 
hibited area  under  any  circumstances  on  and  after  the  effective  date  of  the  restric- 
tions. Consequently,  the  alien  may  neither  work  nor  reside  or  enter  upon  such 
an  area  for  any  purpose.  An  incapacitated  alien  of  enemy  nationality  may  not 
remain  in  a  prohibited  area  even  though  his  abode  is  with  a  citizen  family.  Such 
an  alien  must  leave  a  prohibited  area,  regardless  of  his  or  her  marital  status  or 
family  responsibility.  An  alien  of  enemy  nationality  may  have  his  business,  if 
located  within  a  prohibited  area,  operated  by  a  citizen,  but  the  alien  may  not 
enter  the  area  at  any  time.  Under  existing  regulations,  his  interest  in  his  busi- 
ness is  not  otherwise  impaired. 

The  Department  of  Justice  has  advised  that  no  exceptions  will  be  made  to  these 


(For  more  complete  detail  on  this  subject,  see  "Regulations  Governing  Travel  by  Enemy  Aliens"  in 


In  order  to  meet  the  special  situation  presented  by  the  orders  of  the  Attorney 
General  designating  certain  areas  as  prohibited  to  such  aliens,  and  requiring  their 
removal  thereform,  the  United  States  attorneys  for  both  the  northern  and  south- 
ern districts  of  California  have  adopted  the  following  regulations  and  procedures 
respecting  the  travel  of  enemy  aliens  involved  in  their  evacuation  from  prohibited 
areas.     These  are: 

1.    Change  of  residence  to  place  within  same  community. 

If  residence  is  changed  from  one  place  to  another  within  the  same  urban  or  rural 
community,  no  prior  permission  to  travel  for  this  purpose  need  be  secured.  How- 
ever, promptly  after  arrival  at  the  new  residence,  the  enemy  alien  must  give  written 
notice  of  the  change  of  residence  to  the  United  States  attorney  for  the  judicial 
district  in  which  the  alien  formerly  resided.  In  addition,  the  enemy  alien  must 
mail  (a)  a  similar  notice  to  the  local  office  of  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation, 
nearest  his  former  residence,  and  (6)  a  notice  of  the  change  of  residence  to  the 
Alien  Registration  Division  of  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service, 
Washington,  D.  C. 

8.   Change  of  residence  to  place  outside  rural  or  urban  community. 

In  order  to  lawfully  travel  from  a  prohibited  area  to  a  new  place  of  residence 
in  a  nonprohibited  area  which  place  is  outside  the  urban  or  rural  community  of 
present  residence,  the  enemy  alien  must  secure  prior  permission  from  the  United 
States  Attorney  for  the  judicial  district  in  which  he  has  been  residing.  If  time 
will  allow,  and  the  distance  is  not  so  great  as  to  cause  inconvenience  or  impede 
evacuation  from  the  prohibited  areas,  alien  enemies  needing  permission  to  travel 
to  a  new  place  of  residence  under  the  above  regulations  should  be  sent  to  the 
nearest  United  States  attorney's  office  to  secure  such  permission  prior  to  de- 
parture.    However,  whenever  it  appears  advisable  to  do  so,  in  the  interests  of 


expediting  evacuation  from  prohibited  areas  prior  to  the  effective  date  of  the 
Attorney  General's  orders,  a  permit  to  travel  may  be  issued  by  the  employment 
office  manager,  if  he  has  been  expressly  designated  by  letter  from  the  regional 
director  to  exercise  such  authority.  In  all  cases  in  which  a  travel  permit  is  issued 
by  either  the  United  States  attorney  or  an  authorized  person  in  the  local  employ- 
ment office,  the  enemy  alien  should  be  advised  that  upon  arrival  at  the  new  place 
of  residence,  notices  of  the  change  of  residence  should  be  promptly  mailed  by  him 
to  (a)  the  United  States  attorney  of  the  district  where  the  alien  formerly  resided, 
(b)  the  local  office  of  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  nearest  his  former 
residence,  and  (c)  the  Registration  Division  of  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization 
Service  in  Washington,  D.  C.  Forms  of  notices  to  these  agencies  should  be  sup- 
plied to  the  alien,  as  explained  in  the  preceding  paragraph  1  of  these  instructions. 
Since  enemy  aliens  who  fail  to  comply  with  the  regulations  are  subject  to  summary 
apprehension  and  internment,  it  is  important  that  they  observe  the  regulations. 

3.  Instructions  governing  issuance  of  travel  permits. 

Certain  of  the  Employment  Office  managers,  expressly  designated  by  a  letter 
from  the  regional  director,  are  authorizde  to  issue  travel  permits  to  enemy 
aliens,  but  only  for  the  purpose  of  traveling  from  a  prohibited  area  to  a  nonpro- 
hibited  area  for  the  purpose  of  effecting  a  permanent  change  of  residence.  This 
means  that  permits  can  only  be  issued  to  facilitate  evacuation  from  prohibited 
areas.  They  cannot  be  issued  for  any  other  purpose.  The  phrase  "permanent 
change  of  residence"  refers  to  a  change  of  residence  of  indefinite  duration.  It  does 
not  mean  that  the  permittee  must  intend  to  remain  at  the  new  address  forever. 
No  one,  except  a  person  expressly  designated  by  letter  from  the  regional  director, 
has  authority  to  sign  these  permits,  and  he  cannot  delegate  his  authority  to  any 
other  person. 

4.  Travel  by  enemy  aliens  seeking  employment. 

The  existing  regulations  authorize  limited  travel  by  enemy  aliens  for  specified 
purposes  and  within  fixed  limits  (i.  e.,  the  limits  of  the  urban  or  rural  community 
of  residence,  and  after  February  24,  1942,  in  restricted  areas — class  B,  within 
5  miles  of  such  residence).  Travel  for  other  purposes  or  beyond  these  limits  is 
not  authorized  unless  the  enemy  alien  has  first  obtained  the  permission  of  the 
United  States  attorney  for  the  judicial  district  in  which  he  resides. 

The  authority  delegated  to  the  Federal  Security  Agency  by  the  United  States 
attorneys  in  California,  which  has  been  assigned  to  certain  of  the  employment 
office  managers,  to  issue  travel  permits  is  strictly  limited  to  granting  permits,  in 
accordance  with  the  instructions  set  forth  above,  only  (1)  to  aliens  living  in  the 
prohibited  areas,  (2)  for  the  exclusive  purpose  of  traveling  to  effectuate  a  per- 
manent change  of  residence  to  some  nonprohibited  area.  It  does  not  include 
authority  to  grant  such  permits  to  any  other  class  of  enemy  aliens  or  for  any  other 
travel  purpose.  Specifically,  permits  cannot  be  granted  by  employment  office 
managers  to  any  enemy  alien  for  the  purpose  of  traveling  in  search  of  employment. 
All  enemy  aliens  seeking  travel  permits  for  such  a  purpose  should  be  advised  to 
apply  to  the  nearest  United  States  attorney. 


1.  Japanese  nationals,  domiciled  and  residing  only  in  the  United  States  at  all 
times  on  and  since  June  17,  1940,  and  who  have  not  acted  or  purported  to  act 
directly  or  indirectly  for  the  benefit  of  any  enemy  country,  may  transact  business' 
concerning  their  property  under  General  License  68A,  issued  by  the  United  States 
Treasury  Department. 

Japanese  nationals  having  property  interests  of  $1,000  or  more  in  value  must 
file  report  TFR  300,  series  J,  with  the  Federal  Reserve  bank  on  or  before  February 
28,  1942.  Such  nationals  must  not  by  any  transaction,  either  directly  or  indirectly, 
substantially  diminish  or  imperil  or  otherwise  prejudicially  affect  their  assets  or 
financial  position. 

2.  German  and  Italian  nationals,  domiciled  and  residing  only  in  the  United 
States  at  all  times  on  or  since  June  1,  1940,  may  deal  freely  with  their  property. 
(Executive  Order  No.  8389,  as  amended,  and  General  License  42,  United  States 
Treasury  Department.) 

3.  Aliens  of  .enemy  nationalities  are  prohibited  from  having  in  their  possession, 
custody,  or  control  or  from  using  or  operating  certain  prohibited  articles.  These 
prohibited  articles  include  among  other  things,  radio  transmitters,  short-wave 
radio  receiving  sets,  cameras  and  firearms. 


Aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  having  questions  relating  to  property  and  business 
transactions  should  be  referred  to  the  nearest  bank  which  is  a  member  of  the 
Federal  Reserve  System. 

4.  The  United  States  attorney  for  the  judicial  district  in  which  an  alien  of 
enemy  nationality  resides  may,  under  certain  specified  conditions,  grant  per- 
mission to  an  alien  of  enemy  nationality  to  use  or  operate  or  possess  short-wave 
radios,  cameras,  or  other  prohibited  articles.  To  obtain  information  as  to  the 
circumstances  under  which  such  permission  will  be  granted,  an  alien  of  enemy 
nationality  should  consult  the  Attorney  General's  revised  regulations.  If  he 
needs  further  information,  he  should  consult  the  United  States  attorney  nearest 
his  residence. 

Exhibit  A. — Summary  of  Proclamations  of  the  President  of  the  United 
States  of  December  7  and  8,  1941,  and  January  14,  1942,  and  of  Regu- 
lations of  the  Attorney  General  Thereunder  1942,  Prescribing  the 
Conduct  To  Be  Observed  by  Aliens  of  Enemy  Nationalities 

The  proclamations  of  the  President  of  December  7  and  8,  1941,  direct  the 
conduct  to  be  observed  by  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  in  the  United  States 
who  have  not  been  naturalized  as  citizens  of  the  United  States.  The  proclama- 
tion of  the  President  of  January  14,  1942,  requires  that  aliens  of  enemy  nationali- 
ties shall  apply  for  certificates  of  identification  in  the  manner  required  by  the 
regulations  of  the  Attorney  General.  Under  the  authority  of  the  proclama- 
tions the  Attorney  General  has  issued  revised  regulations  governing  the 
possession  of  radios,  cameras,  firearms,  and  other  prohibited  articles  and  the 
travel  of  alien  enemies,  and  regulations  requiring  applications  for  certificates  of 
identification  at  specified  times.  It  is  their  duty  to  become  acquainted  with 
these  regulations  and  to  become  familiar  with  any  other  regulations  which  are 
hereafter  issued.  For  convenience  and  merely  as  a  guide,  a  summary  of  these 
regulations  follows  but  the  summary  does  not  take  the  place  of  the  regulations. 

1.  The  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  required  to  apply  for  certifications  of 
identification  and  to  observe  the  regulations  include  all  persons  of  the  age  of  14 
years  or  over  who  are  German,  Italian,  or  Japanese  citizens  or  subjects  or  who 
are  stateless  but  who  at  the  time  at  which  they  became  stateless  were  German, 
Italian,  or  Japanese  citizens  or  subjects. 

2.  Persons  not  required  to  apply  for  certificates  of  identification  or  to  comply 
with  the  revised  regulations  include  German,  Italian,  and  Japanese  citizens  or 
subjects  who  became  citizens  or  subjects  of  any  nation  other  than  Germany, 
Italy,  or  Japan,  before  December  7,  1941,  in  the  case  of  former  Japanese  citizens 
or  subjects,  and  before  December  8,  1941,  in  the  case  of  former  German  or  Italian 
citizens  or  subjects,  and  also  Austrians,  Austrian-Hungarians,  and  Koreans  who 
registered  as  such  under  the  Alien  Registration  Act  of  1940. 

3.  Aliens  of  enemv  nationalities  are  required  to  preserve  the  peace  toward  the 
United  States  and  refrain  from  any  hostility  to  the  United  States  or  from  in  any 
way  aiding  the  enemies  of  the  United  States. 

4.  Aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  are  prohibited  from  having  in  their  possession, 
custody,  or  control  or  from  using  or  operating  certain  prohibited  articles.  These 
prohibited  articles  include  among  other  things,  radio  transmitters,  short-wave 
radio  receiving  sets,  cameras,  and  firearms. 

5.  The  United  States  attorney  for  the  judicial  district  in  which  an  alien  enemy 
resides  may,  under  certain  specified  conditions,  grant  permission  to  an  alien  of 
enemy  nationality  to  use  or  operate  or  possess  short-wave  radios,  cameras,  or 
other  prohibited  articles.  To  obtain  information  as  to  the  circumstances  under 
which  such  permission  will  be  granted,  an  alien  of  enemy  nationality  should 
consult  the  Attorney  General's  revised  regulations  and  if  he  needs  further  infor- 
mation he  should  consult  the  United  States  attorney. 

6.  Aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  are  forbidden  to  make  any  flight  in  any  type 
of  airplane  or  aircraft  and  are  forbidden  from  entering  or  being  found  in  or  upon 
any  highway,  waterway,  airway,  railway,  subway,  public  utility  or  building  not 
open  and- accessible  to  the  public  generally  and  not  generally  used  by  the  public. 
All  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  are  forbidden  to  enter  or  leave  the  United  States 
except  under  the  regulations  in  the  proclamation  of  the  President  of  November 
14,  1941,  and  all  the  regulations  promulgated  thereunder. 

7.  No  alien  of  enemy  nationality  shall  be  found  within  any  area  which  shall  be 
designated  by  the  Attorney  General  as  an  area  within  which  alien  enemies  shall 
not  be  found  and  no  alien  enemies  shall  reside  within  an  area  which  shall  be 


designated  by  the  Attorney  General  as  an  area  within  which  alien  enemies  shall 
not  reside. 

8.  No  alien  of  enemy  nationality  shall  change  his  place  of  abode  or  residence  or 
his  place  of  employment  or  of  occupation  without  having  at  least  one  week  before 
such  a  change  filed  with  the  United  States  attorney  for  the  judicial  district  in 
which  he  then  resides,  a  written  notice  of  intention  to  change  his  place  of  residence. 

9.  No  alien  of  enemy  nationality  shall  assume  or  use  any  other  than  his  legal 
name  except  as  authorized  by  or  under  law. 

10.  Whenever  an  alien  of  enemy  nationality  who  is  a  holder  of  a  certificate  of 
identification  changes  his  name,  residence,  address,  or  place  of  employment,  a 
written  notice  shall  immediately  be  given  to  the  Alien  Registration  Division  of  the 
Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service  and  the  local  office  of  the  Federal  Bureau 
of  Investigation  shown  in  the  holder's  certificate  of  identification. 

11.  No  alien  of  enemy  nationality  shall  travel  or  move  from  place  to  place 
without  having  obtained  permission  of  the  United  States  attorney  for  the  judicial 
district  in  which  he  resides  with  the  exception  that  such  permission  is  not  required 
for  travel  within  the  urban  or  rural  community  in  which  the  alien  resides,  for 
commuting  to  business  or  for  travel  to  places  of  worship  or  school,  or  to  transact 
business  with  public  officials.  Such  permission  may  be  granted  by  the  United 
States  attorney  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the  Attorney  General's 
revised  regulations. 

12.  An  alien  of  enemy  nationality  who  fails  to  comply  with  the  provisions  of 
the  proclamations  and  regulations  prescribing  the  conduct  to  be  observed  by  alien 
enemies,  is  subject  to  apprehension,  detention,  and  internment  for  the  duration 
of  the  war. 

Francis  Biddle, 

Attorney  General. 

Exhibit  B. — Letter  From  Attorney  General  Biddle  to  Hon.  Paul  V* 
McNutt,  Asking  Him  to  Undertake  the  Task  of  Facilitating  the 
Evacuation  of  Enemy  Aliens  From  Restricted  Areas 

Department  of  Justice, 
Office  of  Attorney   General, 
Washington,  D.  C,  January  SI,  1942. 
Hon.  Paul  V.  McNutt, 

Administrator,  Federal  Security  Agency,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Mr.  McNutt:  Under  authority  of  regulation  9  of  the  Presidential  proc- 
lamation of  December  7  and  8,  1941,  the  Secretary  of  War  has  recommended  that 
certain  areas  be  designated  by  me  as  prohibited  are?,s  from  which  all  alien  enemies 
are  absolutely  excluded.  Over  40  areas  in  California  have  already  been  so  desig- 
nated, in  which  a  sizable  but  as  yet  undetermined  number  of  aliens  either  live 
or  work.  Other  larger  areas  along  the  west  coast  are  to  be  designated  as  restricted 
and  these  restrictions  make  it  difficult  to  resettle  in  these  locations  the  persons 
removed  from  the  prohibited  areas. 

The  Department  of  Justice  is  not  itself  equipped  to  resettle  these  alien  enemies. 
Resettlement  involves  processes  which  are  basically  associated  with  the  social 
services,  including  investigation  of  the  needs  and  means  of  the  aliens  affected, 
helping  them  to  obtain  appropriate  employment,  and  otherwise  assisting  those 
who  are  not  able  to  resettle  and  reestablish  themselves  in  other  locations. 

The  operating  units  of  the  Federal  Security  Agency  already  include  many  of 
the  Federal  services  which  are  involved  in  such  an  undertaking.  As  Director  of 
the  Office  of  Defense  Health  and  Welfare  Services  you  have  been  designated  to 
coordinate  health  and  welfare  services  of  all  departments  and  agencies  of  the  Fed- 
eral Government,  and  of  other  agencies,  public  and  private,  to  meet  the  needs  of 
States  and  local  communities  arising  from  the  defense  program  and  make  avail- 
able to  States  and  localities  the  services  of  specialists  to  assist  in  the  planning  and 
execution  of  State  and  local  programs  in  the  field  of  health,  welfare,  and  related 

I  am,  therefore,  requesting  you,  as  Federal  Security  Administrator  and  as  Direc- 
tor of  Defense  Health  and  Welfare  Services,  to  undertake,  on  behalf  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Justice,  the  task  of  facilitating  the  transfer  of  alien  enemies  from  areas 
designated  by  me  and  to  relocate  and  reestablish  such  aliens  in  appropriate  places 
and  in  appropriate  activities.  If  you  see  fit  to  accept  this  responsibility  on  behalf 
of  the  Attorney  General,  you  will  of  course  call  upon  the  services  of  other  Federal 


agencies  which  can  contribute  to  the  effectiveness  of  this  migration;  my  own 
Department  stands  ready  to  assist  you  with  its  services  and  authority  in  any 
operations  which  you  find  necessary  in  carrying  forward  this  assignment.  We 
will  cooperate  with  you  in  making  available  the  lists  of  names  and  addresses  of 
the  persons  who  are  affected  by  the  removal  orders  which  I  issue  and  any  other 
appropriate  information  on  file  in  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation,  the  Alien 
Enemy  Control  Unit,  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service,  or  other 
branches  of  this  Department.  My  agents  in  the  field  will  similarly  make  avail- 
able such  information  to  your  designated  representatives. 

No  money  is  now  available  for  me  to  transfer  to  your  Agency  to  accomplish  this 
migration.  If  you  are  willing  to  undertake  it,  I  will  request  the  President,  through 
the  Director  of  the  Bureau  of  the  Budget,  to  make  available  to  you  as  Federal 
Security  Administrator,  from  the  emergency  fund  of  the  President,  such  moneys 
as  are  necessary,  for  the  purposes  I  have  outlined,  pending  any  congressional 
appropriation  that  may  prove  necessary. 

Many  of  the  alien  enemies  affected  by  these  plans  are  now  performing  functions 
which  contribute  directly  to  the  success  of  our  American  war  effort.  The  proper 
reestablishment  of  these  dislocated  aliens  is  important  to  certain  types  of  labor 
supply  and  to  the  maintenance  of  our  agricultural  output.  For  these  reasons  it 
is  in  the  interest  of  the  United  States  that  this  operation  be  carried  out  with  the 
smallest  possible  loss  of  human  resources. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Francis  Biddle, 

Attorney  General. 

Exhibit  C. —  Statement  to  the  Personnel  of  the  Social  Security  Board 

in  the  Area  of  the  Western  Command  by  Richard  M.  Neustadt,  Regional 


February  6,  1942. 

Both  by  law  and  by  Executive  order  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  the 
responsibility  for  the  custody,  surveillance  and  care  of  all  alien  enemies  is  vested 
in  the  Department  of  Justice.  On  January  31  the  Attorney  General  assigned  to 
Governor  McNutt,  in  his  dual  capacity  as  Administrator  of  the  Federal  Security 
Agency  and  Director  of  the  Office  of  Defense  Health  and  Welfare  Services,  "the 
task  of  facilitating  the  transfer  of  alien  enemies  designated  by  me  and  to  relocate 
and  reestablish  such  aliens  in  appropriate  places  and  appropriate  activities." 
Governor  McNutt  in  turn  has  called  upon  me  to  represent  him  in  carrying  out  this 
responsibility  in  the  area  of  the  western  command. 

We  have  decided  to  utilize  the  offices  of  the  United  States  Employment  Service 
as  the  information  and  service  centers  for  such  alien  enemies  who  will  be  forced  to 
move  out  of  the  prohibited  areas  (also  designated  as  A  areas),  either  into  restricted 
areas  (also  referred  to  as  B  areas)  or  in  the  unrestricted  areas.  After  the  24th  of 
February  in  California,  and  after  such  date  as  yet  undetermined  in  other  States, 
no  alien  enemy  can  either  live  or  work  or  be  in  any  prohibited  or  A  areas  (official 
fists  of  which  will  be  forwarded  shortly) .  At  these  offices  alien  enemies  who  need 
help  in  finding  work  or  in  relocating  and  sustaining  their  families  will  be  accorded 
courteous  and  friendly  treatment  by  the  assigned  representatives  of  the  employ- 
ment office  and  of  the  Division  of  Social  Assistance  who  will  be  stationed  therein. 
These  representatives  of  the  division  of  social  assistance  will  be  Federal  employees, 
and  will  have  the  authority  to  requisition  on  me  for  whatever  travel  allowances  or 
cash  aid  may  be  required,  and  it  will  be  granted  upon  my  certification  to  the  San 
Francisco  Disbursement  Office  of  the  United  States  Treasury  Department. 

The  line  of  administrative  authority  will  follow  the  regular  channels  of  the 
United  States  Employment  Service  and  of  the  division  of  social  assistance  being 
set  up  in  this  office.  The  division  of  social  assistance  is  under  the  regional  rep- 
resentative of  the  Bureau  of  Public  Assistance  and  functions  through  specially 
designated  representatives  in  the  State  and  in  the  local  offices.  In  addition  to 
their  regular  functions,  some  offices  of  the  United  States  Employment  Service 
will  be  utilized  as  temporary  offices  of  the  local  representatives  of  the  division 
of  social  assistance.  More  detailed  instruction  will  be  issued  through  these 
administrative  channels  within  the  next  few  days. 

Through  initial  and  unfortunately  premature  and  overly  generalized  publicity, 
it  is  probable  that  alien  enemies  or  representatives  of  agencies  interested  in  them 
will  call  at  any  of  the  offices  of  Old-Age  and  Survivors  Insurance,  United  States 
Employment  Service,  or  county-welfare  departments.     Pending  clarification^of 


the  announcement  which  will  direct  such  people  to  the  proper  local  office  of  the 
United  States  Employment  Service,  you  are  asked  to  see  to  it  that  all  such  in- 
quirers are  given  courteous  treatment  and  referred  to  the  nearest  United  States 
Employment  Service  office  in  which  a  representative  of  the  division  of  social  as- 
sistance will  furnish  them  concrete  advice.  (List  of  these  offices  is  attached.) 
It  is  highly  important  that  these  people  be  treated  with  dignity  and  with  courtesy. 
They  should  be  made  to  feel  that  while  because  of  war  it  is  necessary  to  move 
them  out  of  the  prohibited  areas  and  to  prevent  their  working  therein,  the  United 
States  Government  wishes  to  help  them  avoid  unnecessary  hardships  in  such 

No  contact  should  be  made  locally  with  the  Department  of  Justice  or  the 
western  command. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Richard  M.  Neustadt,  Regional  Director. 

Exhibit  D. — Statement  by  the  President  of  the  United  States 

January  2,  1942. 

I  am  deeply  concerned  over  the  increasing  number  of  reports  of  employers 
discharging  workers  who  happen  to  be  aliens  or  even  foreign-born  citizens.  This 
is  a  very  serious  matter.  It  is  one  thing  to  safeguard  American  industry,  and 
particularly  defense  industry,  against  sabotage;  but  it  is  very  much  another  to 
throw  out  of  work  honest  and  loyal  people  who,  except  for  the  accident  of  birth, 
are  sincerely  patriotic. 

Such  a  policy  is  as  stupid  as  it  is  unjust,  and  on  both  counts  it  plays  into  the 
hands  of  the  enemies  of  American  democracy.  By  discharging  loyal,  efficient 
workers  simply  because  they  were  born  abroad  or  because  they  have  "foreign- 
sounding"  names  or  by  refusing  to  employ  such  men  and  women,  employers 
are  engendering  the  very  distrust  and  disunity  on  which  our  enemies  are  counting 
to  defeat  us. 

Remember  the  Nazi  technique:  "Pit  race  against  race,  religion  against  religion, 
prejudice  against  prejudice.     Divide  and  conquer." 

We  must  not  let  that  happen  here.  We  must  not  forget  what  we  are  defending: 
Liberty,  decency,  justice.  We  cannot  afford  the  economic  waste  of  services  of 
all  loyal  and  patriotic  citizens  and  noncitizens  in  defending  our  land  and  liberties. 

I  urge  all  private  employers  to  adopt  a  sane  policy  regarding  aliens  and  foreign- 
born  citizens  and  to  remember  that  the  sons  of  the  "foreigners"  they  discharged 
may  be  among  those  who  fought  and  are  fighting  so  valiantly  at  Pearl  Harbor 
or  in  the  Philippines. 

There  is  no  law  providing  against  employment  of  aliens  except  in  special 
defense  work  of  a  secret  nature,  and  even  in  such  work  the  employer  may  hire 
an  alien  with  the  permission  of  the  Army  or  Navy,  depending  on  the  contract. 

Exhibit  E  —  Letter  from  Hon.  Paul  V.  McNutt  to  Richard  Neustadt 
Assigning  Responsibility  of  Coordinating  and  Planning  Activities 
Relevant  to  the  Problems  of  Evacuations  on  the  West  Coast 

Federal  Security  Agency, 
Office  of  the  Administrator, 

Washington,  February  4>  1942. 

Dear  Mr.  Neustadt:  The  Department  of  Justice  has  requested  the  Federal 
Security  Agency  to  assume  responsibility  for  the  resettlement  of  alien  enemies 
from  areas  designated  by  that  agency  as  prohibited  areas.  The  following  excerpts 
are  quoted  from  the  letter  which  I  received  from  the  Attorney  General  dated 
January  31,  1942. 

"The  Department  of  Justice  is  not  itself  equipped  to  resettle  these  alien  enemies. 
Resettlement  involves  processes  which  are  basically  associated  with  the  social 
services,  including  investigation  of  the  needs  and  means  of  the  aliens  affected, 
helping  them  to  obtain  appropriate  employment,  and  otherwise  assisting  those  who 
are  not  able  to  resettle  and  reestablish  themselves  in  other  locations. 

"The  operating  units  of  the  Federal  Security  Agency  already  include  many  of 
the  Federal  services  which  are  involved  in  such  an  undertaking.  As  Director  of 
the  Office  of  Defense  Health  and  Welfare  Services  you  have  been  designated  to 


coordinate  health  and  welfare  services  of  all  departments  and  agencies  of  the 
Federal  Government,  and  of  other  agencies,  public  and  private,  to  meet  the 
needs  of  States  and  local  communities  arising  from  the  defense  program  and  to 
make  available  to  States  and  localities  the  services  of  specialists  to  assist  in  the 
planning  and  execution  of  State  and  local  programs  in  the  fields  of  health,  welfare, 
and  related  activities. 

"I  am  therefore  requesting  you  as  Federal  Security  Administrator  and  as 
Director  of  Defense  Health  and  Welfare  Services,  to  undertake,  on  behalf  of  the 
Department  of  Justice  the  task  of  facilitating  the  transfer  of  alien  enemies  from 
areas  designated  by  me  and  to  relocate  and  reestablish  such  aliens  in  appropriate 
places  and  in  appropriate  activities.  If  you  see  fit  to  accept  this  responsibility 
on  behalf  of  the  Attorney  General,  you  will  of  course  call  upon  the  services  of 
other  Federal  agencies  which  can  contribute  to  the  effectiveness  of  this  migration; 
my  own  Department  stands  ready  to  assist  you  with  its  services  and  authority 
in  any  operations  which  you  find  necessary  in  carrying  forward  this  assignment. 
We  will  cooperate  with  you  in  making  available  the  lists  of  names  and  addresses 
of  the  persons  who  are  affected  by  the  removal  orders  which  I  issue  and  any  other 
appropriate  information  on  file  in  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation,  the  Alien 
Enemy  Control  Unit,  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Serfice,  or  other 
branches  of  this  Department.  My  agents  in  the  field  will  similarly  make  available 
such  information  to  your  designated  representatives." 

In  your  capacity  as  Regional  Director  of  the  Office  of  Defense  Health  and 
Welfare  Services  I  wish  you  to  accept  responsibility  for  the  coordination  and 
planning  of  all  the  necessary  activities  and  services  which  will  be  involved  in 
meeting  this  problem.  This  will  include  both  the  relationships  with  the  various 
agencies  of  the  Federal  Government  whose  programs  may  be  utilized  in  connec- 
tion with  the  resettlement  of  these  alien  enemies,  and  the  relationships  with 
State  and  local  agencies  whose  cooperation  should  be  secured  in  carrying  out  this 

I  wish  you  to  assume  this  responsibility  for  the  entire  Ninth  Corps  Area,  and 
I  am  advising  Mr.  Heber  Harper  of  region  XI  accordingly.  You  will,  of  course, 
work  closely  with  Mr.  Harper  in  connection  with  problems  involving  States 
within  his  region. 

I  am  sure  that  I  need  not  point  ou*t  to  you  the  importance  of  our  dealing  with 
this  matter  on  a  basis  which  is  both  consistent  with  the  needs  of  national  security 
and  with  the  principles  of  human  welfare. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Paul  V.   McNutt,  Administrator. 

Exhibit  F. — Statement  by  Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle  Concerning 
the  Employment  of  Aliens  in  Private  Industry 

December  28,  1941. 

Two  weeks  ago  the  Department  of  Justice  issued  an  appeal  to  State  and  local 
law-enforcement  agencies  and  to  the  general  public  to  help  guard  at  home  the 
freedoms  our  country  is  now  fighting  to  defend  by  protecting  the  civil  liberties  of 
our  loyal  noncitizen  population.  There  was  a  heartening  response  to  this  appeal — 
a  minimum  of  hysteria  and  of  the  antagonism  toward  noncitizens  as  a  class  which 
marred  our  wartime  record  of  2  decades  ago,  and  a  willingness  to  leave  to  the 
qualified  Federal  authority  the  problem  of  dealing  with  whatever  disloyal  or 
treacherous  elements,  citizen  and  alien  alike,  which  may  still  exist. 

There  still  remains,  however,  a  serious  problem  in  adjusting  our  sights  to  our 
one  great  objective;  it  is  the  problem  of  discrimination  against  aliens  in  private 

No  more  short-sighted,  wasteful  or  un-American  policy  could  possibly  be 
adopted  at  this  time  than  that  of  barring  noncitizens  from  legitimate  private 
employment.  In  the  first  place,  it  is  a  most  effective  method  of  creating  disunity, 
of  breaking  faith  with  people  who  have  come  to  America  as  a  haven  of  liberty  and 
fair  play.  It  is  a  complete  disavowal  of  our  American  institutions,  our  freedoms, 
and  the  principles  upon  which  our  democracy  was  founded. 

I  am  sorry  to  say  that  numerous  instances  have  come  to  the  attention  of  the 
Department  of  Justice  of  employers  discharging  workers  because  of  some  vague 
suspicion  that  they  may  be  disloyal  aliens,  and  even  because  they  have  foreign- 
sounding  names.  I  should  like  to  remind  such  employers  that  of  our  total 
noncitizen  population  of  about  5,000,000,  fewer  than  3,000 — 6  out  of  10,000— 


have  been  regarded  as  dangerous  to  the  peace  and  safety  of  the  United  States. 
Those  have  been  taken  into  custody  by  the  Federal  authorities. 

I  should  also  like  to  point  out  to  these  employers  that  many  of  the  "foreigners" 
they  have  discharged  now  have  sons  serving  in  our  Army  and  Navy.  Among 
those  who  died  fighting  off  the  treacherous  attacks  upon  Manila  and  Pearl  Harbor 
were  men  named  Wagner  and  Petersen  and  Monzo  and  Rossini  and  Mueller  and 

To  bar  aliens  from  employment  is  both  short-sighted  and  wasteful.  Our  coun- 
try needs  the  skills  and  services  of  every  able-bodied  and  loyal  person,  citizen  or 
alien,  and  to  deprive  it  of  such  services  is  an  economic  waste  and  a  stupid  error. 

There  appears  to  be  some  confusion,  in  this  connection,  as  to  the  policy  of  the 
Federal  Government  and  as  to  the  requirements  of  Federal  statutes  concerning 
the  employment  of  aliens.  As  to  the  first,  it  is  the  stated  policy  of  the  Federal 
Government  that  there  shall  be  no  discrimination  in  the  employment  of  workers  in 
defense  industries  because  of  race,  creed,  color,  or  national  origin. 

As  to  the  law,  there  is  only  one  restriction:  In  the  case  of  secret,  confidential 
or  restricted  Government  contracts,  and  in  the  case  of  contracts  for  aircraft  parts 
or  accessories  the  employer  must  secure  permission  from  the  head  of  the  Federal 
Department  concerned  for  the  employment  of  aliens.  The  War  and  Navy  De- 
partments have  established  regular  procedures  for  handling  such  applications  and 
have  passed  upon  thousands  of  them.  It  should  be  noted  that  the  percentage  of 
cases  in  which  permission  has  not  been  granted  to  employ  aliens  even  on  such 
confidential  work  is  negligible. 

There  are  no  other  Federal  laws  restricting  the  employment  of  aliens  by  pri- 
vate employers  in  national  defense  industries,  and  there  are  no  Federal  laws  what- 
soever restricting  the  employment  of  foreign-born  American  citizens  of  any  par- 
ticular national  origin. 

There  is  no  reason  in  the  world  why  loyal  persons,  either  aliens  or  Americans 
of  foreign  birth,  should  not  be  employed  by  American  industry;  and  there  is  no 
possible  justification  for  discharging  such  employees.  The  Federal  Government 
condemns  such  discrimination  and  urges  all  employers  not  to  adopt  such  a  policy. 

War  threatens  all  civil  rights;  and  although  we  have  fought  wars  before,  and 
our  personal  freedoms  have  survived,  there  have  been  periods  of  gross  abuse, 
when  hysteria  and  hate  and  fear  ran  high,  and  when  minorities  were  unlawfully 
and  cruelly  abused.  Every  man  who  cares  about  freedom,  about  a  government 
by  law — and  all  freedom  is  based  on  fair  administration  of  the  law — must  fight 
for  it  for  the  other  man  with  whom  he  disagrees,  for  the  right  of  the  minority,  for 
the  chance  for  the  underprivileged  with  the  same  passion  of  insistence  as  he  claims 
for  his  own  rights.  If  we  care  about  democracy,  we  must  care  about  it  as  a 
reality  for  others  as  well  as  for  ourselves:  yes,  for  aliens,  for  Germans,  for  Italians, 
for  Japanese,  for  those  who  are  with  us  as  those  who  are  against  us:  For  the  Bill 
of  Rights  protects  not  only  American  citizens  but  all  human  beings  who  live  on 
our  American  soil,  under  our  American  flag.  The  rights  of  Anglo-Saxons,  of 
Jews,  of  Catholics,  of  Negroes,  of  Slavs,  Indians — all  are  alike  before  the  law. 
And  this  we  must  remember  and  sustain— that  is  if  we  really  love  justice,  and 
really  hate  the  bayonet  and  the  whip  and  the  gun,  and  the  whole  Gestapo  method 
as  a  way  of  handling  human  beings. 

Exhibit  G. — Communications  Dealing  with  Japanese  Problem 

San  Francisco,  February  11,  1942.' 
Richard  Neustadt, 

Social  Security  Board. 
Following  telegram  just  received:  "Your  letter  February  7,  1942,  addressed  to 
Isaac  Schlatter,  chairman  board  of  supervisors  of  this  county  has  been  called  to 
our  attention.  This  letter  proposes  to  evacuate  alien  Japanese  and  citizen  Japan- 
ese from  Los  Angeles  area  to  Imperial  county.  Have  had  serious  difficulties  be- 
tween Japanese  and  Filipinos  in  this  county  and  situation  serious  some  Japanese 
have  been  killed.  Any  evacuation  of  Japanese  to  this  county  would  be  serious 
and  grave  mistake  at  this  time  as  it  would  only  tend  to  aggravate  the  present  tense 
situation.  All  Japanese  aliens  have  been  evacuated  from  Baja  California  Republic 
of  Mexico  to  the  State  of  Chihuahua.  The  Mexican  officials  much  concerned 
over  the  possibility  of  more  Japanese  being  brought  into  Imperial  County  Cal- 
ifornia just  across  international  border.  As  law-enforcement  officers  strenuously 
oppose  the  bringing  of  any  more  Japanese  into  this  county  and  have  also  advised 


the  board  of  supervisors  such  action  would  Only  tend  to  aggravate  and  multiply 
law  enforcement  problems.  Considerable  effort  now  being  made  to  have  the 
United  States  Government  evacuate  all  alien  Japanese  from  this  county  action 
proposed  in  letter  would  jeopardize  this  program.  Elmer  W.  Heald,  district 
attorney;  R.  W.  Ware,  sheriff,  County  of  Imperial." 

Martha  A.  Chickerixg, 
Director  State  Department  of  Social  Welfare. 

Los  Angeles,  Calif. 

February  5,  1942. 
Re  Disposition  of  Japanese. 
Hon.  Culbert  L.  Olsen, 

Governor  of  California,  Sacramento,  Calif. 

Dear  Sir:  Just  a  suggestion  which  might  be  helpful  in  the  matter  of  locating 
the  Japs  in  a  safe  and  perhaps  a  helpful  place. 

There  is  a  considerable  body  of  desert  land  that  could  be  watered  and  leveled 
cheaply  in  the  eastern  part  of"  Imperial  County,  beginning  north  and  east  of  the 
Southern  Pacific  station  Knob  and  extending  west  to  the  sand  hills  and  south  to 
the  All- American  Canal,  all  of  which  is  Government  land,  except  a  portion  of  one 
township  owned  by  private  citizens,  who,  no  doubt,  would  be  willing  to  let  the 
Government  use  it'for  the  duration.  I  have  160  acres  of  this  township  and  would 
be  willing  to  let  the  Government  use  it  for  the  duration  without  rent.  I  feel  sure 
the  other  owners  would  do  the  same.  My  land  lies  across  Highway  SO,  12  miles 
west  of  Yuma,  just  east  of  Springers  Service  Station. 

With  plenty  of  cheap  electricity  generated  at  nearby  dams,  there  could  be  a 
pumping  plant  installed  at  the  nearest  point  on  the  canal  to  the  northeast,  or 
highest  corner,  of  this  land.  The  cost  would  not  be  great,  the  land  is  almost  level, 
hence  little  cost  to  prepare  for  irrigation.     Of  course,  the  Japs  would  do  the  work. 

Also  west  of  the  sand  hills  there  is  much  more  land  that  could  be  put  into  culti- 
vation ;  while  it  is  not  so  level,  the  water  lift  would  be  less. 

This  seems  like  a  good  way  to  develop  our  desert  and  a  good  place  for  the 
Japs,  Germs,  etc. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

Hugh  M.  Gallagher. 

Los  Angeles,  Calif., 

February  7,  1942. 
Federal  Security  Agency, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Gentlemen:  I  though  you  might  be  interested  in  knowing  good  location 
where  the  aliens  would  not  be  mixed  with  other  people  and  where  the  land  and 
water  could  be  supplied  at  a  small  cost.  This  land  mentioned  is  all  desert,  very 
nearly  level,  and  the  water  cost  would  not  be  great,  it  being  so  near  to  the  Ail- 
American  Canal.     (See  copy  of  letter  enclosed.) 

The  people  of  the  West,  the  ones  that  have  given  this  matter  any  serious  thought, 
know  that  Japan  began  sending  its  people  to  this  coast  and  other  Pacific  lands  to 
act  in  this,  present,  long  planned  for  cri.sis,  they  come  with  instructions  not 
onlv  to  be  loyal  to  Japan  but  to  rear  their  children  to  be  loyal;  they  send  them  to 
the"  hundreds  of  Jap  schools  scattered  throughout  the  Pacific  coast  (one  two 
blocks  from  me),  and  we  know  what  they  are  taught.  If  you  are  sent  to  Japan 
to  work  and  you  had  children  born  there,  would  you  expect  them  to  be  loyal  to 
Japan?  No;  absolutely  no.  Neither  can  we  expect  a  Jap  to  be  loyal  to  the  white 
race  that  he  has  eternally,  for  generations,  been  taught  to  despise.  Nope,  just 
because  a  Jap  is  born  here  does  not  make  him  white,  loyal,  trustworthy,  or  even 
a  citizen  in  the  true  sense  of  the  meaning. 

The  people  of  the  West  know  that  if  and  when  the  Japs  attack  us  that  all  these 
Japs  will  turn  on  us  and  with  the  knowledge  they  have  gained  all  these  years 
will  be  put  to  a  great  advantage.  They  are  so  bold  that  they  even  write  letters 
to  authorities  asking  for  detail  information  of  our  water  system,  location  of  dams, 
and  all  details.  Also  of  the  detail  of  many  other  things,  such  as  gasoline  refineries, 
location,  amounts,  and,  so  on,  too  much  to  give  in  a  letter.  I  might  mention 
that  Japs  are  employed  in  our  power  system,  water  works,  in  fact  about  every 
political  branch  of  our  Government.  I  have  a  son  taking  a  flying  course  at 
Phoenix,  Ariz.,  and  there  is  a  Jap  servicing  planes,  Sky  Harbor  Airport.  For- 
tunately for  the  Jap,  he  does  not  service  the  planes  in  my  boy's  class,  but  some- 


body's  boy,  some  one's  son,  has  to  fly  a  plane  that  a  Japanese  American  citizen 
is  servicing.  It  only  takes  a  drop  of  acid,  a  loose  nut,  or  a  little  sugar  to  destroy 
life  and  plane. 

America  should  wake  up. 
Respectfully  yours, 

Hugh  M.  Gallaher. 

Federal  Security  Agency, 

Social  Security  Board, 
Washington,  February  17,  1942. 
Mr.  Hugh  M.  Gallaher, 

Los  Angeles,  Calif. 
Dear  Mr.  Gallaher:  Your  letter  of  the  7th,  addressed  to  the  Federal  Security 
Agency  in  Washington,  enclosing  a  copy  of  your  letter  of  the  5th  to  Governor 
Olson,  has  been  referred  to  me. 

As  you  know,  the  responsibility  for  the  care,  surveillance  and,  custody  of 
enemy  aliens  is  vested  exclusively  in  the  United  States  Department  of  Justice. 
They  have  established  certain  specific  areas  from  which  such  people  are  pro- 
hibited. Furthermore,  the  Department  of  Justice  has  asked  this  agency  to  aid 
such  families  in  the  actual  process  of  resettling  outside  of  the  prohibited  areas. 
We  are  doing  this  through  the  facilities  of  the  United  States  Employment  Service 
and  other  Bureaus  of  this  Agency  on  an  individual  basis.  We  hope  to  be  of  such 
help  that  all  the  families  that  must  move  at  this  time,  under  the  orders  of  the 
Department  of  Justice,  wil1  have  so  moved  without  undue  hardship  by  the 
effective  date  of  the  order,  which  in  most  instances  is  February  24. 

If  the  need  develops  for  handling  these  people  on  a  mass  basis  involving  the 
use  of  large  acreage,  I  shall  be  very  glad  to  see  to  it  that  your  proposal  is  given 

Sincerely  yours, 

Richard  M.  Neustadt, 

Regional  Director. 

Cutler,  Calif.,  February  19,  1942. 
Richard  M.  Neustadt, 

Office  of  Defense,  Health,  and  Welfare  Services, 

Social  Security  Bureau,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 
We  the  citizens'  committee  of  Orosi  Township,  after  a  discussion  held  last 
night,  demand  that  some  action  be  taken  at  once  regarding  the  Japanese  situation 
in  this  vicinity.  Further,  we  demand  that  all  Japanese  that  are  now  here  and 
those  that  are  being  moved  in  here  be  removed  not  only  for  our  safety  but  also 
for  their  safety.  We  fear  that  unless  immediate  action  is  taken  the  situation  may 
get  out  of  hand.     Urgent  action  must  be  taken. 

Orosi  Citizens'  Committee, 
Wendell  G.  Travioli,  Chairman. 

San  Francisco,  Calif., 

February  19,  1942. 
Mr.  Wendell  G.  Travioli, 

Chairman,  Orosi  Citizens'  Committee, 

Orosi,  Calif. 
Reurtel  19th,  please  be  advised  that  Department  of  Justice  is  vested  exclusively 
with  authority  to  handle  all  problems  pertaining  to  alien  enemies.  It  is  their 
exclusive  duty  to  determine  what  areas  these  poeple  will  be  prohibited  from  living 
and  working 'in,  and  they  do  so  at  the  request  of  the  United  States  Army  and 
Navy.  At  request  of  Department  of  Justice,  this  Agency  is  facilitating  removal 
of  these  aliens  and  their  families  from  prohibited  areas  to  those  called  restricted 
areas  or  free  areas.  General  De  Witt,  commanding  western  command,  has 
reported  to  the  Attorney  General  the  following  which  has  been  decreed  by  Attorney 
General:  "That  restricted  areas,  or  B  areas,  are  those  areas  through  which  or  in 
which  alien  enemies  may  be  permitted  on  pass  or  permit."  May  I  remind  you 
further  that  these  people  are  entitled  to  full  protection  of  law  as  long  as  they  are 
outside  of  the  prohibited  areas  and  obey  the  regulations  of  the  Department  of 
Justice.  Are  you  fully  conscious  of  the  fact  that  the  alien  enemy  regulations  affect 
the  Italians  and  Germans  as  well  as  Japanese.  These  matters  must  be  left  to  the 
Federal  Government,  and  it  is  the  duty  of  all  Americans  and  all  local  law  enforce- 


ment  agencies  to  observe  the  law  and  keep  the  peace.  If  you  desire  to  testify- 
before  the  congressional  committee  Saturday  at  their  meeting  here,  they  certainly 
will  be  glad  to  hear  from  you. 

Richard  M.  Neustadt. 

Exhibit  H. — Some  Employment  Possibilities  for  Japanese 


March  12,  1942. 


The  Amalgamated  Sugar  Co.,  with  headquarters  in  Ogden,  Utah,  with  sugar 
refineries  in  Nyssa,  Oreg.,  and  a  new  plant  being  built  in  Nampa,  Idaho,  expect 
to  have  under  contract  30,000  acres  of  sugar  beets  in  the  Boise  Valley,  with  the 
total  labor  requirement  of  3,000  workers  needed,  beginning  work  about  May  1, 
and  25,000  acres  of  sugar  beets  at  Twin  Falls,  total  requirement  of  2,500  workers. 
Mr.  Benning,  general  manager,  indicates  that  in  these  two  operations  his  company 
could  use  1,600  Japanese. 

Housing. — There  are  4  Civilian  Conservation  Corps  camps,  approximately  200- 
man  capacity,  located  in  Harper,  Vale,  Nyssa,  and  Ontario,  and  2  other  usable 
Civilian  Conservation  Corps  camps  at  Rupert  and  Malta. 

There  are  also  two  large  permanent  Farm  Security  Administration  camps  at 
Caldwell  and  Twin  Falls,  Idaho.  Mobile  Farm  Security  Administration  camps 
also  operate  in  the  area. 

The  Amalgamated  Sugar  Co.  has  company  camps  at  Nyssa,  Oreg.,  and  Twin 
Falls  and  Paul,  Idaho.  These  camps  would  accommodate  90  single  workers  and 
the  company  has  recently  purchased  50  additional  tents. 

Season  of  employment. — The  blocking  and  thinning  operation  will  last  from  6 
weeks  to  2  months,  followed  by  hoeing  and  irrigation  operations,  and  then  the 
harvest  during  October  and  November. 

The  area  in  which  the  sugar-beet  acreage  occurs  grows  a  wide  variety  of  other 
crops  requiring  labor  so  that  it  is  practicable  to  conclude  that  workers  arriving 
in  this  area  in  the  spring  could  be  employed  throughout  the  entire  summer  season. 


"The  other  sugar  companies  operating  in  the  area  of  the  western  command  will 
likely  need  Japanese  labor,  if  it  can  be  made  available,  as  follows: 

Great  Western  Sugar  Company — operations  in  Colorado,  Nebraska,  Wyoming, 
and  Montana;  250,000  acres  sugar  beets,  using  25,000  workers. 

Spreckles  Sugar  Co. — California,  100,000  acres  sugar  beets,  using  10,000 

American  Crystal — Cahfornia,  western  Montana,  and  Colorado;  50,000  acres 
sugar  beets,  using  5,000  workers. 

Holly — California,  Colorado,  Wyoming,  and  Montana;  75,000  acres  sugar 
beets,  using  7,500  workers. 

Utah-Idaho — Utah,  Idaho,  and  Montana;  100,000  acres  sugar  beets,  using 
10,000  workers. 

The  above  are  rough  estimates,  indicative  of  acreages  and  labor  requirements. 

I  have  been  personally  contacted  by  Spreckles  and  Great  Western,  evidencing 
their  interest  in  the  use  of  Japanese  help  this  year. 

Mr.  Benning,  of  Amalgamated  Sugar  Co.,  tells  me  that  a  definite  statement  by 
the  Army  and  the  United  States  Employment  Service,  indicating  that  Japanese 
workers  will  be  made  available  for  sugar-beet  operations,  will  definitely  result  in 
an  increased  planting  of  sugar  beets  and  consequential  production  of  sugar  in  the 
area  of  the  western  command. 

Mr.  Robert  K.  Malcolm,  Dixon,  Calif.,  whose  farming  interests  are  located  on 
Liberty  Island  in  the  Sacramento  Valley,  and  who  at  present  has  his  land  leased  to 
4  Japanese  families,  comprising  20  people,  and  farming  800  acres  devoted  to 
asparagus,  onions,  tomatoes,  and  corn,  is  anxious  to  continue  the  use  of  these 
farm  families  and  could  use  15  Japanese  men  at  once  and  would  need  50  more 
within  3  or  4  weeks.  The  operations  have  formerly  been  handled  by  Japanese 
and  Filipinos.  Wages  set  for  cutting  pay  $1.50  for  100  pounds  but  will  pay  what- 
ever is  the  going  wage,  probably  45  cents  an  hour.     Housing:  Mr.  Malcolm  has 


housing  for  the  number  of  workers  indicated  and  could  probably  accommodate 
several  more  families  with  his  present  housing.  He  is  concerned  particularly  in 
determining  whether  or  not  he  can  arrange  to  keep  the  present  farm  families  as 
tenants  and  whether  or  not  he  can  use  Japanese  help  during  the  current  asparagus 

The  B.  E.  Maling  Co.  at  Hillsboro,  Oreg.,  have  under  contract  1,000  acres  of 
strawberries,  owned  and  operated  by  Japanese  in  Washington  County,  in  Oregon, 
in  prohibited  area  zone  1-A.  The  company  has  advanced  considerable  funds  for 
growing  the  strawberries  and  have  chattel  mortgages  on  the  crop.  Harvest  of  the 
crop  will  occur  during  June. 

Mr.  Henderson,  manager  for  the  Maling  Co.,  is  interested  in  knowing  whether 
or  not  the  Japanese  will  be  permitted  to  remain  on  their  land  until  the  crop  is 
harvested,  and  whether  or  not  it  will  be  possible  to  use  Japanese  labor  of  the 
vicinity  in  which  the  harvest  operates. 

Mr.  Joe  Brooks,  representing  California  Asparagus  Growers,  Walnut  Grove, 
Calif.,  represents  the  interest  of  his  association  in  using  Japanese  labor  during  the 
asparagus  harvest  and  has  suggested  the  use  of  81  cabins  used  by  Libby,  McNeill 
&  Libby  on  the  site  of  an  old  cannery  along  the  Sacramento  River  near  Ryder. 

If  the  Japanese  can  be  used  in  the  asparagus  harvest  in  the  vicinity  of  Stockton, 
Mr.  Brooks  will  be  glad  to  take  up  the  matter  of  such  control  measures  as  might 
be  required  by  the  Army  in  the  assignment  and  use  of  these  workers  through  the 
United  States  Employment  Service. 

The  Jesse  Valley  Peat  Products  Co.  at  Likely,  Calif.,  have  indicated  that  they 
would  like  to  use  a  crew  of  about  50  Japanese  workers.  They  indicate  they  have 
an  ideal  place  as  the  peat  moss  beds  or  deposit  are  about  20  miles  from  the  nearest 
town,  in  an  isolated  type  of  area. 

Mr.  Henderson,  representative  potato  grower,  of  Klamath  Falls,  Oreg.,  sug- 
gests the  use  of  Japanese  labor  in  the  potato  and  sugar-beet  harvest  for  October 
and  November. 

Mr.  Lloyd  Hughes,  Yakima,  Wash.,  indicates  the  willingness  of  the  hop 
growers  to  use  Japanese  labor  during  the  spring  training  and  fall  harvest  of  hops 
in  the  Yakima  Valley.  Adequate  housing,  is  available.  Mr.  Hughes  also 
indicates  that,  if  labor  was  available,  he  would  be  willing  to  lease  land  to  Japanese 
to  grow  tomatoes  and  hire  them  to  do  the  work,  if  the  Government  wants  the 

The  above  illustrations  are  typical  of  many  inquiries  that  have  been  coming  to 
the  Farm  Placement  Service  since  the  possibility  of  evacuation  of  Japanese  has 
become  public  information. 

Many  of  these  large  growers  have  indicated  that  they  would  be  glad  to  appear 
before  the  Army  and  present  definite  detailed  propositions  for  employment  and 
housing  of  the  Japanese  labor  if  this  labor  is  available  for  seasonal  agricultural 


Mr.  Arnold.  What  agencies,  local,  State,  or  national,  are  render- 
ing welfare  services  in  the  evacuating  of  aliens? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  There  are  no  local  agencies  that  I  know  of  that 
are  playing  any  part  in  it.  The  State  Welfare  Department  has  loaned 
to  us  about  20  of  their  workers.  The  county  welfare  departments  in 
three  cases  have  loaned  us  staff  services.  We  are  taking  those  social 
workers  and  assigning  them  to  the  employment  offices.  People  come 
in  to  register  for  work,  to  file  unemployment  compensation  claims, 
and  to  seek  information,  advice,  and  assistance.  In  the  case  of  the 
State  department,  due  to  State  law  we  have  had  to  take  that  staff 
over  on  the  Federal  pay  roll.  The  Farm  Security  Administration 
has  helped  materially.  The  C.  C.  C.  and  the  other  Federal  agencies 
having  facilities  have  helped  us  examine  those  facilities  to  determine 
whether  they  could  be  used  for  this  purpose. 

We  have  endeavored  not  to  have  any  mass  evacuation,  insofar  as 
possible  under  the  present  rules  of  the  Department  of  Justice.  We 
have  sought  from  the  State  as  a  possible  last  resort,  if  we  needed  it, 


the  right  to  use  the  barracks  of  what  was  formerly  the  S.  R.  A.,  the 
State  Relief  Administration,  now  under  the  control  of  the  State 
Department  of  Finance. 

But  because  of  this  new  order  of  the  President  we  are  abandoning 
any  idea  of  using  such  large-scale  camps. 


Mr.  Arnold.  Is  the  Social  Security  Board  permitting  the  payment 
of  unemployment  compensation  to  unemployed  aliens  who  are  other- 
wise eligible  for  benefits? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Most  certainly. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Is  it  discretionary  with  the  State  to  make  such 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  wouldn't  think  so  under  the  standards  of  the 
Social  Security  Act.     They  would  have  to  pay  them  to  all  alike. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  is  the  situation  regarding  other  social-security 

Mr.  Neustadt.  They  may  receive  any  benefits  to  which  they  are 
entitled  under  the  law.  The  unemployment  compensation  is  the  one 
that  would  affect  the  most.  When  you  come  to  public  assistance 
grants,  of  course  that  varies  State  by  State.  In  California,  for  ex- 
ample, the  Old  Age  Assistance  Act  of  California,  or  the  Old  Age 
Security  Act,  as  they  call  it,  bars  any  grants  to  anybody  but  citizens. 
In  the  dependent  children  grant  that  is  not  true,  but  unfortunately  in 
this  State  their  law  bars  or  narrows  the  definition  of  the  right  to  grant 
benefits  to  children  except  for  clear  cases  of  half-orphans,  and  their 
interpretation  of  that  is  much  narrower.  They  will  not  give  grants  to 
a  family,  for  example,  if  the  location  of  the  man  is  known.  Therefore, 
it  is  doubtful  whether  they  could  give  under  their  State  law  grants 
to  these  cases  even  if  the  man  were  interned.  WTe  could  give  grants 
out  of  this  particular  new  Federal  fund,  or  this  temporary  Federal 
fund,  of  course. 

Mr.  Arnold.  It  is  true,  of  course,  that  all  aliens  are  at  the  present 
time  barred  from  W.  P.  A.  employment.  Do  you  know  whether 
American  citizens,  naturalized  or  born  of  parents  who  are  aliens, 
encounter  special  difficulties  in  obtaining  W.  P.  A.  work? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  never  heard  of  any. 

Mr.  Arnold.  We  have  heard  numerous  reports  that  citizens  in 
various  parts  of  the  State  have  threatened  to  take  matters  into  their 
own  hands  if  the  State  or  National  Government  does  not  act.  What 
is  your  opinion  of  this  situation? 

need  for  prompt  federal  action 

Mr.  Neustadt.  There  have  been  certain  direct  instances,  all  of 
which  I  have  turned  over  to  the  attorney  general,  Mr.  Earl  Warren, 
and  he  is  looking  into  them.  We  hear  a  good  many  others  that  are 
rumors.  We  have  never  been  able  to  track  them  down.  We  have 
had  two  or  three  direct,  straightforward  statements  giving  names  and 
instances,  and  those  have  been  -forwarded  to  the  attorney  general 
promptly  and  he  has  taken  action. 


I  think  a  great  many  of  the  rumors  are  well  founded  and  that  there 
would  be  a  great  deal  of  this  local  trouble 

Mr.  Arnold.  If  the  Federal  Government  does  not  act  promptly? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  That's  right.  If  we  don't  get  a  thoroughly  con- 
sidered and  accepted  plan.  It  must  be  thoroughly  considered,  thor- 
oughly accepted,  and  thoroughly  respected,  and  the  average  individ- 
ual or  the  local  law-enforcement  officer  must  somehow  be  induced  to 
accept  the  responsibility  as  that  of  the  Federal  Government  and  not 
take  the  law  into  his  own  hands. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Apparently  the  President's  Executive  order  of  yester- 
day places  full  control  over  the  evacuation  problem  in  the  hands  of 
the  War  Department.  Do  you  know  what  measures  the  War  De- 
partment expects  to  use  in  the  evacuation  of  citizens  and  aliens? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  No,  sir.     . 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  know  whether  the  War  Department  plans 
to  call  on  the  Federal  Security  Agency  to  assist  in  the  evacuation? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  That  is,  you  don't  know? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  don't  know. 

The  Chairman.  We  are  going  to  ask  General  DeWitt  this  after- 
noon about  that. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  That  is  fine.     He  has  promised  to  let  me  know. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Has  there  been  any  discussion  of  the  type  of  work 
which  the  people  evacuated  will  do  in  their  new  locations?  If  so, 
would  you  tell  us  in  some  detail  of  these  discussions? 

employment  of  aliens 

Mr.  Neustadt.  There  has  been  a  great  deal  of  discussion.  There 
are  somewhere  between  nine  and  ten  thousand  enemy  aliens  involved 
in  or  living  in  the  present  prohibited  areas.  We  have  seen  about 
6,500  of  them,  that  is,  up  to  the  day  before  yesterday — I  don't  know 
of  yesterday's  count — so  that  I  think  by  the  23d  or  the  24th  we  will 
have  seen  practically  all  of  them.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  discussion 
in  California  which  assumes  that  these  people  are  primarily  agricul- 
tural workers.  That  is  an  incorrect  assumption.  I  have  no  statistics 
but  we  do  know  that  a  great  many  of  these  people  are  not  agricultural 

If  you  think  of  the  Italians,  they  are  primarily  vineyardists  and 
fishermen.  While  they  undoubtedly  as  a  people  know  and  love  the 
land,  they  are  not  agricultural  workers  by  most  recent,  long-time 

With  respect  to  the  Japanese,  I  again  cannot  give  you  the  figures. 
A  great  many  of  them  are  on  the  land,  but  there  are  also  a  great  many 
urban  people  following  the  usual  vocations  in  the  city. 

Of  course,  the  Germans  involved  are  for  the  most  part  clerical  and 
professional  people;  very  few  agriculturalists. 

We  have  had  a  good  many  proposals  made  to  us  by  large-scale  agri- 
cultural companies  of  their  need  for  alien  enemies  to  work  on  their 
land.  The  total,  I  think,  runs  to  22,000.  That  is  the  number  they 
say  they  want.  But  that  is  for  short-time  occupation,  several  months, 
perhaps,  and  it  does  not  start  now.  The  only  crop  that  is  up  now  is 
asparagus.  They  will  take  enemy  aliens  there  and  several  of  them  are 
now  being  placed. 


The  canneries  undoubtedly  will  take  a  great  many  of  them  during 
the  canning  season.  In  fact,  the  picture  is  one  of  both  wanting  their 
cake  and  wanting  to  eat  it  too.  The  same  people  who  are  protesting 
and  demanding  that  all  these  people  be  driven  out  of  the  State  also 
want  all  of  them  to  work  in  the  fields  and  in  the  canneries.  They  will 
talk  to  you  about  the  agricultural  shortage.  At  the  same  time  they 
will  talk  to  you  about  driving  all  these  people  out  of  the  State. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  Federal  agencies  are  best  equipped  to  handle 
the  evacuation  of  aliens  and  citizens? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  In  vast  numbers? 

Mr.  Arnold.  Yes. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  None. 

Mr.  Arnold.  No  Federal  agencies  are  equipped? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  At  this  time?  No.  You  could  theoretically  work 
it  out  with  the  Farm  Security. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Farm  Security  might  be  better? 

housing  problems 

Mr.  Neustadt.  But  it  wouldn't  mean  anything.  The  problem  of 
housing  would  have  to  be  faced  and  faced  realistically.  None  of  the 
camps  are  big  enough  now  to  handle  it.  Certainly  none  have  staff 
big  enough  to  handle  it.  Farm  Security  has  had  more  knowledge 
and  experience  than  anyone  else.  Of  course,  the  C.  C.  C.  has  had 
a  great  deal  of  experience.  But  when  you  think  of  where  their  camps 
are  and  the  fact  that  they  are  set  up  only  for  boys,  not  for  families, 
the  problem  is  aggravated. 

We  have  had  the  authority  from  Washington  to  open  up  Indian 
schools  in  Oklahoma,  but  they  would  require  certainly  a  new  set-up, 
a  new  staff,  and  they  are  not  built  for  this  purpose.  Nor  would  you 
want,  I  assume,  to  have  these  people  kept  in  utter  idleness.  In 
addition  to  housing,  you  have  to  think  of  work  opportunities. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Then  it  is  your  considered  opinion  that  no  Federal 
agency  is  now  equipped  to  handle  the  problem.  Apparently  some 
Federal  agency  or  agencies  will  have  to  become  equipped  speedily? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Well,  I  want  to  say  this.  I  can't  speak  for  all  the 
Federal  agencies,  but  from  my  knowledge  of  them  they  could  impro- 
vise a  sketchy,  inadequate  form  of  handling  these  people.  It  would 
be  done  kindly  but  not  well.  A  combination  of  such  agencies  or  even 
any  one  that  you  selected,  especially  if  authorized  to  handle  it  and 
given  additional  finance  to  handle  it,  certainly  could  get  itself  in  shape 
to  do  so.  The  task  is  not  an  impossible  one,  but  it  has  to  be  defined 
in  clear-cut  lines  and  it  has  to  be  thought  through.  I  am  begging 
for  the  "thought  through"  process. 


Mr.  Arnold.  What  types  of  work  do  you  think  these  evacuees 
should  be  employed  in? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Any  kind  of  work  that  they  can  do,  and  that 
runs  the  whole  gamut.  The  only  prohibition  on  the  use  of  alien 
enemies  in  plants  now  is  in  parts  of  plants  using  confidential  informa- 
tion and  in  airplane  factories.  The  President  has  issued  a  proclama- 
tion asking  all  employers,  even  those  on  defense  work  not  involving 

00306 — 12— pt.  29 7 


secret  or  confidential  plans,  to  employ  them.  And  that  should  be 
carried  out.     They  can  work  anywhere. 

Mr.  Arnold.  In  their  present  skills? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  In  their  present  skills.  Now,  you  do  catch,  of 
course,  a  very  unfortunate  group  of  Italian  fishermen.  Their  skill  is 
fishing.  They  are  not  so  young.  Whether  they  could  be  retrained 
is  a  question.  There  is  much  doubt  in  my  mind.  Obviously,  if  you 
take  the  prohibited  area  away  from  them,  there  "ain't  no  place  to 

Mr.  Arnold.  Should  evacuation  be  wholesale,  or  should  a  flexible 
policy  be  established  by  which  exceptions  could  be  made  of  enemy 
aliens  or  citizens  whose  loyalty  the  Army  or  Navy  or  other  officials 
will  vouch  for? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  have  a  fairly  definite  answer  to  that  as  a  recom- 
mendation.    Would  you  mind  my  reading  it? 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  would  be  glad  to  have  you  read  it. 


Mr.  Neustadt.  I  would  say,  if  you  are  talking  in  large  numbers, 
larger  than  this  10,000  that  you  would  have  to  have  a  mass  evacuation. 
May  I  say  that  the  most  unfortunate  part  of  this  whole  thing  is  the 
uncertainty  that  has  been  bred  in  the  minds  of  those  people  who  are 
going  to  be  evacuated.  The  kindest  thing  you  could  do  would  be 
"surgical."  Make  up  your  mind  that  you  are  going  to  evacuate  these 
people  and  evacuate  them,  then  start  over  again.  You  cannot  expect 
people  to  keep  their  poise,  to  put  it  mildly,  if  they  are  ordered  to 
move  out  of  one  area  into  another  today,  and  then  fear  that  tomorrow 
they  are  going  to  have  to  move  again.  Nor  can  they  afford  to  do  it. 
So  that  I  say,  let's  think  clean  and  cut  clean.     I  plead  for  surgery. 

More  in  answer  to  your  question,  may  I  say  that  the  declaration  of 
areas  should  take  into  full  consideration  the  possibility  of  effective 
portions  of  the  population  finding  other  residences  as  well  as  other 
work.  I  want  to  emphasize  that.  You  have  a  housing  problem  on 
your  hands  anywhere  in  California  or  in  the  West,  and  I  don't  doubt 
in  the  East,  too. 

Whenever  possible,  and  where  no  other  resources  are  available, 
public  housing  on  as  decent  a  scale  as  possible  should  be  provided. 


Some  legal  way  should  be  found  to  narrow  the  classification  of 
enemy  aliens  so  as  to  eliminate,  if  possible,  these  groups: 

(a)  Those  known  by  Federal  authorities  to  have  come  to  this 
country  because  our  enemy  countries  have  canceled  their  citizenship 
but  who  have  not  been  here  long  enough  to  acquire  American  citizen- 
ship. There  are  a  great  many  such,  primarily  perhaps  among  the 
Germans,  the  refugees  from  Hitler,  but  also  among  other  races  as 

(b)  Those  who  because  of  circumstances  of  long  residence  in  this 
country,  age,  infirmity,  having  sons  in  the  armed  forces  or  otherwise, 
satisfy  Federal  investigators  as  to  their  loyalty  to  the  United  States. 


(c)  Those  who  are  elderly  or  mature  individuals,  such  as  a  wife  or 
a  mother,  where  all  of  the  other  members  of  the  family  are  citizens 
and  where  there  is  clear  record  that  failure  to  obtain  citizenship  is 
caused  by  reasons  other  than  disloyalty  to  this  country  or  loyalty  to 
other  countries  with  which  we  are  at  war. 

I  do  not  want  to  cite  individual  cases  unless  you  are  interested  m 
them,  but  the  hardships  over  and  above  the  economic  hardships  of 
moving  that  are  caused  by  disruption  of  family  life  could  catch  any 
sob  sister's  interest,  if  you  want  them.  I  don't  want  to  put  this  on 
the  sentimental  side,  but  what  we  are  doing  by  a  mass  evacuation  is 
catching  a  great  many  innocents  as  well  as  any  who  might  be  subjected 
to  suspicion.  And  I  plead  against  that  as  an  individual  American 
citizen.  Certainly  some  scheme  should  be  improvised  so  that  those 
who  are  obviously  by  record  known  to  be  not  only  innocent  but 
incapable  of  harm",  because  of  age  or  infirmity  or  other  reasons,  should 
be  exempt. 

I  certainly  think  that  we  can  give  you  instances  of  an  old  Italian 
family,  or  others  as  well,  with  sons  in  the  Army.  What  you  are  doing 
is  moving  the  mother.  That  isn't  what  you  intended  or  the  President 
intended  or  the  Attorney  General  intended,  and  I  don't  think  it  is 
what  the  Army  will  intend. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  would  you  say  with  respect  to  the  Japanese? 
Mr.  Neustadt.  I  would  say  the  same  thing  as  far  as  I  know,  but  I 
am  not  a  detective  or  law-enforcement  officer.  Personally  I  feel  the 
same  way  about  the  Japanese  as  I  feel  toward  anybody  else.  They 
are  obviously  subject  to  more  suspicion  because  the  war,  on  this  coast 
at  least,  is  with  Japan.  Also  because  the  Japanese,  not  being  entitled 
to  citizenship  in  California  or  the  rest  of  the  country,  are  subject  to 
suspicion.  Also  because  there  is,  unfortunately,  a  race  prejudice 
against  the  Japanese  that  has  been  long  existent.  But  there  are  cases 
of  Japanese  families  in  which  the  one  you  are  moving  is  the  mother, 
and  the  son  is  in  the  Army. 

Mr.  Arnold.  That  is  all  I  have.  If  you  have  further  material  that 
you  wish  to  insert  in  our  record  it  will  remain  open  for  10  days  or  2 
weeks  and  you  may  have  that  opportunity. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  have,  I  think,  given  everything  I  have  that  exists 
in  the  form  of  a  report. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Neustadt,  my  reaction  to  the  testimony  that 
I  have  heard  this  morning  is  not  very  favorable.     I  think  there  is  a 
deplorable  situation  on  the  Pacific  coast  here  regarding  evacuation 
and  I  think  Congress  is  going  to  know  about  it  in  our  report. 
Mr.  Neustadt.  Surely. 

The  Chairman.  But  we  can't  pin  any  blame  onto  any  particular 
agency.     It  has  come  upon  us  all  at  once,  but  that  shouldn't  stop  us 
now  preparing  and  doing  something  about  it. 
Mr.  Neustadt.  That  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  possible  that  the  entire  Pacific  coast  may  be 
evacuated.  They  tell  me  back  in  Washington  that  it  is  not  only  pos- 
sible but  probable  that  the  Pacific  coast  will  be  bombed.  That  has 
come  to  me  from  men  who  are  supposed  to  know.  So  the  evacuation 
may  run  into  hundreds  of  thousands  of  people. 
Mr.  Neustadt.  That  is  right. 



The  Chairman.  The  first  thing  we  should  have — and  I  am  surprised 
that  we  haven't  it  as  yet — is  a  regional  office  for  the  Alien  Property 
Custodian.     That  should  be  done  first. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  That  is  one  of  the  most  deplorable  features  of  it. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  think  that  the  Social  Security  alone,  if 
given  the  money,  could  handle  the  evacuation ;  that  is,  taking  care  of 
these  people? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  No;  I  do  not.  I  am  grateful  for  the  fact  that  the 
Army  is  going  to  handle  it. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  the  Army  is  interested  primarily  in  the 
national  defense. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  That's  right.     That  is,  primarily. 

The  Chairman.  And  the  Army  is  in  no  position  to  go  into  these 
hardship  cases,  so  far  as  that  is  concerned,  to  see  where  they  should 
go.  They  have  got  to  get  them  out  of  here,  and  they  have  got  to  get 
them  out  in  a  hurry. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  That's  right. 

The  Chairman.  But  the  thought  occurred  to  me — you  gave  a  hint 
of  it — that  a  combination  of  agencies,  the  Farm  Security,  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture,  your  agency,  might  be  the  solution.  Then  if  we 
have  a  man  like  you  at  the  head  of  it,  or  some  control  at  the  head  of  it, 
I  think  it  could  be  attended  to. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Thank  you  very  much  for  that,  Congressman. 
May  I  say  this?  As  far  as  the  combination  of  Federal  agencies  is 
concerned,  there  is  through  the  Office  of  Defense  Health  and  Welfare 
Services,  which  is  an  office  set  up  by  the  President  with  Governor 
McNutt  as  the  director,  a  coordination  of  some  32  Federal  departments 
having  anything  to  do  with  health,  welfare,  education,  nutrition,  and 

Out  on  the  coast  here  we  have  a  very  fine  coordinating  council  of 
those  32  agencies.  I  am  the  chairman.  I  don't  know  that  you  need 
any  more  legal  coordination  than  you  already  have. 

What  I  was  saying  was  in  no  way  a  criticism  of  anybody.  If  you 
are  going  to  have  such  a  mass  evacuation,  and  only  the  Army  can 
know  how  large  that  should  be  and  what  areas  it  should  be  and  should 
direct  that,  then  I  would  plead  that  that  be  done  surgically  and  those 
people  be  removed  to  a  prepared  camp.  Right  away.  Under  Army 
supervision,  plus  any  civilian  supervision  they  desire.  And  then  we 
can  begin  to  go  back  and  let  out  those  people  who  can  prove  their 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Neustadt,  from  the  Mississippi  on  west  you 
know  our  country  about  as  well  as  anyone  I  personally  know.  Where 
are  these  people  going  to  go? 


Mr.  Neustadt.  That  has  haunted  me  night  and  day,  sir.  I  have 
seen  resolutions  of  the  governors,  the  chambers  of  commerce,  and  all 
the  hospitality  centers  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  States.  They 
don't  want  them  either. 

May  I  say  that  all  they  are  talking  about  is  Japanese.  We  have  had 
telegrams  from  all  the  towns  in  California  protesting.     One  of  them 


bothered  me  a  bit  because  the  signer  had  a  very  Italian-sounding 
name.  He  demanded  that  all  those  of  Japanese  origin,  the  citizens 
and  aliens,  should  be  evacuated.  I  don't  think  he  realized  that  if  this 
were  done  governmentally,  he  also  might  join  the  evacuees. 

The  Chairman.  You  can't  put  them  in  Nevada,  you  can't  put  them 
in  Arizona  very  well.     You  haven't  the  housing. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  And  you  haven't  the  soil. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  Supposing  you  picked  out  Nebraska, 
just  as  a  hypothetical  case,  and  Nebraska  didn't  want  them? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  think  what  you  have  to  do  is  to  face  it.  If  you 
are  going  to  have  mass  evacuation  of  a  hundred  thousand  or  more, 
prepare  camps  for  them  and  put  them  there.  Have  as  fine  a  camp  as 
you  can  and  under  regular  Army  routine  and  discipline.  And  set  up 
your  courts  and,  as  you  get  jobs  for  them,  let  them  come  back.  The 
Employment  Service,  although  the  shortage  of  labor  is  very  real  in 
our  defense  plants,  could  not  take  these  people  and  put  them  in  in  a 
week's  time  with  all  the  uncertainties  there  are.  And  they  have  got 
to  go  Tuesday.  Ten  thousand.  And  whenever  the  Army  speaks  it 
will  be  "that"  Tuesday.  We  are  not  equipped  to  do  that.  All  the 
Federal  Government  agencies  and  civilian  agencies  that  I  know  of  are 
set  up,  planned,  and  directed  to  work  on  the  basis  of  individuals. 
But  when  you  are  talking  in  terms  of  a  hundred  thousand,  you  had 
better  plan  that  and  do  it  and  then  go  back  on  the  individual  basis. 

The  Chairman.  Yes;  Mr.  Neustadt. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  None  of  these  States  will  object,  by  the  way,  I  am 
sure,  to  a  camp  supervised  by  the  Army. 


The  Chairman.  The  evacuation  order  goes  into  effect  on  Tuesday; 
does  it  not? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Yes;  the  24th. 

The  Chairman.  There  will  be  about  10,000  evacuated;  is  that  right? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  can't  tell  you  exactly  how  many.  The  first  date 
was  the  15th,  and  they  will  all  be  out  of  those  prohibited  areas  on  the 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  The  responsibility  of  the  Army  is  to  get 
them  out  of  the  areas? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  That  is  the  responsibility  of  the  Department  of 

The  Chairman.  Oh,  they  get  them  out? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  We  facilitate.  We  were  asked  on  behalf  of  the 
Department  of  Justice  to  facilitate  the  removal.  We  are  just  a  service 
agency.  We  have  done  the  interviewing  of  these  people.  We  have 
done  the  advising  of  where  they  cannot  be  and  where  they  can  be. 
We  have  at  the  request  of  the  Department  of  Justice  issued  travel 
permits  and  we  know  they  will  be  gone.  We  don't  expect  to  find  very 
many  in  the  prohibited  areas.  There  may  be  a  few  who  can't  find 

The  Chairman.  So  the  mechanics  are  simply  this.  The  Army 
fixed  the  strategic  areas? 


Mr.  Neustadt.  The  Army  asked  the  Department  of  Justice  to 
decide  on  the  areas  up  until  the  time  the  new  order  becomes  effective. 
The  Department  of  Justice  decrees  those  areas.  Now,  of  course,  in 
the  new  order  of  the  President  that  is  all  swept  away  and  the  Army 

Mr.  Arnold.  Let  me  ask,  they  don't  need  to  move  any  further 
than  the  border  line  of  the  prohibited  area;  is  that  correct? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  As  far  as  the  law  goes,  General  DeWitt  himself  has 
issued  a  letter  saying  that  they  may  go  anywhere  outside  the  pro- 
hibited area.  They  are  doubling  up  with  their  relatives  and  friends. 
Certainly,  that  is  all  they  can  do.  That  is  all  we  could  have  done  in 
the  same  circumstances. 

The  Chairman.  Supposing  you  haven't  got  relatives  or  friends? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Well,  we  have  had  all  kinds  of  help  from  all  kinds 
of  agencies  trying  to  dig  out  places  they  could  rent.  The  difficulty 
of  that  is  the  fact  that  the  particular  areas,  like  the  East  Bay  from 
Pittsburg  right  straight  down  to  Alameda,  include  all  the  low-cost 
housing  area  in  the  prohibited  zone.  I  am  still  afraid  that  there  will 
be  some  people  wanting  to  move  on  the  23d  for  whom  no  housing  will 
actually  be  available. 

The  Chairman.  Is  there  anything  else  you  desire  to  add,  Mr. 


Mr.  Neustadt.  I  would  like  to  plead  again,  if  there  is  any  way  by 
law,  that  some  way  be  found  to  have  a  custodian  of  property  right 
now,  and  not  wait  for  the  appointment  of  any  custodian.  There 
must  be  some  way  whereby  Congress  could  designate  Federal  Reserve 
banks  or  someone  else  to  be  custodian  of  these  small  properties.  It 
should  have  been  done  2  weeks  ago. 

The  Chairman.  I  understand  that  jurisdiction  lies  within  the 
Treasury  Department. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Well,  I  don't  know. 

The  Chairman.  We  phoned  to  Washington  yesterday. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  We  cannot  make  up  the  loss,  and  it  is  not  only  the 
loss  to  the  small  individual  shopkeeper  or  rancher,  but  it  is  the  loss 
to  the  crops.  I  am  sure  Mr.  Thompson  of  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture will  tell  you  that  a  great  many  of  the  crops  that  are  badly 
needed  for  lend-lease  and  for  victory  have  already  been  planted, 
and  there  is  involved  a  serious  loss  because  of  a  fear  and  uncertainty 
of  what  is  going  to  happen.     I  know  you  know  that  situation. 

The  Chairman.  We  had  hardly  arrived  here,  Mr.  Neustadt,  when 
we  were  impressed  with  the  absence  of  any  agency  or  official  who 
could  take  care  of  alien  property.  So  we  immediately  phoned  to 
Washington  and  we  probably  will  have  more  information  today. 
But  that  must  be  attended  to,  even  before  we  turn  in  our  report,  if 

Mr.  Neustadt.  Certainly.  You  might  be  interested  in  this  sum- 
mary of  the  people  who  have  not  been  able  to  completely  help  them- 
selves. Of  the  6,500  who  have  come  in,  4,100  have  sat  down  long 
enough  to  tell  us  their  problems  and  how  they  are  solving  them 
themselves.  The  others  just  came  in  and  got  information  and  they 
have  gone  on  their  way. 


Of  these  families  2,300  had  already  moved  or  found  their  own 
homes;  1,300  others  said  they  could  find  housing  for  themselves; 
500  must  be  helped  to  find  homes.  This  was  a  report  as  of  Thursday. 
Of  these,  at  least  100  will  have  to  be  given  some  emergency  care. 
I  might  add  there  that  agencies  like  the  Friends  Service  Committee, 
the  Quakers,  Japanese-American  Citizens  League,  German  societies 
and  Italian  societies  are  all  pitching  in  to  help  on  that  emergency 
care  type  of  thing. 

You  might  also  be  interested  in  one  or  two  stories,  if  you  so  desire. 
I  don't  know  whether  you  do  or  not  and  I  don't  want  to  indulge 
in  them  if  you  don't  wish  them. 

The  Chairman.  Go  right  ahead. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  We  engaged  Mr.  Ottorino  Ronchi,  former  professor 
of  Italian  at  the  University  of  California,  and  editor  of  La  Voce  del 
Popolo,  for  the  specific  purpose  of  going  around  to  the  Italian  groups, 
particularly  in  the  Pittsburg-Vallejo  area,  both  of  which  are  prohib- 
ited now,  and  down  to  the  Monterey-Santa  Cruz  area  where  the 
fishing  groups  are.  Mr.  Ronchi  was  engaged  to  go  down  and  circulate 
among  the  Italian  people,  who  are  not  very  well  organized  among 
themselves  and  do  not  read  the  American  press  or  listen  to  the  radio 
and  very  often  don't  even  read  their  own  press,  just  to  see  if  they 
knew  that  they  had  to  move.  Mr.  Ronchi  would  be  glad,  I  am  sure, 
to  give  you  one  or  two  instances. 


Mr.  Ronchi.  I  just  got  back  from  Monterey.  In  Monterey  the 
situation  is  very  drastic.  They  are  all  fishermen,  oh,  from  100  to  175, 
and  have  to  leave.  So  I  interviewed  many  people.  Among  them  I 
interviewed  a  woman  about  60  years  old.  She  was  a  widow.  Her 
son  was  killed  at  Pearl  Harbor  and  the  next  day  the  other  son  enlisted. 

Now  she  is  alone.  She  is  not  an  American  citizen.  She  has  no 
property  and  she  will  have  to  go  away  from  Monterey.  So  I  asked  her 
about  how  she  felt. 

"Well,"  she  said,  "I  wish  I  had  a  couple  of  more  children.  I  will 
send  them  to  fight.     My  interest  is  in  America." 

There  is  another  case  of  a  young  woman,  about  25  or  26,  I  think, 
married  to  a  soldier.  She  has  two  children.  They  have  to  move. 
And  those  people,  they  have  no  money,  they  have  no  place  to  go. 
We  try  at  the  employment  office.  Its  staff  works  very  hard.  They 
are  very  human,  they  try  very  hard,  and  they  have  tried  to  find  work 
for  the  evacuees  in  Salinas,  Santa  Clara  Valley,  but  with  little  success. 

In  Pittsburg  you  find  very  many  families  where  they  have  one  or 
two  sons  in  the  Army  and  they  have  to  move.  Also  in  Monterey, 
the  Government  took  the  boats  of  the  fishermen.  And  now  they  have 
no  money,  they  have  not  been  able  to  fish  and  they  could  not  do  any- 
thing else;  only  fishing,  you  know.  They  try  to  find  jobs.  They 
try  to  go  ahead  in  that.  But  I  think  the  next  2  or  3  months  they  will 
have  a  tragic  situation.  They  will  not  know  what  to  do,  and  the 
different  counties  of  the  State  and  Federal  Government  will  have  to 
support  them  and  there  will  be  a  tremendous  disruption  of  life. 


Suppose  you  have  a  mother  who  is  not  an  American  citizen,  the 
father  is  a  citizen  and  the  children  are  American  citizens.  The  mother 
will  have  to  go  away  and  leave  the  father  there,  or  vice  versa,  you  see. 
So  something  must  be  done  for  those  people  there. 

You  see,  I  must  have  talked  with  more  than  1,000  people,  you 
know,  from  Martinez  down  to  Monterey.  They  have  no  American 
citizenship  in  their  pockets,  but  America  is  in  their  hearts. 

The  Chairman.  You  have  to  think  along  a  little  bit  further  in  the 
future.  Some  day  this  war  is  going  to  be  over.  You  say  that  this 
Italian  mother  had  one  son  killed  at  Pearl  Harbor? 

Mr.  Ronchi.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  One  son  killed  at  Pearl  Harbor,  another  son 

Mr.  Ronchi.  Right  away.     Volunteered. 

The  Chairman.  But  when  the  future  comes  I  don't  know  how  that 
enlisted  boy  will  feel  if  his  mother  doesn't  have  some  sort  of  care. 

Mr.  Neustadt.  That's  right. 

Mr.  Ronchi.  That's  human.  That's  the  human  side  of  the 


Mr.  Neustadt.  I  don't  think  any  of  us  think  of  that  mother  as 
an  alien  enemy.  I  think  that  is  a  point  to  make.  One  can't  question 
the  loyalty  of  the  son,  but  I  also  want  to  point  out  that  one  can't 
question  the  loyalty  of  that  mother. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Under  the  terms  of  the  Executive  order  of  yes- 
terday do  you  understand  that  the  military  commander  would  have 
the  right  to  give  her  leave  to  work? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  He  would  have  complete  right  to  do  anything  he 
likes.     He  could  make  exceptions  or  not,  as  he  saw  fit. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Don't  you  assume  that  cases  such  as  these  out- 
standing hardship  cases  will  be  dealt  with? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  I  certainly  would  gladly  assume  so,  but  I  thought 
one  way  of  helping  that  assumption  is  just  to  say  it  to  you.    That's  all. 

The  Chairman.  And  your  point  is  also  that  there  should  be  some 
agency  on  top  of  that  problem  now? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  And  it  should  be  the  Army. 

The  Chairman.  And  it  should  be  the  Army.  Thank  you  very 
much,  gentlemen.     We  appreciate  your  coming  here. 

The  committee  will  stand  adjourned  until  2  o'clock  this  afternoon. 

(Whereupon,  at  12:15  p.  m.  the  committee  recessed  until  2  p.  m.) 


saturday,  february  21,  1942 

afternoon  session 

House  of  Representatives, 
Select  Committee  Investigating 

National  Defense  Migration, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

The  committee  met  at  2  p.  m.  in  the  Post  Office  Building,  San 
Francisco,  Calif.,  Hon.  John  H.  Tolan  (chairman)  presiding. 

Present  were  Representatives  John  H.  Tolan  (chairman),  of  Cali- 
fornia; Laurence  F.  Arnold,  of  Illinois;  and  John  J.  Sparkman,  of 

Also  present:  Dr.  Robert  K.  Lamb,  staff  director;  John  W.  Abbott, 
chief  field  investigator;  Leonard  A.  Thomas,  counsel;  and  F.  P. 
Weber,  economist. 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  please  come  to  order. 

Mr.  Sparkman,  I  understood  you  had  something  to  offer  for  the 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  thought  it  might  be  well  for  the 
sake  of  the  record  to  insert  a  copy  of  the  President's  Executive  order. 
We  have  referred  to  it  quite  frequently  this  morning.  Here  is  a  reprint 
of  it  taken  from  today's  paper  and  I  would  like  to  offer  that  at  this 
time  to  be  inserted  in  the  record. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  want  to  read  it? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  I  don't  believe  I  will  take  the  time  to 
read  it,  but  I  would  like  to  call  attention  to  the  fact,  since  something 
was  said  about  it  this  morning,  that  the  Executive 'order  that  the 
President  issued  yesterday  provides  that  the  Secretary  of  War  in 
removing  any  of  these  people  shall  furnish  transportation,  food, 
shelter,  and  other  accommodations  that  may  be  necessary.  Further- 
more, it  provides,  I  believe  [examining  Executive  order]  that  he  can 
call  upon  any  of  the  other  executive  departments,  independent 
establishments,  and  Federal  agencies  to  assist  the  Secretary  of  War 
and  the  military  commanders  in  carrying  out  the  provisions  of  the 
Executive  order. 

Another  thing  I  think  might  be  of  interest.  Mr.  Neustadt  was 
telling  us  about  that  particular  case  down  at  Monterey,  the  widow 
who  had  the  son  that  was  killed  at  Pearl  Harbor,  and  another  son  who 
is  now  an  enlisted  man  in  the  United  States  Navy.  Just  a  short  time 
before  that  a  telegram  had  been  laid  before  us  from  the  Secretary  of 
the  Navy  urging  upon  the  proper  officials  that  attention  be  paid  and 
consideration  be  given  to  that  particular  case. 

It  seems  to  me  that  it  might  be  well  to  bear  in  mind  that  the  armed 
services  have  already  shown  that  they  do  intend  to  take  into  considera- 
tion individual  cases. 



The  Chairman.  And  that  they  are  on  the  alert  on  the  hardship 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  offer  this  Executive  order  for  the  record. 
(Executive  order  referred  to  above  is  as  follows:) 

Executive  Okder 
authorizing  the  secretary  of  war  to  prescribe  military  areas 

Whereas  the  successful  prosecution  of  the  war  requires  every  possible  protec- 
tion against  espionage  and  against  sabotage  to  national  defense  material,  national 
defense  premises,  and  national  defense  utilities  as  defined  in  section  4,  act  of 
April  20,  1918,  40  Stat.  533,  as  amended  by  the  act  of  November  30,  1940,  54 
Stat.  1220,  and  the  act  of  August  21,  1941,  55  Stat.  655  (U.  S.  C,  title  50,  sec. 

Now,  therefore,  by  virtue  of  the  authority  vested  in  me  as  President  of  the 
United  States,  and  Commander  in  Chief  of  the  Army  and  Navy,  I  hereby  author- 
ize and  direct  the  Secretary  of  War,  and  the  military  commanders  who  he  may 
from  time  to  time  designate,  whenever  he  or  any  designated  commander  deems 
such  action  necessary  or  desirable,  to  prescribe  military  areas  in  such  places  and 
of  such  extent  as  he  or  the  appropriate  military  commander  may  determine,  from 
which  any  or  all  persons  may  be  excluded,  and  with  respect  to  which,  the  right 
of  any  person  to  enter,  remain  in,  or  leave  shall  be  subject  to  whatever  restric- 
tions the  Secretary  of  War  or  the  appropriate  military  commander  may  impose 
in  his  discretion.  The  Secretary  of  War  is  hereby  authorized  to  provide  for 
residents  of  any  such  area  who  are  excluded  therefrom,  such  transportation,  food, 
shelter,  and  other  accommodations  as  may  be  necessary,  in  the  judgment  of  the 
Secretary  of  War  or  the  said  military  commander,  and  until  other  arrangements 
are  made,  to  accomplish  the  purpose  of  this  order.  The  designation  of  military 
areas  in  any  region  or  locality  shall  supersede  designations  of  prohibited  and 
restricted  areas  by  the  Attorney  General  under  the  proclamations  of  December 
7  and  8,  1941,  and  shall  supersede  the  responsibility  and  authority  of  the  Attorney 
General  under  the  said  proclamations  in  respect  of  such  prohibited  and  restricted 

I  hereby  further  authorize  and  direct  the  Secretary  of  War  and  the  said  military 
commanders  to  take  such  other  steps  as  he  or  the  appropriate  military  commander 
may  deem  advisable  to  enforce  compliance  with  the  restrictions  applicable  to  each 
military  area  hereinabove  authorized  to  be  designated,  including  the  use  of  Federal 
troops  and  other  Federal  agencies,  with  authority  to  accept  assistance  of  State 
and  local  agencies. 

I  hereby  further  authorize  and  direct  all  executive  departments,  independent 
sstablishments  and  other  Federal  agencies,  to  assist  the  Secretary  of  War  or  the 
faid  military  commanders  in  carrying  out  this  Executive  order,  including  the 
lurnishing  of  medical  aid,  hospitalization,  food,  clothing,  transportation,  use  of 
and,  shelter,  and  other  supplies,  equipment,  utilities,  facilities,  and  services. 

This  order  shall  not  be  construed  as  modifying  or  limiting  in  any  way  the 
authority  heretofore  granted  under  Executive  order  No.  8972,  dated  December 
12,  1941,  nor  shall  it  be  construed  as  limiting  or  modifying  the  duty  and  responsi- 
bility of  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation,  with  respect  to  the  investigation  of 
alleged  acts  of  sabotage  or  the  duty  and  responsibility  of  the  Attorney  General 
and  the  Department  of  Justice  under  the  Proclamations  of  December  7  and  8, 
1941,  prescribing  regulations  for  the  conduct  and  control  of  alien  enemies,  except 
as  such  duty  and  responsibility  is  superseded  by  the  designation  of  military  areas 

The  White  House, 
February  19,  1942. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  McCormick  and  Mr.  Travoli  would  like  to 



The  Chairman.  What  is  your  full  name,  Mr.  McCormick? 

Mr.  McCormick.  Leroy  McCormick. 

The  Chairman.  You  are  an  attorney? 

Mr.  McCormick.  I  am  assistant  district  attorney,  of  Tulare 

This  is  Mr.  Wendell  G.  Travoli  [indicating],  who  represents  the 
citizens  committee  from  that  county. 

The  Chairman.  We  understand  you  gentlemen  desire  to  be  heard. 
We  haven't  any  set  questions  so  suppose  we  proceed  this  way,  in- 
formally, and  you  go  ahead  and  make  a  statement  concerning  the 
things  that  you  think  would  be  interesting  to  the  committee  and 
valuable  to  us  when  we  report  to  Congress. 

Proceed,  Air.  McCormick. 

Mr.  McCormick.  We  come  from  the  central  portion  of  the  State. 
Our  county  is  largely  agricultural  and  we  have  many  Japanese  in  the 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  Congressman  Elliott's  district? 

Mr.  McCormick.  Yes,  we  are  in  Mr.  Elliott's  district. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  His  whole  county. 

Mr.  McCormick.  We  know  him  very  well. 

You  have  had  this  morning  reports  from  many  of  the  attorneys  and 
other  fact-finding  men.  I  would  prefer  now  to  let  Mr.  Travoli,  who 
represents  the  citizens,  speak.  I  know  Air.  Travoli,  and  what  he 
says  can  be  depended  upon  100  percent. 

Mr.  Travoli. 


Mr.  Travoli.  I  wish  to  state  that  there  is  a  mass  movement  of 
Japanese  into  Tulare  County.  We  have  sent  quite  a  few  telegrams 
and  have  received  replies,  one  in  particular  from  Air.  Neustadt 
stating  that  he  knew  of  no  mass  movement  to  our  county. 

From  my  own  local  township,  I  have  a  statement  here  by  the  con- 
stable that,  if  you  so  desire,  I  will  read. 

The  Chairman.  Go  right  ahead. 

Mr.  Travoli  [reading]: 

Orosi,  Calif.,  February  20,  1942. 
To  Whom  It  May  Concern: 

Within  the  last  week  I  have  checked  six  Japanese  families  into  the  Orosi 
township.  Many  more  have  no  doubt  come  in  without  bothering  to  be  checked. 
The  number  of  strange  Japanese  cars  and  faces  is  increasing  daily. 

In  addition  to  those  already  here,  there  has  been  a  request  by  the  Japanese 
minister  and  other  local  Japanese  residents  to  locate  homes  for  40  more  families. 
The  situation  from  a  law  and  order  viewpoint  is  serious. 

Floyd  H.  Clapp, 
Constable,  Orosi  Toimship. 


Yesterday,  the  district  attorney  received  a  telegram  from  the  south- 
ern part  of  the  State  asking  if  he  could  place  200  Japanese  families 
from  the  Palo  Verde  Hills  district.  He  replied  that  he  could  not. 
We  were  supposed  to  have  a  letter  from  him  today  but  it  failed  to 
come  in  the  mail,  but  that  can  be  checked. 

It  was  discussed  over  the  phone  with  Mr.  McCormick  and  you  can 
consult  Walter  Haight  to  verify  the  statement. 

We  have  had  a  lot  of  Japanese  in  the  community.  They  have  been 
there  for  a  long  time.  I  have  been  a  resident  of  the  community  for 
15  years  and  there  were  lots  of  them  when  I  came  there.  Some  of  the 
old  residents  have  been  there  30  years  and  there  were  lots  of  them 
there  when  they  came.  We  have  had  no  particular  trouble  with  the 
local  residents  but  more  are  moving  in  all  the  time  and  the  feeling  is 
very  high  in  the  Orosi  district. 

The  Los  Angeles  group  figure  that  they  are  a  menace  to  them  and 
they  send  them  to  us.  They  have  stated  several  times  in  Los  Angeles 
that  they  are  a  menace  to  their  power  facilities.  We  have  two  big 
lines,  the  Edison  lines  from  Big  Creek  that  run  to  Los  Angeles.  They 
go  on  the  east  side  of  Tulare  County  from  one  end  to  the  other,  and  a 
third  line  from  the  Big  Creek  area.  The  Huntington  Lake  area  is  in 
the  hills  6  miles  east  of  the  double  line. 


I  have  pictures  here  of  that  big  double  line  that  goes  through  the 
community.  There  is  a  picture  of  the  line  with  Japanese  camps  with 
hot  caps  and  everything  underneath  them.  Here  is  a  picture  of  a 
Japanese  camp  that  shows  the  double  power  line  standing  right  behind 
the  buildings.  Here  is  a  picture  of  our  local  Orosi  substation  and  the 
Japanese  holdings  that  are  immediately  diagonally  across  the  road. 

There  has  been  no  trouble  with  the  local  residents  but  if  these 
aliens  are  undesirable  to  Los  Angeles  and  are  a  menace  to  their  power 
lines  we  feel  that  they  are  still  a  menace  to  the  Los  Angeles  power 
lines  as  they  are  living  underneath  them.  Those  big  steels  are  put 
together  with  bolts.  They  are  not  even  riveted.  If  they  don't 
want  to  use  dynamite  or  a  cutting  torch  to  drop  one  they  can  do  it 
with  an  ordinary  wrench. 

The  third  line  that  is  in  the  hills — I  have  no  picture  of  that — is  not 
patrolled  at  all.  Even  these  others  are  not  patrolled  to  anybody's 
knowledge.  Run  through  open  hills  and  cattle  country  and  can  be 
destroyed,  and  there  would  be  no  way  to  check  it  at  all. 

The  Chairman.  How  many  resident  Japanese  have  you  in  Tulare 
County,  approximately? 

Mr.  Travoli.  The  district  attorney  might  be  able  to  answer  that. 

Mr.  McCormick.  About  2,000. 

The  Chairman.  Do  the  native-born  children  own  some  land  there? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Plenty  of  it. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Travoli.  During  the  hard  times  when  good,  hard-working 
white  people  went  broke  in  the  Orosi  community  the  Japanese  did  not. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 


Mr.  Travoli.  We  gathered  from  that  that  they  must  have  had  aid 
from  the  outside.  How  else  they  could  have  made  it  nobody  in  that 
community  could  figure  out.  The  white  people  went  broke  and  they 
didn't.     They  have  acquired  more  land  continuously. 

The  Chairman.  And  the  land  they  acquired,  some  of  it  is  in  prox- 
imity to  these  power  lines,  you  say? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Yes,  sir.  I  know  some  of  that  land.  I  think  all  of 
that  is  owned  by  the  Japanese.     I  know  that  several  places  are. 

The  Chairman.  Where  are  these  incoming  Japanese  going  to  be 

Mr.  Travoli.  They  just  drop  in  any  place. 

The  Chairman.  With  other  Japanese? 


Mr.  Travoli.  Yes,  in  vacant  houses.  There  was  one  Japanese 
family  from  Inglewood  that  tried  to  rent  a  place.  The  people  found 
out  they  were  from  Inglewood  and  they  refused  to  let  them  move  in. 
They  are  camping  everywhere. 

I  was  out  with  the  constable  yesterday  morning  interviewing  one  of 
the  Japanese  boys  who  he  figured  was  reliable  for  information.  I  was 
in  company  with  the  constable.  We  drove  into  his  place  and  asked 
him  how  many  new  families  had  moved  in  close  to  him. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Travoli.  He  talked  a  little  to  one  of  the  other  boys  and  he 
said  "three."  So  immediately  Floyd  Clapp  said  "Well,  who  moved 
into  a  certain  place  over  there?"  "Oh,  I  forget;  one  move  in  there; 
that  makes  four." 

He  asked  him  if  there  were  any  more.     "No,  I  don't  think  so." 

"Well,  who  moved  in  over  here?" 

"I  forget  that  fellow;  that  makes  five." 

Before  we  got  through  with  him  he  remembered  six. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  the  thought  you  are  trying  to  get 
over  to  this  committee  is  simply  this:  The  Government  should  not 
only  be  concerned  with  getting  them  out  of  a  certain  area  but  they 
should  be  concerned  with  where  they  are  going? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Yes,  sir;  I  certainly  do. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Travoli.  A  lot  of  the  fellows  that  have  been  answering  your 
telephone  calls  say  there  is  no  mass  movement. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Travoli.  That  is  one  thing  I  wish  to  put  over,  that  there  is  a 
mass  movement  to  Tulare  County. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

organization  of  home  guard 

Mr.  Travoli.  Now,  as  far  as  law  and  order  goes  everything  is  in 
hand.  We  have  a  constable  and  he  is  a  deputy  that  serves  400  square 
miles  in  that  township  of  Orosi.  It  runs  way  back  into  the  hills.  He 
is  very  much  excited.  This  citizens  group  bunch  of  us  went  down  and 
talked  it  over  with  the  sheriff  and  the  district  attorney  and  with  their 
advice  we  organized  an  Orosi  Home  Guard  to  serve  within  that  town- 


ship.  There  are  approximately  70  members  in  that  home  guard.  I 
know  of  two  others  that  are  organizing  and  a  couple  of  others  are  being 
organized.  We  are  not  organizing  against  law  and  order.  We  are 
organizing  to  make  sure  that  the  situation  does  not  get  out  of  hand. 

I  am  also  a  deputy  fire  warden  in  Tulare  County.  I  have  the 
authority  to  speak  for  the  county.  As  you  can  notice  in  those 
pictures  those  places  join  our  foothill  area. 

That,  gentlemen,  is  the  foothill  area  that  lays  immediately  below 
General  Grant  National  Park  and  Sequoia  National  Park.  There  is 
about  10  miles  of  that  grass  area,  then  you  run  into  a  bunch  of 
brushland,  then  you  run  into  the  redwood  timber.  There  is  no  use 
going  into  that  redwood  timber.  Everybody  knows  it  is  the  most 
valuable  timber  in  the  whole  world.  Those  trees  have  taken  5,000 
years  to  grow.  They  can  be  destroyed  very  easily.  There  are  three 
roads  outside  of  our  local  township  alone  that  lead  into  those  moun- 
tains; those  roads  are  not  guarded  at  any  time  day  or  night.  Japanese 
fellows  go  up  and  down  those  roads  as  they  please.  There  have  been 
reports  of  many  going  up  nights.  The  constable  has  tried  to  catch 
them.  He  has  never  been  able  to  ascertain  for  a  fact  if  they  have 
gone.     The  roads  are  not  guarded. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Let  me  ask  you  this.  You  speak  wholly  of  Jap- 
anese.    What  about  Germans  and  Italians? 

Mr.  Travoli.  That  is  another  question.  I  am  glad  you  brought  it 
up.  Mr.  Neustadt  called  me  on  that,  too.  There  is  not  a  German  or 
Italian  alien  within  Orosi  township  to  my  knowledge  or  the  assistant 
district  attorney's  knowledge. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  mean  not  even  living  there,  nor  moving  in? 

Mr.  Travoli.  No,  sir;  not  to  our  knowledge. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  about  these  Japanese  that  are  moving  in? 
What  portion  of  them  are  aliens  and  what  portion  native  born? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Well,  there  are  a  few  kids  coming  in  that  are  going 
into  our  schools.  There  are  families  coming  in,  maybe,  families  with 
two  or  three  children;  some  with  one. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  think  most  of  the  adults  are  aliens  or  are 
they  native  born? 


Mr.  Travoli.  I  think  the  constable  would  say  they  are  mostly 
natives.     The  ones  I  saw  personally  were.     I  haven't  seen  them  all. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  about  the  5,000  that  live  in  that  county? 
Are  most  of  those  natives  of  this  country  or  are  a  good  many  of  them 

Mr.  Travoli.  Well,  there  are  a  few  older  aliens  but  I  would  say 
the  biggest  majority  are  native-born  Japanese,  educated  in  our  own 
high  schools,  and  they  are  the  most  feared  of  any  of  the  Japanese 
residents  of  our  county. 

The  fire  hazard  in  our  territory  is  the  main  thing.  I  don't  believe 
there  will  be  any  trouble  if  those  fellows  stay  there  and  mind  their 
own  business  and  don't  get  out  of  hand  because  we  have  a  good  tight 
organization  under  the  sheriff  and  the  district  attorney's  orders  and 
our  constable.     I  don't  believe  there  will  be  any  violence  unless  they 


stay  there  until  the  country  is  dry  enough  to  burn  and  I  am  afraid, 
gentlemen,  there  will  be  trouble  then. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  think  the  Government  ought  to  put  these 
evacuees  into  concentration  camps? 

Mr.  Travoli.  I  think  they  are  in  a  more  dangerous  place  where 
they  are  than  if  they  were  on  the  coast  because  of  that  timber  and  the 
watershed  of  that  county. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  I  am  still  trying  to  get  this.  Do  you  think 
the  Government  ought  to  move  them  further  east  or  do  you  think 
they  ought  to  put  them  into  concentration  camps? 


Mr.  Travoli.  They  definitely  should  be  moved.  If  you  are  asking 
me  where  I  think  they  should  be  moved,  I  would  say  that  I  agree 
with  Mayor  Bowron,  of  Los  Angeles,  on  the  182,000  acres  of  irrigable 
Indian  reservation  land  at  Parker.  That  is  now  uninhabited  accord- 
ing to  his  piece  in  the  paper. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Where  is  Parker? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Parker  is  on  the  Arizona  side  of  California. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  In  Arizona? 

Mr.  Travoli.  It  is  one  side  or  the  other.  I  wouldn't  definitely 
state  which  side  right  now. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  how  far  is  that  from  the  forests  on  the  other 
side  of  the  mountain? 

Mr.  Travoli.  A  long  way,  gentlemen;  a  long  way. 

The  hills  on  the  Death  Valley  side  are  not  timber.  There  is  no 
fire  hazard  on  that  side  of  the  mountains,  that  is,  that  far  over. 

The  Chairman.  It  appears  to  me  one  of  the  solutions  is  that  the 
Americans  should  come  home.  The  Japs  should  go  back  to  their 
home.     That  would  solve  part  of  it,  wouldn't  it? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Definitely.  I  probably  could  make  some  state- 
ments on  what  I  think  about  the  exchange  of  prisoners  or  tlie  exchange 
of  our  citizens  but,  maybe,  this  is  not  the  time  and  place. 

The  Chairman.  Yes;  probably  not. 

Where  are  these  Japanese  coming  from?     Los  Angeles  County? 

Mr.  Travoli.  The  constable  checked  in  one  family,  that  I  know  of 
personally,  from  San  Luis  Obispo.  Their  traveling  orders  were  from 
the  sheriff  of  San  Luis  Obispo  County.  The  designation  was  Dinuba, 
which  is  east  6  miles  of  Orosi,  in  a  different  township.  They  came  to 
Orosi.  We  sent  them  back  to  Dinuba  and  they  immediately  came 
back  to  Orosi. 

The  Chairman.  The  more  you  think  about  it  the  more  you  will 
come  to  the  conclusion,  I  am  quite  sure,  that  when  evacuation  takes 
place  there  should  be  some  orderly  procedure  as  to  where  they  are 
going  to  go,  not  hit  and  miss,  scattered  throughout  the  different 
counties  and  States.     Isn't  that  true? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Positively. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  got  to  get  at  that. 

Mr.  Travoli.  I  believe  in  law  and  order.  I  am  an  Army  man, 
served  during  the  World  War.  I  believe  in  law  and  order  a  hundred 


The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  suppose  all  these  evacuees  made 
up  their  mind  to  go  to  Tulare  County.     You  couldn't  handle  them. 

Mr.  Travoli.  That  is  the  situation  now.  Even  if  our  district  at- 
torney were  to  tell  these  200  families  from  the  Palo  Verde  hills  they 
could  not  come,  they  could  still  come.     There  is  no  way  to  stop  them. 


But  it  is  the  fire  hazard  that  is  the  dangerous  situation  to  Tulare 
County.     That  is  the  biggest  menace. 

Some  of  you  eastern  fellows  that  have  never  fought  fires  through 
those  hills  can't  appreciate  this  danger.  You  can  start  a  fire  from  a 
cigarette.  I  can  show  you  territories.  One  started  last  year  right 
below  my  place.  It  burned  half  a  section  on  a  Sunday  afternoon 
before  it  could  be  put  out.     That  grass  land  does  burn. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  anyway,  it  appears  to  me  that  the  problem 
is  so  big  that  the  Government  must  tackle  it  just  to  determine  where 
these  people  are  going  to  go. 

Mr.  Travoli.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  When  they  are  sent  into  other  States  they  lose 
then  residence  here  and  they  don't  acquire  it  in  the  others.  They 
are  not  entitled  to  go  on  relief.  It  possesses  possibilities  that  need 
attention  because  we  are  going  to  run  right  up  against  that  very 
critical  problem  of  the  different  States  not  wanting  these  people  and 
different  counties  not  wanting  them.  _ 

Mr.  Travoli.  It  is  the  same  situation  as  police  floating  undesirable 
citizens  out  of  one  city  on  to  the  next  city  to  take  care  of  them.  If 
we  float  them  off  the  coast  they  come  back  to  us;  if  we  float  them 
somewhere  else  they  come  back  to  us. 

I  think  Mayor  Bowron's  solution  of  that  Indian  reservation  is  the 
best  solution  I  have  read. 

The  situation  that  I  speak  of  in  Orosi  Township  extends  through 
five  or  six  townships,  all  along  the  east  side  of  Tulare  County.  It  is 
all  bad  fire-hazard  country  and  those  three  power  lines  run  parallel 
to  those  lulls,  the  entire  length  of  the  county,  about  60  miles. 

The  Chairman.  I  know  your  Congressman,  Congressman  Elliott, 
very  well.  He  is  deeply  concerned  about  this.  He  has  been  very 
much  on  the  alert  about  it  and  he  presented  the  matter  probably  a 
little  bit  more  emphatically  than  you  are  right  now. 

Mr.  Travoli.  I  am  acquainted  with  Mr.  Elliott. 

The  Chairman.  If  the  condition  gets  worse  or  changes  in  any  way, 
feel  free  to  send  the  committee  an  additional  statement.  We  will 
have  our  records  open  for  10  days  or  2  weeks  for  you. 

Mr.  McCormick.  Yes.  I  was  going  to  ask  permission  to  do  that, 
Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  McCormick.  We  have  a  number  of  people  in  the  county  who 
wanted  to  express  their  views.  We  knew  you  couldn't  hear  them 
today.  I  was  requested  to  ask  permission  if  I  couldn't  reduce  some 
of  these  statements  to  affidavit  form  and  send  them  direct  to  you. 

The  Chairman.  I  will  tell  you,  you  send  it  to  us  and  tell  us  what 
these  people  told  you.  We  will  put  it  in  the  record  just  as  if  they  had 



Mr.  Sparkman.  Let  me  ask  you  this:  Is  there  any  likelihood  of 
farm  labor  shortage  in  Tulare  County  this  year? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Positively  not. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Don't  you  depend  to  a  large  extent  on  migratory 
farm  workers? 

Mr.  Travoli.  There  is  quite  a  bit  of  Mexican  labor  through  there. 
As  far  as  this  cry  goes  on  shortage  of  vegetables,  people  are  thinking 
about  the  penny  and  letting  the  dollar  run  away  from  them.  What 
little  our  vegetables  amount  to  compared  to  the  damage  that  could 
be  done  in  case  of  a  raid  on  the  coast,  and  if  the  people  there  wanted 
to  go  to  town,  which  they  may  not — there  may  not  be  any  raids  there — 
there  may  not  be  any  cause  for  alarm — but  what  the  vegetable 
industry  of  Tulare  does  wouldn't  be  a  drop  in  the  bucket  compared  to 
a  disastrous  fire  through  our  foothills. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Suppose  the  Government  took  a  great  many  of 
these  evacuees  who  were  agricultural  workers  back  here  on  the  coast 
and  by  maintaining  them  as  registered  groups,  and  keeping  close 
supervision  over  them,  put  them  to  work  in  the  various  agricultural 
sections,  do  you  think  that  might  be  practical? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Yes,  sir;  I  do,  and  that  is  one  reason  that  I  agree 
with  Mayor  Bowron  on  that  Indian-reservation  land.  I  have  never 
been  on  that  particular  piece  of  land,  but  I  have  been  up  and  down  the 
Colorado  River. 


Mr.  Sparkman.  That  is  purely  a  resettlement  proposition,  as  I 
understand.  I  am  talking  about  using  them  to  make  up  for  the 
shortage  in  migratory  farm  labor  which  we  are  likely  to  have  this 
year  in  various  sections  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Travoli.  Oh,  you  mean  outside  of  tins  State? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  don't  know. 

Mr.  Travoli.  Well,  I  am  not  in  favor  of  letting  them  stay  in  this 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  would  take  them  completely  outside  of 

Mr.  Travoli.  Oh,  positively;  unless  you  want  to  put  them  in  a 
camp  and  I  don't  believe  that  would  work  out  extra  good.  It  would 
take  lots  of  guards  and  they,  themselves,  probably  would  rather  go  to 
areas  not  quite  as  restricted  as  a  camp.  I  wouldn't  advise  a  camp 
when  I  know  there  are  other  places  to  put  them. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  That  is  all. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  heard  from  Washington  the  importance 
of  the  Japanese  in  growing  and  producing  vegetable  crops  in  Cali- 

Now,  the  attorney  general  of  California,  Mr.  Warren,  tins  morning 
said  that  the  Japanese  employ  Filipinos,  Mexicans,  and  whites  just 
like  the  white  grower  does,  and  we  heard  in  Washington,  repeatedly, 
the  importance  of  keeping  the  Japanese  growing  vegetables. 

Now,  I  have  some  figures.  I  don't  know  who  gave  them  to  me. 
I  guess  they  are  all  right.  They  are  taken  from  the  United  States 
Department  of  Agriculture. 

60396— 42— pt.  29 8 


Only  1  percent  of  all  the  vegetables  produced  in  the  United  States 
for  processing,  canning,  freezing,  excluding  canned  tomatoes,  is  grown 
or  controlled  by  Japanese  growers  in  California. 

Authority  for  this  statement  is  taken  from  the  United  States 
Department  of  Agriculture,  Board  of  Acreage  Production  of  Com- 
mercial Truck  Crops  of  the  United  States  for  1941,  released  December 

Only  3K  percent  of  all  truck  crops  grown  in  the  United  States  are 
produced  in  California.  Japanese  here  include  both  aliens  and 
American  citizens. 

Only  4%  percent  of  all  the  vegetables  produced  in  the  United  States 
for  processing,  canning,  freezing,  and  so  forth,  excluding  canned 
tomatoes,  are  grown  in  California. 

Only  8%  percent  of  all  the  vegetables  produced  in  the  United  States 
for  processing,  including  canned  tomatoes,  are  grown  in  California. 

So,  you  see,  it  isn't  quite  as  critical  as  depicted  to  us.     Is  that  right? 

Mr.  Travoli.  That  is  correct.  It  is  not  nearly  as  critical  as  some 
people  make  believe  it  is. 


Right  now  on  the  farms  that  are  in  those  pictures  some  of  the  older 
aliens  might  still  do  a  little  work.  As  for  the  young  Japanese  who 
have  graduated  from  our  high  schools,  they  don't  do  what  you 
call  stoop  labor.  They  hire  Mexicans.  They  used  to  hire  a  lot  of 
Filipinos  but  they  had  a  few  Filipino  insurrections  around  there. 
They  have  kind  of  laid  off  the  Filipino.  The  Filipino  isn't  quite  so 
anxious  to  work  for  them.  The  Japanese  don't  want  them  either. 
They  hire  a  lot  of  Mexicans.  The  California  labor  situation,  if  we 
need  migratory  labor,  can  be  helped  by  loyal  Mexicans. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  I  think  you  will  still  agree  with  me  that 
something  orderly  should  be  done  about  not  only  the  evacuees  but 
where  they  are  going,  whether  they  are  the  Japanese  or  the  Italians 
or  the  Germans  or  what? 

Mr.  Travoli.  Yes,  sir;  I  do. 

The  Chairman.  At  least,  we  can't  kick  human  beings  around  no 
matter  who  they  are. 

Mr.  Travoli.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  got  to  get  on  the  job  and  see  what  is  the 
best  thing  to  do  for  them. 

Mr.  Travoli.  I  am  not  in  favor  of  abusing  any  of  them.  I  am  in 
favor  of  getting  them  out  of  Tulare  before  the  last  of  May.  The  first 
of  June  the  fire  season  is  very,  very  acute  in  Tulare  County. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much,  gentlemen.  We  appre- 
ciate you  coining  here. 

Mt.  Fouke. 


The  Chairman.  State  your  name  and  capacity,  for  the  reporter. 
Mr.  Fouke.  Robert  H.  Fouke.     I  am  appearing  as  a  member  of  and 
representing   the   California   Joint   Immigration   Committee,   which 


committee  has  been  established  for  many  years,  and  is  composed  of 
the  American  Legion  of  the  State  of  California,  the  State  federation 
of  labor,  the  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West,  and  the  California  State 
Grange,  as  well  as  individual  members  who  include  former  State 
Attorney  General  U.  S.  Webb  and  Mr.  J.  McClatchy. 

Mr.  Chairman  and  members  of  the  committee,  the  California 
Joint  Immigration  Committee  has  studied  the  problem  of  the  Japanese 
as  well  as  other  Asiatics,  for,  perhaps,  the  last  20  to  30  years,  hence, 
is  familiar  with  the  problem.  (See  Exhibits  A  and  B.)  We  were 
largely  instrumental  in  the  passage  of  the  1913  Alien  Land  Act.  At 
that  time  the  committee  was  known  as  the  Japanese  Exclusion  League, 
subsequently  being  termed,  as  it  is  today,  the  California  Joint  Immi- 
gration Committee.  And  it  was  instrumental,  in  1924,  in  securing 
the  adoption  of  the  present  immigration  law  which  now  excludes  any 
Asiatics  from  a  quota,  as  such,  as  distinguished  from  the  quota  of 
100  that  is  accorded  to  all  nations  if  there  are  people  therein  eligible 
for  citizenship.  In  correlation  with  our  century-old  policy  adopted 
in  1790,  that  law  prohibits  the  naturalization  of  any  person  unless 
they  were  a  member  of  the  white  race.  With  one  modification,  cover- 
ing the  question  of  those  of  African  descent  and  nativity,  that  policy 
has  been  adhered  to  throughout  these  years. 

The  things  that  have  happened  in  recent  months  are  events  that 
we  predicted  would  occur  or  were  likely  to  occur.  That  is  history,  of 
course,  and  the  committee  would  not  wish,  probably,  to  go  into  the 
academic  problems  leading  up  to  that  particular  situation.  Rather, 
I  judge  from  the  testimony  that  you  have  heard  thus  far,  that  you  are 
concerned  with  the  immediate  problem  and  what  can  be  done  in  con- 
nection with  that  immediate  problem  in  order  to  handle  it  expedi- 
tiously, with  due  regard  for  the  rights  of  all  parties,  be  they  alien, 
alien  enemies  or  citizens  of  the  United  States. 

And  it  was  with  that  thought  in  mind  that  I  requested  your  con- 
sent for  the  chairman  of  our  committee  to  appear  here.  In  his  ab- 
sence, may  I  at  this  time  request,  the  opportunity  of  submitting  in 
document  form  additional  data  for  the  committee  to  be  incorporated 
in  your  report  to  Congress. 

In  that  connection  I  would  like  to  call  your  attention  specifically  to  a 
report  of  the  California  Joint  Immigration  Committee  issued  on  May 
27,  1936,  entitled  "The  Dangers  Created  by  Japanese  Dual  Citizen- 
ship" (see  Exhibit  C)  which  is  really  the  basic  problem  that  we  have 
now.  It  is  because  of  that  particular  problem  that  the  committee  has 
recently  passed  a  resolution  (see  Exhibit  D),  a  copy  of  which  will  be 
made  available  to  your  committee,  to  the  effect  that  we  believe  that 
the  military  authorities  should  be  entrusted  with  the  responsibility 
and  supervision  and  the  right  to  declare  what  may  constitute  a  com- 
bat area,  landward  to  such  distance  from  the  coast  as  may  be  deemed 
advisable,  or  setting  up  various  areas  within  the  State  adjacent  to  any 
defense  areas  or  communities,  large  populated  communities  or  else- 
where, wherein  no  persons,  be  they  citizens  or  aliens,  would  be  per- 
mitted unless  it  has  been  first  established  that  their  presence  there 
was  desirable  or  not  inimical  to  the  welfare  of  the  country. 



And  in  that  connection,  in  order  that  the  committee  may  realize  the 
seriousness  of  the  problem  that  we  have,  as  has  been  testified  to,  there 
are  in  the  neighborhood  of  100,000  Japanese  in  the  State  of  California, 
a  large  number  of  whom  are  in  possession  of  dual  citizenship,  under  a 
law  of  December  1,  1924,  that  Japan  passed  called  the  New  Xational- 
itv  Law. 

'Under  that  law  Japanese  born  in  the  United  States  after  that  date 
automatically  lost  Japanese  citizenship  unless  within  14  days  they 
were  registered  at  the  Japanese  consulate.  The  law  further  provided 
that  those  who  registered,  as  well  as  those  born  here  before  December 
1924.  could  renounce  Japanese  citizenship  by  declaration  at  the 
Japanese  consulate  after  reaching  their  twentieth  year. 

The  records  that  we  have  accumulated  during  the  years  (see  Ex- 
hibit E)  show  that  the  Japanese  so  born  do  not  repatriate  themselves 
by  renouncing  their  Japanese  citizenship  other  than  to  the  extent  of 
about  one-third,  the  remainder  retaining  their  citizenship.  In  fact, 
there  are  many  who  are  citizens  of  the  United  States  who  have  returned 
to  Japan,  to  be  educated  in  the  Japanese  schools,  and  for  all  intents 
and  purposes,  and  practically  speaking,  are  Japanese.  Some  have 
been,  of  course,  impressed  info  service  in  the  Japanese  Army,  United 
States  citizens  who  are  fighting  the  country  of  which  they  are  also 


Likewise,  through  the  years  there  have  been  what  are  known  as 
Kibei  Shimin,  meaning  those  who  are  the  sons  or  daughters  of  a  United 
States  citizen,  one  who  was  born  in  the  L'nited  States  of  Japanese  fore- 
bears who  have  returned  to  Japan.  There  are  instances  where,  if  the 
parent  was  a  United  States  citizen,  even  if  they  were  born  in  Japan, 
they  would  be  entitled,  under  our  immigration  laws,  to  be  considered 
as  a  citizen  of  the  United  States,  provided  before  reaching  the  age  of 
18  thev  have  come  here,  probably  at  the  age  of  14,  to  be  educated 
and  continue  forth  and  declare  themselves  a  United  States  citizen. 

In  this  eroup  there  are  many  thousands.  The  exact  number  we  are 
not  in  a  position  to  say.  But  we  do  know,  according  to  the  Japan 
foreign  office  announcement,  that  there  were  about  50,000  of  these 
Kibei  Shimin.  Many  thousands  of  them  returned  to  the  State  of 
California  and  to  Hawaii  and  there  they  became  a  part  of  and  par- 
tiallv  responsible  for  the  conditions  that  existed  at  the  time  that  the 
1924  Exclusion  Act  was  passed.  Those  particular  individuals,  being 
foreign  in  ideas  and  background  and  purposes  and  so  forth,  have  cre- 
ated^ very  bad  situation  so  far  as  the  native-born  American-Japanese 
citizen  is  concerned,  who  was  born  here  and  educated  here,  because 
by  their  actions  and  conduct  they  have  indicated  their  lack  of  loyalty 
to  this  country.  There  may  be  Japanese  who  are  loyal  to  this  country, 
yet  there  is  no  wav  of  proving  that  loyalty. 

Admiral  Yates  Sterling,  retired  admiral  of  the  United  States  Navy, 
in  an  article  in  the  Liberty  magazine  of  June  17,  1919,  in  speaking 
about  Hawaii,  doubted  whether  there  were  any  Japanese  whose 
lovaltv  could  be  counted  upon  in  the  event  of  an  emergency. 


All  of  this  leads  to  the  conclusion  of  our  committee,  that  all  aliens 
or  citizens  whose  loyalty  to  this  country  may  be  in  doubt  should  be 
evacuated  immediately  from  the  combat  areas. 


In  the  State  of  California  most  of  the  Japanese  who  migrated  here 
went  into  our  farming  communities,  and,  in  effect,  took  over  the  larger 
portion  of  the  farming  land.  This  resulted  eventually  in  the  passage 
of  the  Alien  Land  Act  of  1913.  It  was  because  of  that  that  there  is 
a  popular  concept  that  the  Japanese  are  controlling  the  agricultural 
production  of  the  State  of  California,  or  other  areas,  whereas  the  testi- 
mony here  indicates  otherwise. 

As  has  been  pointed  out,  it  is  true  many  of  them  have  acquired  and 
now  hold  property  in  the  names  of  their  children  as  American  citizens. 
There  is  some  doubt  as  to  the  legality  of  it,  but  nevertheless  they  have 
been  operating  the  land  and  hiring  others  such  as  Filipinos  and  Mexi- 
cans who  are  willing  to  work  for  the  wages  they  are  prepared  to  offer. 
Following  the  same  practice,  as  was  true  in  Hawaii,  many  Japanese 
have  gone  out  into  other  occupations.  In  some  cases  they  are  shop- 
keepers and  merchants  and  they  are  engaged  in  all  types  of  businesses. 

So  the  problem  here  is  not  merely  one  of  transferring  a  group  of 
people  of  one  class  alone  to  another  area  and  thinking  that  you  can 
rehabilitate  them  by  putting  them  on  farm  land  in  Nebraska  or 
Kansas,  because  many  of  those  people  know  nothing  whatever  about 
farming.  They  should  be  permitted  to  follow  the  particular  vocations 
they  are  best  equipped  for  as  long  as  there  is  no  question  about  any 
activity  that  might  be  detrimental  to  the  welfare  of  this  country. 
In  the  State  of  California,  in  particular,  they  have  developed,  for  all 
purposes,  a  little  Japan  in  those  farming  areas,  their  own  language, 
schools,  and  churches. 


Well,  that  in  itself  might  have  been  all  right  had  they  not  estab- 
lished Japanese-language  schools.  In  the  establishment  of  these  lan- 
guage schools,  Japanese  Buddhist  teachers  were  brought  in  under  the 
exceptional  provision  of  the  immigration  laws.  Their  religious  as  well 
as  the  educational  background  was  Japanese  both  as  to  culture,  ideas, 
ideals,  action,  and  thought.  In  the  Japanese-language  schools,  from 
the  information  we  have  been  able  to  receive,  the  Japanese  indoctrina- 
tion of  American-born  Japanese  occurred. 

Likewise,  we  have  had  the  problem  presented  wherein  there  hasn't 
been  the  assimilation  of  those  people  as  there  has  been  in  the  case  of 
our  other  alien  enemies,  the  Italians  and  the  Germans,  who,  after  a 
generation  or  so,  became  American  in  thought,  ideas,  and  actions. 

We  note  also  that  in  the  single  case  of  the  Japanese  we  have  the 
only  situation  in  which  the  question  of  race,  religion  and  nationality, 
in  that  the  Emperor  of  Japan  not  only  is  the  head  of  a  nation  but  like- 
wise he  is  the  head  of  the  church  and  the  descendent  of  the  Sun  God. 
As  such  all  Japanese  who  profess  the  religion  of  which  he  is  the  leader 
naturally  have  that  particular  religious  obligation,  even  if  the  national 
element  was  not  thrown  into  the  picture. 


And  it  is  because  of  that  that  we  have  every  reason  to  doubt  whether 
Japanese  are  loyal  or  would  be  loyal  in  the  present  war  between  the 
Empire  of  Japan  and  the  United  States  of  America,  although  we  know 
that  with  some  other  power,  probably,  we  could  count  upon  the  loyalty 
of  these  dual  citizens. 

In  addition  we  have  had  the  bringing  in  of  the  so-called  Japanese 
culture  and  that  in  itself  has  caused  considerable  difficulty. 

Much  more  can  be  said  which  we  will  supply  by  way  of  exhibits 
to  be  furnished  because  I  do  not  wish  to  take  this  committee's  time 
unduly.  We  believe  that  it  is  essential  and  important  that  some  pro- 
vision be  made  for  the  military  authorities — and  by  "military"  I 
include  the  Navy  and  the  Marine  Corps  as  well  as  the  Army — to  be 
entrusted  with  the  authority  to  determine  wherein  or  where  there 
should  be  established  combat  zones,  and  to  that  extent  landward  or 
within  such  areas  as  they  may  deem  fit  and  proper  with  admission 
thereto  subject  to  permits  for  either  citizens  or  aliens.  But  in  con- 
nection with  this  whole  program,  while  we  must  recognize  and  remem- 
ber we  are  at  war;  that  the  welfare  of  the  Nation  is  paramount;  and 
that  people  who  are  loyal,  including  Japanese  or  Italians  or  Ger- 
mans, as  the  case  might  be,  may  best  show  their  loyalty  by  acquiescing 
and  assisting  in  carrying  out  these  things  so  as  to  minimize  the  sus- 
picion or  the  assertions  that  they  are  not  loyal  being  made  against 
them.  They,  in  that  way,  will  be  best  serving  our  country  even  if 
they  are  not  called  into  the  armed  forces  to  serve.  In  time  of  war  we 
must  recognize  as  well  that  many  of  the  rights  of  people  are  dependent 
upon  the  protection  and  the  defense  of  those  rights.  You  can  only 
defend  those  particular  rights  by  seeing  to  it  that  the  military  is  not  so 
involved  or  so  handicapped  by  acts  or  possible  acts  of  espionage  or 
sabotage  or  interference  with  the  evacuation  of  people  of  this  area. 
Hence,  all  those  whose  loyalty  is  not  unquestioned  should  be  removed 
from  that  area. 


As  a  personal  opinion  in  connection  with  how  this  may  be  done. 
Some  suggestion  has  been  made  that  there  is  no  agency  established 
at  the  present  time  among  the  governmental  agencies  capable  of 
handling  this  problem.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  this  is  an  emer- 
gency, that  something  must  be  done  immediately,  it  would  be  a 
personal  suggestion  that  a  new  agency  be  established  to  be  known 
by  some  title  such  as  the  National  Security  Department  or  Adminis- 
tration or  Board,  which  department  would  be  entrusted  with  full 
power  and  control  to  handle  all  matters  arising  out  of  or  in  any  way 
connected  with  this  particular  problem,  other  than  the  rights  of  the 
military  to  declare  what  zones  exist  and  the  evacuation  from  those 
areas.  I  would  include  within  that  agency  such  groups  as  the  Un- 
employment Insurance  group,  the  Civilian  Conservation  Corps,  the 
National  Youth  Administration,  the  Farm  Security  Administration, 
the  Treasury  Department,  and  utilize  those  agencies  to  the  extent 
that  may  be  necessary  until  the  proper  organization  can  be  set  up, 
if  at  all,  recognizing  the  emergency  and  having  that  agency  ad- 
minister the  properties  of  any  of  these  aliens  or  citizens  who  are  evacu- 
ated from  this  area,  and  handling  the  question  of  the  taking  care  of 


the  crops  or  the  leasing  of  the  property,  as  the  case  might  be.  All 
groups  would  act  through  the  proposed  National  Security  Adminis- 
tration, that  name  being  suggested  because  there  is  no  discrimination 


I  am  mindful  of  the  fact  that  there  are  many  people  who  believe 
that  our  civil  rights  should  not  be  transgressed,  not  recognizing  the 
fact  that  we  are  in  war  at  the  present  time,  and  that  this  affects 
the  welfare  of  the  Nation  rather  than  the  welfare  of  a  few,  or  that  a 
few  only  may  be  involved. 

I  would  like  to  suggest  to  the  committee  for  serious  consideration 
the  so-called  hardship  cases  we  have.  Of  course,  I  know  of  one  case 
here  where  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  removed  an  enemy 
alien  who  was  blind,  dumb,  deaf,  and  paralyzed,  if  you  please,  because 
under  the  tenor  of  the  law  the  alien  enemy  had  to  be  out  of  that 
restricted  zone. 

Now,  we  have  here  in  California,  many  thousands  of  Germans  and 
Italians.  Many  Italians,  in  particular,  came  here  who  are  not  able 
to  read  or  to  take  the  examinations,  or  who  didn't  see  fit  to  do  so, 
who  have  been  here  since  childhood.  Many  of  those  people  have  had 
large  families.  All  of  them  are  citizens,  many  serving  in  our  armed 
forces.     Their  loyalty,  without  doubt,  is  unquestioned. 

I  recall  the  statement  made  this  morning  that  there  was  a  situation 
in  Monterey  of  two  boys  in  the  armed  forces  whose  mother  would 
have  to  be  removed.  Now,  it  seems  to  me  that  it  would  not  be  an 
advisable  move  to  make,  as  was  suggested,  to  perform  a  surgical  oper- 
ation and  remove  everyone  and  then  to  come  back  and  say  whether 
or  not  some  should  be  permitted  to  return. 

I  feel  in  the  case  where  there  is  no  doubt  as  to  the  loyalty  of  the 
individual,  be  he  Japanese  or  be  he  of  any  other  racial  group  or  religion, 
citizen  or  alien,  that  if  there  is  no  question  about  the  loyalty  of  that 
person, -as  can  be  established  by  the  military  or  reputable  groups,  that 
that  party  should  be  permitted  to  remain,  having  in  mind  the  so-called 
hardship  cases.  And  we  know  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation 
is  very  active  in  connection  with  the  removal  of  those  about  whom 
there  is  any  question  or  doubt. 


Upon  removal,  through  these  various  agencies,  under  the  coordina- 
tion of  the  one  central  agency,  it  would  be  my  suggestion  that  evacuees 
be  placed  in  some  of  the  temporary  camps,  C.  C.  C.  camps  if  they 
are  available,  or  any  other  hospitals  or  institutions  that  could  be  made 
available  for  this  purpose,  and  through  the  unemployment  groups 
provision  be  made  for  the  rehabilitation,  that  is,  providing  employ- 
ment for  them  throughout  the  United  States  in  the  various  locations 
and  in  trades  in  which  they  were  accustomed  to  follow,  whether  it 
be  farming  or  whether  it  be  manufacturing,  or  what-not  can  be  secured. 
If  the  military  limited  a  zone  within  100  miles  of  our  border,  that 
probably  would  be  the  best  solution  because  I  feel  that  after. this  war 
is  over  our  acts  now  will  aggravate  or  minimize  our  future  problems. 
It  is  important  to  keep  this  in  mind  and  not  remove,  unnecessarily, 


many  people  who  are  valuable  citizens,  who  have  established  them- 
selves in  communities. 

We  should  minimize  the  losses  of  life  and  property  and  investments, 
to  the  extent  that  we  can,  and  those  are  aU  factors  that  can  be  con- 
sidered in  connection  with  this  proposal. 

1  merely  call  that  to  your  attention  and  suggest  it  to  you  for  the 
consideration  of  your  committee. 

In  concluding,  then,  I  would  ask  again  that  we  be  given  the  oppor- 
tunity to  submit  a  prepared  statement  or  exhibits. 
The  Chairman.  Yes,  sir. 


Mr.  Fouke.  Calling  attention  to  the  fact  that  in  view  of  the  long 
record  over  some  30  years  of  time  we  are  satisfied  that  it  is  very  doubt- 
ful to  be  able  to  establish  the  loyalty  of  any  person  who  came  from 
the  Empire  of  Japan,  whether  the  descendent  of  one  who  came  here 
or  not,  and  that  we  also  have  a  general  problem  of  dealing  with  all 
alien  enemies. 

Our  committee  is  concerned  only  with  the  Asiatic  group,  as  such, 
and  with  the  Mexican  problem. 

It  is  with  that  in  mind  that  we  recommend  that  the  committee 
recommend  to  Congress  the  establishment  of  combat  zones,  the 
evacuation  of  all  persons,  aliens  or  citizens  alike,  from  such  zones, 
and  under  the  supervision  of  the  authorities  that  are  constituted  and 
at  the  expense  of  those  authorities  make  provision  for  the  removal  of 
those  people  as  expeditiously  and  as  efficiently  as  possible. 

Thank  you  very  much. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  I  want  to  say  this  to  you,  I  have  heard  a 
good  many  talkers  in  Congress,  but  I  think  you  match  right  up  with 
them.  You  don't  seem  to  have  much  trouble  at  all — effortless.  I 
just  want  to  give  you  that  compliment.  I  don't  think  we  have  any- 
one there  that  can  beat  you. 

Mr.  Fouke.  Thank  you  very  much,  sir. 

Are  there  any  questions? 

(The  following  exhibits  were  submitted  for  the  record.  Exhibits 
A  and  B,  which  are  very  similar  in  content,  were  both  submitted  for 
the  record.) 

Exhibit  A. — The  Story  of  Japanese  Immigration 


(V.  S.  McClatchy,  executive  secretary,  California  Joint  Immigration  Committee)  l 

Japan  has  made  demand  that  the  United  States  repeal  that  part  of  the  law  of 
1924  which  excludes  aliens  ineligible  to  American  citizenship  and  then  open  the 
gates  to  Japanese  immigration  (and  necessarily  to  all  other  Asiatic  immigration 
as  well).  .  . 

Widely  publicized  notice  of  the  contemplated  demand  was  given  before  the 
Japanese  Diet,  March  23,  1937,  assertedly  based  on  information  (which  had  no 
foundation  in  fact)  that  public  opinion  in  the  United  States  on  the  subject  had 
changed,  and  that  a  bill  to  comply  with  Japan's  desires  had  been  introduced  in 
Congress.2     Previous  thereto,  on  March  10,  Ken  Sato,  a  prominent  journalist  of 

■  Article  published  in  the  Labor  Clarion,  San  Francisco,  September  3,  1937. 

2  The  "information"  apparently  was  furnished  by  Seijiro  Yoshizawa,  counselor  to  the  Japanese  Embassy 
at  Washington,  who  was  called  to  Tokyo  to  act  as  spokesman  for  the  Foreign  Office  there.  In  an  interview 
in  the  San  Francisco  Japanese- American  News,  February  5,  1937,  he  referred  to  an  assumed  change  in 
American  opinion  on  the  subject  and  to  an  immigration  bill  by  Kvale,  H.  R.  3798,  as  proposing  quota  for 
Japan.    That  bill,  however,  contained  no  reference  to  Japanese  immigration. 


Japan,  stated  in  Honolulu  that  he  was  on  the  way  to  the  mainland  on  a  "mission" 
to  inform  "American  editors,  Congressmen,  and  the  President"  that  this  conces- 
sion was  necessary  to  insure  friendly  relations  between  the  two  countries.  That 
mission  was  fulfilled  in  a  number  of  cities,  commencing  on  the  Pacific  coast  in 
early  April  and  winding  up  later  in  New  York  and  Washington.3 

Japan's  demand,  therefore,  is  sufficiently  explicit.  What  shall  the  answer  be? 
The  exclusion  provision  of  1924  was  the  only  plan  of  the  five  then  or  since  pro- 
posed (three  thereof  favored  by  Japan)  which,  without  discrimination  and  without 
surrender  of  national  sovereignty  or  congressional  prerogative,  would  effectively 
shut  out  the  only  element  of  Asiatic  immigration  then  still  pouring  in  contrary  to 
law  or  agreement.4  That  law  and  its  basic  principle,  once  abandoned,  may 
never  be  recalled. 

japan's  kecord  in  immigration 

Immigration  quota,  if  granted  to  Japan,  will  be  regarded  only  as  a  proof  of  our 
weakness  and  an  incentive  for  further  demands.  She  has  said,  through  various 
spokesmen,  that  quota  will  not  satisfy;  that  she  must  have  "racial  equality"; 
and  "racial  equality"  in  this  matter  means  ultimately  entrance  for  as  many 
immigrants  from  Japan  as  may  be  admitted  from  Canada  or  any  first-class  nation 
of  Europe.  The  experience  of  the  world  with  Japanese  immigration  in  the  past 
offers  ample  material  to  support  a  prompt  decision  by  the  United  States  in  this 
matter;  and  a  brief  outline  of  that  experience  is  presented  herewith. 

Up  to  1885  Japan  forbade  any  emigration  of  her  people.  In  1891  she  com- 
menced to  send  out  emigrants  for  settlement  in  favorable  lands,  and  by  1900,  with 
the  aid  of  emigrant  associations  and  government  appropriations,  was  shipping 
them  in  thousands.5  Australia  and  the  west  coast  of  the  United  States  took  alarm 
at  the  menace  offered  by  the  entrance  of  such  unassimilable  elements  of  immigra- 
tion. Australia,  refusing  Japan's  plea  for  a  "gentlemen's  agreement,"  promptly 
enacted  an  exclusion  law  which  Japan  protested  as  discriminating  and  insulting, 
but  finally  accepted  and  has  since  found  no  bar  to  friendly  relations.6  Australia's 
Japanese  population  steadily  decreased  and  in  1920  was  only  5,261.7 


The  United  States  unwisely  acceded  to  Japan's  request  that  the  agreed  exclusion 
of  Japanese  from  the  United  States  mainland,  and,  with  certain  reservations,  from 
Hawaii,  should  be  accomplished  by  Japan's  control  of  visas.  The  first  agreement, 
made  in  August  1900,  remained  in  effect  until  July  1,  1908,  when  it  was  supplanted 
by  the  second  agreement,  made  in  1907  by  President  Theodore  Roosevelt. 
Warned  by  the  flood  of  immigration  which  poured  in  in  violation  of  the  terms  of 
the  first  agreement,8  the  agreement  of  1907  was  carefully  safeguarded  so  that  if 
Japan  failed  to  (a)  exclude  Japanese  laborers  and  (b)  prevent  increase  of  Japanese 
population  in  continental  United  States,  the  agreement  would  be  replaced  by  an 
exclusion  law.9  In  addition,  the  President,  under  congressional  authority,  for- 
bade entrance  into  continental  United  States  of  Japanese  or  other  ineligibles 
coming  under  Japan's  visa  through  Hawaii  or  any  foreign  country;  and  in  1911 
the  Senate  refused  to  approve  the  Treaty  of  Commerce  and  Navigation  with 
Japan  until  the  Japanese  ambassador,  in  a  footnote  thereto,  guaranteed  on  behalf 
of  his  government  that  the  terms  of  the  agreement  as  to  exclusion  of  Japanese 
laborers  would  be  maintained.10 

Notwithstanding  all  those  precautions,  the  terms  of  the  agreement,  after 
Roosevelt's  incumbency,  were  steadiy  and  openly  violated  in  entrance  of  laborers 

3  Honolulu  Advertiser,  March  10,  1937;  also  interview  in  New  York  Herald  Tribune,  May  6,  1937.  See 
also  C.  J.  I.  C.  Docs.  492,  495. 

4  Quota  or  Exclusion  for  Japanese  Immigrants?,  Commonwealth  Club,  San  Francisco,  December  20, 
1932,  p.  314,  footnote  10 

»  According  to  U.  S.  Census  Japanese  population  in  continental  United  States  was,  in  1880, 148;  1890,  2,039; 
1900,  24,326;  1910,  72,157;  1920,  111.010.  The  actual  population  in  1920  was  approximately  150,000— in  Cali- 
fornia 100,000  in  other  States  50,000.  See  Senate  Committee  Hearing,  March  1924,  pp.  20,  25,  164-165; 
also  McClatchy  Brief,  1921,  sees.  68-83. 

9  Racial  Discrimination  in  the  Attitude  of  Australia  Towards  the  Japanese,  Cyril  Wynne,  Widener 
Library,  Harvard  University;  also  Queensland  Parliamentary  Papers,  A-5,  1899,  and  A-56,  1901. 

7  Japanese  Yearbook,  1923,  p.  45,  46. 

•  Theodore  Roosevelt  and  the  Japanese  American  Crises,  Bailey,  p.  2. 

•  See  President  Theodore  Roosevelt's  telegram  to  California  Legislature,  February  9,  1909;  also  his  auto- 
biography, pp.  411-414;  and  correspondence  with  William  Kent  and  others— explained  in  Senate  Immigra- 
tion Committee  Hearing,  March  1924,  pp.  12-16. 

10  Senate  Immigration  Committee  Hearing,  March  1924,  p.  16;  also  statement  of  Y.  Uchida,  February 
24, 1911,  at  p.  245  of  Percentage  Planf  or  Restriction  of  Immigration,  House  Immigration  Committee  Hear- 
ing, 1919. 


and  of  picture  and  kankodan  brides,  who  served  the  double  purpose  of  field  laborers 
and  mothers.11  It  developed  that  the  agreement  could  not  be  enforced  under  our 
laws.12  Protests  from  the  Pacific  coast  were  unheeded  by  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment, and  certain  States  sought  to  protect  themselves  and  their  citizens  by  passage 
of  alien  land  laws. 

japan's  policy  forces  congressional  action 

In  California  the  Japanese  established  a  state  within  a  State  wherein  every 
Japanese,  whether  alien  or  American  citizen,  was  forced,  through  registration  in  a 
minor  association,  subject  to  control  of  the  Japanese  Association  of  America 
(which  in  turn  acted  under  direction  of  the  consulate  general  of  Japan)  to  obey  the 
orders  of  Japan  in  peace  and  in  war.13 

In  1915  the  Federal  Council  of  the  Churches  of  Christ  in  America,  hoping  to 
secure  thereby  Japan's  aid  in  evangelizing  that  country,  promised  to  obtain  for 
her  nationals  immigration  and  naturalization  privileges  in  the  United  States; 
inaugurated  a  Nation-wide  campaign  therefor;  had  two  bills  introduced  in  Con- 
gress for  the  purpose  in  1919  and  actively  championed  those  bills  in  committee 

In  1920  the  Japanese  population  of  the  United  States,  including  Hawaii,  had 
become  over  three  times  as  great  as  that  of  all  other  countries  of  the  world,  outside 
of  Asia,  combined.14* 

An  aroused  Nation  demanded  abrogation  of  the  "gentlemen's  agreement"  and 
exclusion  of  Japanese  by  law.  Hearings  were  held  before  the  congressional  com- 
mittees in  1919  and  the  following  years,  and  in  1924  Congress  included  in  the 
immigration  restriction  act  the  provision  excluding  all  aliens  ineligible  to  citizen- 
ship. In  the  final  hearing  before  the  Senate  Immigration  Committee  in  March 
of  that  year  the  cause  of  Japan  was  presented  by  the  Federal  Council  of  the 
Churches  of  Christ  in  America  under  direction  of  Sidney  Gulick,  while  the  case  for 
general  exclusion  of  all  ineligibles  was  presented  on  behalf  of  the  California  Joint 
Immigration  Committee,  under  authority  of  its  then  four  sustaining  California 
State  bodies — American  Legion,  Federation  of  Labor,  Grange,  and  Native  Sons 
of  the  Golden  West — by  ex-United  States  Senator  J.  D.  Phelan,  State  Attorney 
General  U.  S.  Webb,  and  V.  S.  McClatchy.  Enforcement  of  that  law  stopped 
further  entrance  of  Japanese  for  permanent  settlement,  and  in  consequence  the 
Japanese  births  in  California  alone  dropped  from  5,010  in  1923  to  1,448  in  1936. 


In  other  countries  outside  of  Asia  which  failed  to  take  precautionary  measures 
the  Japanese  population  rapidly  increased  after  1920,  until  in  1934  their  combined 
Japanese  population  was  nearly  as  great  as  that  contained  in  the  United  States, 
which  was  304, 670.15 

South  American  countries,  notably  Brazil  and  Peru,  awoke  to  the  danger  in 
1934,  and  have  since  sought  by  exclusion  and  restriction  to  guard  against  it.16 

Since  1924  Japan  has  sought  steadily — without  success,  however — to  induce  a 
change  in  American  public  opinions  as  to  the  exclusion  law.  An  elaborate  cam- 
paign for  that  purpose  from  1930  to  1934  in  the  three  Pacific  Coast  States  provoked 
letters  to  President  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt  in  January  1934  from  the  35  congressional 
representatives  from  those  States  declaring  themselves,  on  behalf  of  their  respective 
constituencies,  unalterably  opposed  to  any  modification  of  the  existing  law.  In 
January  1933  the  members  of  the  Commonwealth  Club  of  California,  after  reading 
the  report  of  a  year's  investigation  by  its  immigration  section,  voted  by  large 
majorities  against  any  form  of  immigration  quota  for  Japan.17     Since  January 

ii  Statement  of  House  Immigration  Committee  March  24,  1924,  in  Report  No.  350,  "The  purpose  of  the 
agreement  *  *  *  as  explained  bv  Roosevelt,  has  not  been  carried  out.  *  *  *  The  Japanese  popula- 
tion of  continental  United  States  has  very  materially  increased;  *  *  *  thousands  of  Japanese  women 
have  come  in  as  laborers,  designated  on  the  manifests  and  in  the  reports  as  such,  and  have  performed  the 
double  duty  of  field  laborers  and  mothers  of  families  averaging  five  children." 

'2  Letter/Secretary  of  State  Hughes  to  House  Immigration  Committee,  August  16, 1921,  in  Labor  Prob- 
lems in  Hawaii,  House  Immigration  Committee  Hearing,  07th  Cong.,  pt.  2,  p.  928.  Also  decision  of  Judge 
M.  T.  Dooling,  U.  S.  District  Court,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  case  of  M.  Nakao,  May  1916. 

13  Japan's  Secret  Policy,  Senate  Doc.  No.  55, 1921,  p.  63. 

i<  "Quota  or  Exclusion  for  Japanese  Immigrants'"'  cited,  p.  313  and  footnote.  House  Immigration  Com- 
mittee Hearing  1919-20-22:  Senate  Committee  Hearing  March  1924;  Brief  V.  S.  McClatchy,  "Political 
Activities  of  the  F.  C.  C.  C.  A."  presented  to  House  Immigration  Committee,  January  6,  1926;  "Japanese 
Conquest  of  American  Opinion,''  Montaville  Flowers,  1917. 

"»  Japanese  Yearbook,  1923,  p.  45,  46. 

'»  Japanese  Census  1934,  quoted  bv  San  Francisco  Japanese  American  News,  April  26,  1937. 

i°  Associated  Press  story,  April  26,  1937;  editorial  Washington  Star,  April  28,  1937. 

i'  C.  J.  I.  C.  Doc.  No.  312. 


1934  there  has  been  no  reference  to  the  subject,  either  on  the  floor  or  in  committee 
of  either  House  of  Congress. 

Japan's  efforts  did  not  cease  then,  however.  Within  the  past  3  years  published 
statistics  show  that  in  Hawaii  two-thirds  of  the  citizens  of  Japanese  ancestry,  and 
even  of  those  registered  as  voters,  retain  Japanese  citizenship  through  choice,  and 
are  bound  to  obey  Japan's  orders  in  peace  and  in  war.  Similar  conditions  exist 
in  California,  though  access  to  the  statistics  cannot  be  had.  *  *  *  In  Hawaii, 
now  demanding  statehood,  two-thirds  of  the  population  is  Asiatic  and  40  percent 
Japanese,  while  the  largest  racial  group  of  registered  voters  is  Japanese.18 

In  Hawaii  and  California  withdrawal  of  certain  public  school  books  has  been 
forced  because  they  contained  misrepresentations,  in  Japan's  interest,  of  the  facts 
concerning  Japanese  immigration  and  current  events  in  Asia.19  *  *  *  The 
Japanese  American  Citizens'  League  in  California  has  pledged  its  members  to 
"solidarity" — the  use  of  their  position  and  united  strength  for  the  benefit  of 
Japanese  generally,  alien  as  well  as  American  citizens.  As  part  of  that  policy 
admission  of  alien  Japanese  relatives  from  Japan  and  naturalization  of  alien 
Japanese  resident  in  the  United  States  are  now  urged.  Grant  of  such  privileges 
would  force  repeal  of  the  1924  exclusion  provision  and  abandonment  of  its  basic 
principle.  *  *  *  The  Japan  Foreign  Office  has  recently  urged  the  return  of 
50,000  "Kibei  Shimin,"  now  in  Japan,  to  California  and  other  Pacific  coast  States, 
where  their  American  citizenship  can  be  of  most  service.  The  Japanese  Associa- 
tion of  America  is  promoting  the  movement.  "Kibei  Shimin"  are  Japanese  born 
in  the  United  States  and  sent  back  in  early  childhood  to  Japan  and  there  trained 
through  youth  to  maturity  in  the  duties  and  loyalty  of  Japanese  citizenship. 
"Kibei  Shimin"  are  received  without  question  into  full  membership  by  the  Jap- 
anese American  Citizens'  League.20 


Apparently  Japan  believes  the  time  is  now  ripe  for  a  final  decisive  drive  to  force 
entrance  for  her  emigration  into  the  largest  English-speaking  nation  of  the  world. 
Hence  the  present  widely  publicized  demand  for  the  necessary  change  in  our  laws 
to  serve  her  purpose.  Japan's  ground  for  complaint,  if  she  has  any  in  this  matter, 
is  not  against  the  exclusion  law,  which  is  not  discriminatory,  but  against  our 
century-old  naturalization  law  which,  as  amended  70  years  ago,  creates  a  basic 
barrier  against  admission  of  races  other  than  white  and  black. 

As  between  Japanese  and  Caucasian  there  does  not  arise,  and  has  not  been 
suggested,  any  question  of  racial  superiority.  Both  races  are  so  strong  in  char- 
acteristics that  make  for  racial  dominance,  but  at  the  same  time  so  dissimilar, 
that  absorption  of  one  by  the  other  is  out  of  the  question.  The  attempt  to  assimi- 
late the  two  in  the  land  of  either  is,  as  frankly  stated  by  President  Theodore 
Roosevelt,  Japan's  consistent  friend,  certain  to  provoke  disaster.  Japan,  many 
years  ago  after  determined  protest,  gracefully  conceded  the  issue  in  three  British 
dominions.  She  has  permitted  herself  to  be  misled  here  by  the  counsel  of  certain 
American  influences,  some  not  disinterested,  and  others  manifestly  uninformed 
as  to  the  facts.  The  American  Nation  cannot  permit  its  permanent  welfare  to 
be  jeopardized  by  conceding  a  demand  which,  aside  from  its  assumption  of  the 
right  to  dictate  to  a  friendly  power  in  a  matter  of  domestic  policy,  has  no  founda- 
tion in  fact  or  in  justice. 

Exhibit  B. — The  Story  of  Japanese  Immigration 


The  immigration  question  created  serious  disturbances  in  Japan's  relations  with 
Australia  and  with  the  United  States,  respectively,  at  the  opening  of  the  present 

In  one  case  the  misunderstanding  disappeared  after  a  few  years  without  injury 
to  either  nation.     In  the  other  it  increased,  and  in  time  assumed  grave  proportions. 

The  reason?  In  both  cases  there  was  friendly  agreement  as  to  the  wisdom  of 
exclusion  and  difference  only  as  to  the  method  for  insuring  it.     In  one  case, 

"8  C.  J.  I.  C.  Doc.  No.  451;  statistics  in  letter  Governor  Poindexter  to  C.  J.  I.  C.  February  15,  1936;  Hono- 
lulu Advertiser,  August  10,  1935. 

>»  C.  J.  I.  C.  Docs.  Nos.  458-9,  476,  501. 

m  Osaka  Mainichi,  March  19,  1937,  C.  J.  I.  C.  Doc.  No.  506. 


Australia,  as  a  sovereign  state,  enforced  exclusion.  In  the  other,  Japan,  at  her 
request,  was  permitted  by  the  United  States  to  secure  the  agreed  result. 

After  24  years'  experience  the  United  States  was  compelled  to  abandon  that 
plan  and  follow  the  example  of  Australia.  Japan  now  demands  what  she  origi- 
nally agreed  was  not  to  be  granted. 

The  facts,  with  verification,  are  covered  briefly  in  the  following  article,  "The 
Story  of  the  Japanese  Immigration."  That  they  may  be  known  generally  to  the 
citizens  of  both  nations,  and  particularly  to  students  of  Pacific  relations,  the 
California  Joint  Immigration  Committee  permits  the  article  to  be  quoted  in  whole 
or  in  part. 

Japan  has  recently  demanded  that  the  United  States  repeal  that  part  of  the 
Immigration  Restriction  Act  of  1924  (sec.  13c)  which  is  commonly  but  mistakenly 
called  the  Japanese  Exclusion  Act.  It  provides  that  "No  alien  ineligible  to  citi- 
zenship shall  be  admitted  to  the  United  States  *  *  *,"  and  applies  to  half  the 
population  of  the  globe,  of  which  half  the  Japanese  constitute  about  7  percent. 
It  will  be  understood  that  if  this  measure  is  repealed  and  Japanese  admitted,  all 
other  Asiatics  must,  in  fairness,  be  admitted  as  well. 

On  March  23,  1937,  it  was  announced  in  the  Japanese  Diet  that  public  opinion 
in  the  United  States  on  the  subject  of  Japanese  immigration  had  changed  (a 
statement  which  had  no  foundation  in  fact)  and  that  a  bill  permitting  Japanese 
immigrants  to  come  into  this  country  under  quota  x  had  been  introduced  in  Con- 
gress.2 About  2  weeks  before  this  announcement  was  made  in  the  Diet,  Ken  Sato, 
a  prominent  journalist  of  Japan,  stated  in  Honolulu  that  he  was  on  his  way  to  the 
mainland  on  a  "mission"  to  inform  "American  editors,  Congressmen,  and  the 
President"  that  to  insure  friendly  relations  between  the  two  countries  Japan's 
demands  in  the  immigration  matter  must  be  met.  Sato  traveled  from  the  Pacific 
coast  to  New  York  and  Washington  in  fulfillment  of  his  "mission."  3 

Japan's  demand  is  clear.  What  shall  the  answer  be?  The  exclusion  provision 
of  1924  was  the  only  plan  of  five  proposed  then  or  since  which  met  the  conditions 
satisfactorily.     Those  plans  were — 

(1)  A  Japanese  exclusion  law. — Rejected  as  insulting  and  discriminatory. 

(2)  A  treaty.- — Not  acceptable  because  regulation  of  immigration  is  solely  the 
right  of  Congress,  since  it  is  purely  a  domestic  question,  and  a  treaty  would 
intrude  on  that  right. 

(3)  New  agreement. — This  would  put  the  regulation  of  immigration  into  the 
hands  of  a  foreign  nation.  No  country  should  permit  such  a  condition.  It 
would  also  be  a  violation  of  the  right  of  Congress  to  regulate  immigration;  and 
since  two  previous  agreements  with  Japan  had  failed  there  was  no  reason  to 
believe  a  new  one  would  prove  more  satisfactory. 

(4)  Quota. — Would  concede  to  Japan  equality  in  immigration  matters  with  the 
countries  of  Europe  and  preference  over  the  countries  of  Asia.  It  would  nullify 
our  naturalization  law  and  force  abandonment  of  our  basic  policy  of  excluding 
unassimilable  elements  from  our  population. 

A  Japanese  quota  might  be  small,  but  nonquota  immigrants  (admitted  from  all 
countries  in  addition  to  those  coming  in  under  quota),  and  alien  wives  for  Amer- 
ican citizens  of  Japanese  ancestry  (much  desired  by  them),  would  bring  the  total 
annual  entries  to  a  large  number.  And  these  conditions  would  apply  necessarily 
to  all  other  Asiatic  countries. 

Such  nullification  of  the  exclusion  measure  would  permit  the  entrance  without 
restriction  of  every  person  born  of  oriental  parents  in  the  Western  Hemisphere. 

(5)  Exclusion  of  all  aliens  ineligible  to  citizenship. — The  latter  plan,  exclusion  of 
ineligibles,  was  decided  by  Congress  to  be  the  only  satisfactory  one.  It  excludes, 
without  discrimination  and  without  the  loss  of  the  sovereign  rights  of  this  country 
and  the  rights  of  Congress,  the  only  Asiatics  who  were  still  pouring  in  contrary  to 
law  or  agreement.4  The  Chinese  were  excluded  by  the  Exclusion  Act  of  1882  with 
later  amendment;  Hindus  and  Malays  by  the  Barred  Zone  Act  of  1917;  and  the 
gentlemen's  agreement  of  1907  (the 'details  of  which  were  secret)  provided  that 
Japan  should  send  no  laborers  into  continental  United  States,   and  that  the 

1  "Quota"  is  the  number  of  immigrants  of  each  elieible  nationality  permitted  to  enter  this  country 
annually  under  the  terms  of  the  Immisration  Restriction  Act  of  1924. 

2  The  "information"  apparently  was  furnished  by  Seijiro  Yoshizawa,  counselor  to  the  Japanese  Embassy 
at  Washington.  He  is  quoted  in  San  Francisco  Japanese-American  News,  February  5,  1937,  and  referred 
to  an  assumed  change  in  American  opinion  on  the  subject  and  to  a  bill  by  Kvale,  H.  R.  3798,  as  proposing 
quota  for  Japan.    That  bill  contained  no  reference  to  Japanese  immieration. 

3  Honolulu  Advertiser,  March  10,  1937;  also  New  York  Herald  Tribune  May  G,  1937.  C.  J.  I.  C.  Docs. 
Nos.  492  and  49i.  ,  _ 

*  "Quota  or  Exclusion  for  Japanese  Immigrants?"  Commonwealth  Club,  San  Francisco,  December 
20,  1932,  p.  314,  footnote  No.  10. 


Japanese  population  of  continental  United  States  should  not  increase.  Neither 
provision  was  carried  out;  laborers  entered  in  large  numbers,  and  the  Japanese 
population  increased  greatly. 

The  exclusion  measure  is  in  harmony  with  our  century-old  naturalization  law 
which,  with  its  amendment,  permits  grant  of  naturalization  only  to  "free  white 
persons  and  persons  of  African  nativity";  and  with  the  policy  of  excluding  unas- 
similable  elements  from  our  population  when  their  numbers  became  menacing. 

japan's  record  in  immigration 

If  we  grant  quota  to  Japan  she  will  merely  regard  it  as  a  proof  of  weakness  and 
will  continue  to  make  further  demands.  She  has  said  through  various  spokesmen 
that  quota  alone  will  not  satisfy;  that  she  must  have  "racial  equality";  and  racial 
equality  in  this  matter  means  that  she  will  surely  demand  in  the  future  entrance 
for  as  many  of  her  people  as  may  be  admitted  from  Canada  or  any  first-class 
nation  of  Europe.  The  experience  of  various  countries  of  the  world  with  Japanese 
immigration  in  the  past  proves  that  the  United  States  is  following  the  wisest  course 
in  this  matter. 

Up  to  1885  Japan  did  not  allow  her  people  to  leave  the  country.  In  1891  she 
commenced  to  send  out  emigrants  for  settlement  in  favorable  lands  and  by  1900, 
with  the  aid  of  "emigration  associations,"  and  money  appropriated  by  the  Govern- 
ment, was  shipping  them  out  in  thousands.5  Australia  and  the  west  coast  of  the 
United  States  became  alarmed  at  the  menace  offered  by  the  entrance  of  large 
numbers  of  aliens  who  did  not  assimilate  with  the  basic  population.  Australia, 
warned  by  the  experience  of  Queensland,  refused  Japan's  plea  for  a  "gentlemen's 
agreement,"  and  promptly  enacted  a  law  which  used  the  so-called  education 
test  to  exclude  arbitrarily  any  objectionable  immigrants,  in  accordance  with  her 
strict  "White  Australia"  policy.  Japan  protested  that  law  as  insulting,  but  she 
finally  accepted  it  and  has  since  found  it  no  bar  to  friendly  relations.6  Australia's 
Japanese  population  steadily  decreased  and  in  1920  was  only  5,261.7 

New  Zealand  and  South  Africa  also  excluded  by  law  similar  to  Australia's. 

In  1906  Canada  negotiated  a  secret  gentlemen's  agreement  with  Japan,  pro- 
viding for  entrance  under  Japan's  passport  of  only  400  immigrants  annually;  but 
that  number  increased  each  year  until  in  1920  it  had  reached  1,178.  British 
Columbia  protested  continuously  and  finally  in  1928  the  number  to  be  admitted 
was  reduced;  but  Japan  still  controls  the  issuing  of  passports.  British  Columbia 
continues  to  fight  for  complete  exclusion. 


In  1900  Japan  agreed  with  the  United  States  that  it  was  desirable  to  keep  her 
laborers  out  of  this  country.  But  she  asked  that  exclusion  be  accomplished  by 
allowing  her  to  control  the  issuing  of  passports.  This  was  the  first  gentlemen's 
agreement,  entered  into  in  August  1900. 

But  by  1907  such  a  flood  of  Japanese  had  been  pouring  in,  in  violation  of  that 
Agreement8  that  President  Theodore  Roosevelt  made  a  second  one  with  Japan 
in  an  attempt  to  settle  the  question  without  humiliating  her.  The  terms  of  this 
agreement  provided  that  if  it  failed  of  its  twofold  purpose  of  excluding  Japanese 
laborers  and  preventing  increase  of  Japanese  population  in  continental  United 
States  it  would  be  replaced  by  an  exclusion  law.9  In  addition  the  President, 
under  congressional  authority,  forbade  entrance  into  continental  United  States 
of  Japanese  or  other  ineligibles  coming  with  Japan's  passport  through  Hawaii  or 
any  foreign  country;  and  in  1911  the  Senate  refused  to  approve  the  Treaty  of 
Commerce  and  Navigation  with  Japan  until  the  Japanese  Ambassador,  in  a 
footnote  thereto,  guaranteed  that  his  government  would  live  up  to  the  terms  of 
the  agreement  as  to  exclusion  of  laborers.10 

8  According  to  U.  S.  Census,  Japanese  population  in  continental  United  States  was,  in  1880,  148;  1890, 
2,039;  1900,  24,326;  1910,  72,157;  1920,  111,010.  The  actual  population  in  1920  was  approximately  150,000— 
in  California  100,000  and  in  other  States  50,000.  See  Senate  Committee  Hearings,  March  1924,  pp.  20,  25; 
164, 165. 

6  "Racial  Discrimination  in  the  Attitude  of  Australia  Towards  the  Japanese,"  Cyril  Wynne—  Widener 
Library,  Harvard  University;  also  Queensland  Parliamentary  Papers  A-5,  1899,  and  A-56,  1901. 

?  Japanese  Yearbook,  1923,  pp.  45,  46. 

«  "Theodore  Roosevelt  and  the  Japanese  American  Crises,"  Bailey,  p.  2. 

»  Roosevelt's  telegram  to  California  Legislature,  February  9,  1909:  his  autobiography,  pp.  411-414;  cor- 
respondence with  William  Kent — Senate  Immigration  Committee  Hearing,  March  1924,  pp.  12-16. 

»°  Senate  Immigration  Committee  Hearings,  March  1924,  p.  15;  Y.  Uchida,  February  24,  1911,  p.  245 
of  "Percentage  Plan  for  Restriction  of  Immigration."    House  Immigration  Committee  Hearings,  1919. 


Notwithstanding  all  of  these  precautions,  the  terms  of  the  agreement  were 
openly  violated  after  President  Roosevelt  left  office,  by  entrance  of  laborers  (so- 
called  in  ships'  manifests)  and  picture  and  kankodan  (excursion)  brides.  These 
brides  served  the  double  purpose  of  field  laborers  and  mothers  of  families  averaging 
five  children  each.11  Thus  the  Japanese  population  increased  rapidly.  It  devel- 
oped also  that  the  agreement,  being  neither  law  nor  treaty,  had  no  standing  in  our 
courts,12  and  could  not  therefore  be  enforced  under  our  laws.  The  Federal 
Government  in  Washington  paid  no  attention  to  repeated  protest  from  the  Pacific 
coast  against  this  alarming  situation;  and  certain  States  sought  to  protect  them- 
selves against  peaceful  penetration  of  Japanese  by  passage  of  alien  land  laws. 

japan's  policy  forces  congressional  action 

In  California  the  Japanese  established  a  state  within  a  State.  Every  Japanese, 
whether  alien  or  American  citizen,  was  forced  to  register  in  a  minor  association, 
subject  to  control  of  the  Japanese  Association  of  America,  which  in  turn  acted 
under  direction  of  the  Consul  General  of  Japan,  and  to  obey  the  orders  of  Japan. n 

In  1915  the  Federal  Council  of  the  Churches  of  Christ  in  America,  hoping  there- 
by to  win  Japan  to  Christianity,  promised  to  obtain  immigration  and  naturaliza- 
tion privileges  for  her  nationals  in  the  United  States.  A  campaign  was  organized 
by  the  Council  for  this  purpose  and  in  1919  two  bills  therefor  were  actively  advo- 
cated in  congressional  committee  hearings.14 

In  1920  there  were  over  three  times  more  Japanese  in  the  United  States,  includ- 
ing Hawaii,  than  in  all  other  countries  of  the  world  combined,  outside  of  Asia.14a 

The  Nation  became  aroused  and  demanded  that  the  agreement  be  ended  and 
the  Japanese  excluded  by  law,  as  other  Asiatics  were  excluded.  Extensive  hear- 
ings were  held  before  the  congressional  committees  in  1919  and  the  following 
years,  and  in  1924  Congress  included  in  the  Immigration  Restriction  Act  the 
provision  excluding  aliens  ineligible  to  citizenship  for  permanent  residence  but 
granting  to  them  the  courtesy  of  entrance  for  students,  merchants,  travelers, 
diplomats,  and  all  others  of  the  nonquota  classes,  as  granted  all  nationalities. 

Enactment  of  the  exclusion  measure  was  not  the  unexpected  and  undeserved 
blow  to  Japan's  national  pride  she  claims.  It  was  the  result  of  24  years  of  evasion 
by  her  of  her  agreement  to  keep  Japanese  laborers  out  of  the  United  States. 

In  the  final  hearing  before  the  Senate  Immigration  Committee  in  March  1924 
Japan's  cause  was  presented  by  the  Federal  Council  of  the  Churches  of  Christ  in 
America,  under  direction  of  Dr.  Sidney  L.  Gulick,  born  in  the  Orient,  a  missionary 
professor  in  a  Japanese  university,  on  leave  to  propagandize  Japan's  cause  in 
this  country.15  California's  case  "for  exclusion  was  presented  for  the  California 
Joint  Immigration  Committee  under  authority  of  its  then  four  constituting  State 
bodies — American  Legion,  Federation  of  Labor,  Grange,  and  Native  Sons  of  the 
Golden  West — by  Hon.  U.  S.  Webb,  State  attorney  general  of  California;  Hon. 
James  D.  Phelan,  former  United  States  Senator  from  California;  and  V.  S. 

Enforcement  of  the  exclusion  law  stopped  further  entrance  of  Japanese  for 
permanent  settlement,  and  in  consequence  Japanese  births  in  California  alone 
dropped  from  5,015  in  1923  to  1,448  in  1936.  Anti-Japanese  agitation  disap- 
peared gradually  when  the  question  was  settled. 


In  other  countries  outside  of  Asia  which  failed  to  take  precautionary  measures, 
the  Japanese  population  rapidly  increased  after  1920,  until  in  1934  their  combined 
population  was  nearly  as  great  as  that  contained  in  the  United  States,  304,670.lft 

ii  House  Immigration  Committee  Report,  No.  35(1,  March  24,  1924:  "The  purpose  of  the  agreement 
*  *  *  as  explained  bv  Roosevelt,  has  not  been  carried  out  *  *  *.  The  Japanese  population  of  con- 
tinental United  States  has  very  materially  increased  *  *  *  thousands  of  Japanese  women  have  come 
in  as  laborers,  designated  on  the  manifests  and  in  the  reports  as  such,  and  have  performed  the  double  duty 
of  field  laborers  and  mothers  of  families  averaging  five  children."  . 

12  Letter  Secretary  of  State  Hughes  to  House  Immigration  Committee,  August  lh.  1921,  in  Labor  Prob- 
lems in  Hawaii,"  House  Immigration  Committee  Hearing,  67th  Cong.,  pt.  2,  p.  928.  Also  decision  Judge 
M   T   Dooling,  U.  S.  District  Court,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  case  of  M.  Nakao,  May  1916. 

is  "Japan's  Secret  Policv."  Senate  Doc.  No.  55,  1921.  p.  63. 

it  "Quota  or  Exclusion  for  Japanese  Immigrants?"  cited,  p.  313  and  footnote.  House  Immigration 
Committee  Hearings,  1919,  1920,  i922;  Senate  Committee  Hearings,  March  1924.  "Japanese  Conquest  or 
American  Opinion,"  Flowers. 

"»  Jananese  Yearbook,  1923,  p.  45,  46. 

"  "Japanese  Conquest  of  American  Opinion,"  Flowers,  pp.  78,  88. 

is  Japanese  Census  1934,  quoted  San  Francisco  Japanese- American  News,  April  26, 1967. 


Brazil,  Peru,  and  other  countries  of  South  America  have  recently  sought  by 
restriction  and  exclusion  to  guard  against  the  danger  of  Japanese  penetration.17 
Japan  protested  vigorously  when  Brazil  placed  her  immigration  under  quota, 
claiming  hurt  national  pride,  yet  she  demands  that  privilege  of  quota  from  the 
United  States  as  the  only  thing  that  will  heal  the  wound  inflicted  upon  that 
pride  by  passage  of  the  exclusion  measure. 

Since  1924  Japan  has  tried  steadily,  but  without  success,  to  change  American 
public  opinion  with  regard  to  the  exclusion  law.  After  an  elaborate  campaign 
for  that  purpose  from  1930  to  1934  by  church,  commercial,  and  idealistic  groups, 
the  congressional  delegations  from  the  three  Pacific  Coast  States  sent  a  letter  to. 
President  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt,  declaring  themselves,  in  behalf  of  their  respec- 
tive States,  as  unalterably  opposed  to  any  modification  of  the  existing  law.  In 
January  1933  the  members  of  the  Commonwealth  Club  of  California,  after  read- 
ing the  report  of  a  year's  investigation  by  its  immigration  section,  voted  by  large 
majorities  against  any  form  of  immigration  quota  for  Japan.18  Since  January 
1934  there  has  been  no  reference  to  this  subject  either  on  the  floor  or  in  committee 
of  either  House  of  Congress. 

Japan's  efforts  did  not  cease  then,  however.  Within  the  past  3  years  pub- 
lished statistics  show  that  in  Hawaii  two-thirds  of  the  American  citizens  of 
Japanese  ancestry,  and  even  of  those  registered  as  voters,  have  failed  to  expatriate 
themselves  from  Japan,  though  free  to  do  so  under  Japanese  law,  enacted  in  1924. 
Thus  they  are  citizens  of  both  countries,  owing  allegiance  to  the  United  States, 
but  also  bound  to  obey  Japan's  orders  in  peace  and  war.  This  dual  citizenship 
is  most  undesirable  from  the  American  standpoint.  Similar  conditions  exist  in 
California — though  statistics  on  the  subject  cannot  be  had.  *  *  *  In 
Hawaii,  now  demanding  statehood,  two-thirds  of  the  population  is  Asiatic  and 
40  percent  Japanese;  and  the  largest  group  of  registered  voters  is  Japanese.19 

The  Japanese  American  Citizens  League  in  California  has  pledged  its  members 
to  solidarity — the  use  of  their  citizenship  and  voting  strength  for  the  benefit  of 
Japanese  generally,  aliens  as  well  as  American  citizens.  As  part  of  that  policy,, 
-admission  of  Japanese  relatives  from  Japan  and  naturalizing  of  alien  Japanese 
resident  in  the  United  States  are  urged.  Grant  of  such  privileges  would  in  effect 
repeal  the  exclusion  measure  and  force  abandonment  of  its  basic  principle. 
Representatives  of  the  league  have  appeared  before  the  State  Legislature  of 
California  in  an  attempt  to  block  measures  pertaining  to  fishing  by  aliens,  which 
were  for  the  best  interest  of  the  State.  Oregon  and  Washington  have  long  had 
such  laws. 

It  has  been  the  custom  among  alien  Japanese  in  this  country  to  send  their 
young  children  to  Japan  to  be  trained  there  through  youth  to  maturity  in  the 
duties  and  loyalty  of  Japanese  citizenship.  They  are  known  as  Kibei  Shimin 
(there  are  50,000  now  in  Japan),  and  the  Japanese  Foreign  Office  has  recently 
urged  their  return  to  California  and  other  Pacific  Coast  States  where  their  Ameri- 
can citizenship  can  be  of  most  service  to  Japan.  These  Kibei  Shimin  are  received 
into  full  membership  by  the  Japanese  American  Citizens  League  20  even  though 
they  are  practically  alien  Japanese. 

That  the  Japanese  do  not  and  cannot  assimilate  with  our  population  is  proved 
by  the  fact  that  even  those  born  and  educated  here  complain  of  the  difficulty  they 
experience  in  finding  and  holding  good  jobs,  locating  residence  in  desirable 
neighborhoods  and  entering  public  places  of  amusement  and  recreation.  Further- 
immigration  of  alien  Japanese  would  only  perpetuate  these  conditions. 

In  accordance  with  a  plan  announced  by  the  Society  for  International  Cultural 
Relations  in  the  Japan  Times  and  Mail  of  December  4,  1934,21  Japanese  propa- 
ganda has  been  introduced  into  the  schools  of  California  and  Hawaii.  With- 
drawal of  certain  textbooks  has  been  forced  because  they  contained  misrepresenta- 
tion in  Japan's  interest  of  the  facts  concerning  Japanese  immigration  and  current 
events  in  Asia.22 


Apparently  Japan  believes  the  time  is  now  ripe  for  a  final  drive  to  force  entrance 
for  her  immigration  into  the  largest  English-speaking  nation  of  the  world;  hence 

»  A.  P.  story,  April  26,  1937;  editorial  Washington  Star,  Aoril  28,  1937. 
i8C.  J.  I.  C.  Doc.  No.  312. 

»  C.  J.  I.  C.  Doc.  No.  451;  Letter  Governor  Poindexter  to  C.  J.  I.  C.  February  10,  1936;  Honolulu  Ad-, 
vertiser,  August  10.  1935. 
J"  Osaka  Mainichi,  March  19,  1937;  C.  J.  I.  C.  Doc.  No.  506. 
»i  C.  J.  I   C.  Doc.  No.  409. 
»  C.  J.  I.  C.  Docs.  Nos.  458,  459,  476,  501. 


the  present  demand  for  the  necessary  change  in  our  laws  to  serve  her  purpose. 
Japan's  complaint,  if  she  has  any  in  this  matter,  is  not  against  the  exclusion 
measure,  which  is  not  discriminator}',  but  against  our  century-old  naturalization 
law,  which  created  a  basic  barrier  against  admission  of  races  other  than  white  and 
black,  and  against  our  policy  of  excluding  unassimilable  elements  from  our 
population.  But  it  would  seem  that  no  nation  has  the  right  to  protest  against 
application  to  herself  of  a  policy  established  before  mutual  contact  had  taken 
place.  And  Japan  herself  excludes  Korean  and  Chinese  laborers,  who  are  of  her 
own  color,  by  Imperial  Order  No.  352. 

As  between  Japanese  and  Caucasians  there  does  not  arise,  and  has  not  been 
suggested,  any  question  of  racial  superiority.  Both  races  are  so  strong  in  char- 
acteristics that  make  for  racial  dominance  but  at  the  same  time  so  dissimilar  that 
absorption  of  the  one  by  the  other  is  out  of  the  question.  The  attempt  to  as- 
similate the  two  in  the  land  of  either  is,  as  frankly  stated  by  President  Theodore 
Roosevelt,  Japan's  consistent  friend,  certain  to  provoke  disaster.  Japan,  many 
years  ago,  after  determined  protest,  accepted  the  decision  of  three  British  Do- 
minions to  exclude  her  emigrants.  She  has  permitted  herself  to  be  misled  here 
by  the  counsel  of  certain  American  influences,  some  not  disinterested  and  others 
manifestly  misinformed  as  to  the  facts,  into  believing  that  she  may  eventually 
receive  the  concessions  she  demands.  The  American  Nation  cannot  permit  its 
permanent  welfare  to  be  jeopardized  by  conceding  a  demand  which,  aside  from  its 
assumption  of  the  right  to  dictate  to  a  friendly  power  in  a  matter  of  domestic 
policy,  has  no  foundation  in  fact  or  in  justice.  If  the  exclusion  measure,  with  its 
basic  principle,  is  ever  abandoned  it  may  never  be  recalled. 

Exhibit  C 

The  following  statement  on  the  Japanese  citizenship  situation  is  issued  by  the 
California  Joint  Immigration  Committee,  composed  of  representatives  of  the 
American  Legion,  California  State  Federation  of  Labor,  Native  Sons,  and 
California  Grange: 

The  California  Joint  Immigration  Committee  recognizes  the  existence  of  the 
following  facts  and  conditions: 

That  the  United  States  of  America  is  at  war  with  the  Empire  of  Japan. 

That  the  Pacific  Coast  States  are  in  a  combat  zone  and  are  now  in  danger. 

That  there  are  Japanese  residing  in  the  Pacific  Coast  States  of  which  approxi- 
mately 93,717  reside  in  California,  and  of  this  number  33,569  are  alien  Japanese; 
that  the  remainder  by  reason  of  birth  are  citizens  of  the  United  States,  but  of 
this  number  25,177  are  also  citizens  of  Japan,  and  about  25  percent  of  those  born 
in  the  United  States  have  relinquished  their  Japanese  citizenship. 

That  Japanese  residents  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands  furnished  information  that 
made  possible  the  success  of  the  attack  on  Pearl  Harbor. 

That  more  than  25,000  United  States  citizens  of  Japanese  parentage  have  been 
educated  in  schools  in  Japan,  many  of  whom  now  reside  in  the  Pacific  Coast 
States;  that  other  United  States  citizens  born  in  this  country  of  Japanese  parents 
have  been  educated  in  Japanese  language  schools  sponsored  and  supported  by  the 
Government  of  Japan  in  this  country,  and  that  many  of  these  citizens  are  not 
loyal  to  the  Government  of  the  United  States  or  its  institutions. 

That  it  is  true  that  about  25  percent  of  the  Japanese  citizens  residing  in  Cali- 
fornia have  renounced  their  Japanese  citizenship,  but  experience  has  demonstrated 
that  such  renunciation  cannot  be  accepted  as  proof  of  their  loyalty  to  the  United 
States  while  the  two  countries  are  at  war. 

That  though  it  is  recognized  that  some  of  the  Japanese  citizens  are  entirely 
loyal  to  this  country  and  her  institutions,  it  is  impossible  now  with  required 
certainity  to  separate  the  loyal  from  the  disloyal.  While  we  recognize  the  mis- 
fortune and  hardship  that  the  loyal  citizens  may  suffer,  these  are  conditions 
which  must  be  borne  bjr  the  individual  rather  than  that  the  welfare  of  the  nation 
be  endangered. 

That  the  presence  of  people  in  the  combat  zone  whose  loyalty  is  in  doubt  should 
not  be  tolerated,  lest  the  welfare  of  the  nation  be  imperiled. 

That  civil  rights  and  liberties  of  all  persons  within  the  United  States  is  recog- 
nized and  must  be  protected  in  all  proper  ways  and  at  all  times,  but  in  time  of 
war,  the  civil  rights  and  liberties  of  the  individual  must  yield  to  the  common 

Pearl  Harbor  has  caused  a  quickening  effort  in  the  production  of  war  material 
but  with  Japanese  in,  around,  and  within  reach  of  every  productive  energy,  it  is 
idle  to  cry:  "Remember  Pearl  Harbor." 


Neither  fear,  timidity  nor  cost  should  delay  action. 

Japanese  should  be  removed  now! 

In  recognition  of  the  foregoing  facts,  It  is 

Resolved,  That  the  entire  Pacific  coast  to  such  extend  landward  as  may  be 
required  to  insure  safety  should  be  declared  a  combat  zone;  and  be  it  further 

Resolved,  That  the  Japanese,  including  Japanese  citizens  of  the  United  States, 
be  removed  as  quickly  as  possible  from  said  zone;  and  be  it  further 

Resolved,  That  where  like  dangers  exist  in  the  interior,  other  combat  zones  be 
established  and  like  removals  made  therefrom;  and  be  it  further 

Resolved,  That  all  civil  authorities  of  the  State  aid  Federal  authorities  to  such 
extent  as  Federal  authorities  may  request. 

James  K.  Fisk,  Chairman, 
H.  J.   McClatchy,  Executive  Secretary. 

San  Francisco,   Calif.,  February  IS,  1942. 

Exhibit    D. — California    Joint    Immigration    Committee,    San    Francisco, 


dangers  created  by  japanese  dual  citizenship 

A  serious  problem  exists,  particularly  in  Hawaii  and  California,  because  most 
of  the  Japanese  born  under  the  American  flag  and  exercising  the  right  of  American 
citizenship  still  elect  to  retain  Japanese  citizenship  with  its  obligations,  although 
they  are  now  free  to  expatriate.  It  is  charged  that  many  of  these  dual  citizens 
would  use  their  American  citizenship  under  direction  or  influence  to  further  the 
purposes  of  Japan. 

As  late  as  the  early  1920's,  Japan  maintained  in  California  a  state  within  a 
State  in  which  every  Japanese,  whether  alien  or  native-born  American  citizen, 
was  under  orders  of  Japan,  in  peace  and  in  war.  He  was  forced  to  belong  to  a  local 
association  subject  to  the  Japanese  Association  of  America  and  all  under  control 
of  the  consul  general  of  Japan  at  San  Francisco  (S.  Doc.  No.  55,  1921,  p.  63;  also 
Japanese  Immigration  and  Colonization,  V.  S.  McClatchy,  1921,  sees.  196  to  218). 

Publication  of  the  facts  and  the  passage  in  1924  of  that  provision  of  the  Immi- 
gration Restriction  Act  excluding  as  immigrants  all  aliens  ineligible  to  American 
citizenship  induced  Japan  to  put  into  operation  on  December  1,  1924,  a  new 
nationality  law.  Under  that  law  Japanese  born  in  the  United  States  after  the 
date  named  automatically  lost  Japanese  citizenship  unless  within  14  days  they 
were  registered  at  the  Japanese  consulate.  The  law  further  provided  that  those 
so  registered,  as  well  as  those  born  here  before  December  1924,  could  renounce 
Japanese  citizenship  by  declaration  at  the  Japanese  consulate  after  reaching  their 
twentieth  year. 

Under  that  system  it  was  assumed  that  dual  citizenship  would  disappear  if  the 
Japanese  themselves  really  desired  to  renounce  all  obligations  to  Japan  as  the  price 
for  American  citizenship.  The  records  prove,  however,  that  various  factors, 
including  the  insistence  of  the  first  generation,  the  pull  of  heredity,  the  Japanese 
law  of  family,  the  teachings  of  alien  Buddhist  instructors  in  the  Japanese  language 
schools,  and  the  encouraged  study  of  "Japanese  culture,"  tend  to  nullify  the  pur- 
pose of  the  law.  In  Hawaii,  for  instance,  "the  total  number  of  American  citizens 
of  Japanese  ancestry  who  had  relinquished  Japanese  citizenship  was,  as  of  June 
30,  1934,  34,270,  approximately  33  percent  of  those  eligible  for  expatriation." 
Of  that  number  28,459  are  Japanese  born  since  December  1,  1924,  who  lost  Japa- 
nese citizenship  automatically  at  birth  under  the  terms  of  the  law;  5,811  is  the 
total  number  of  those  who  lost  Japanese  citizenship  by  formal  declaration  at  the 
consulate  after  reaching  the  age  of  20  years  (letter  of  Gov.  Joseph  Poindexter  to 
California  Joint  Immigration  Committee,  February  15,  1936).  In  other  words, 
two-thirds  of  the  Hawaiian-born  Japanese  still  retain  their  Japanese  citizenship 
with  all  obligations  thereof.  That  situation  is  attracting  special  attention  because 
the  Territory  is  now  asking  for  Statehood,  and  the  Japanese  who  constitute  38 
percent  of  the  total  population  have  already  passed  every  other  racial  group  in 
the  number  of  registered  voters. 

In  California  it  must  be  assumed  that  conditions  as  to  dual  citizenship  are 
somewhat  similar,  although  the  figures  are  not  available  because  the  consulate 
general  at  San  Francisco  no  longer  keeps  statistics  of  such  matters,  as  was  formerly 
done  (letter  Shuh  Tomii,  consul  general  of  Japan  at  San  Francisco,  December 
19,   1935). 

60S96— 42— pt.  29—9 


The  following  facts  in  connection  with  the  California  situation  are  of  interest: 
The  Japanese  American  Citizens  League,  a  powerful  organization  with  approx- 
imately 50  chapters  in  the  Pacific  States,  has  for  its  main  proclaimed  purpose  the 
training  of  American-born  Japanese  so  that  they  may  properly  discharge  their 
obligations  as  American  citizens.  The  league  admits  to  membership  without 
question,  however,  all  Japanese  born  under  our  flag,  many  if  not  most  of  whom,  it 
would  seem,  still  retain  Japanese  citizenship.  It  even  admits  the  Kibei  Shimin, 
Japanese  born  here  and  sent  in  early  childhood  to  Japan  and  there  brought  up  to 
manhood  and  womanhood  as  Japanese  citizens.  They  are,  to  all  intents  and 
purposes  when  they  return  here,  alien  Japanese  immigrants  who  have  the  privileges 
of  American  citizenship.  Japanese  authorities  place  the  total  number  of  Kibei 
Shimin  at  between  40,000  and  50.000  and  say  they  are  returning  now  at  the  rate  of 
1,000  per  year.  The  Japanese  Association  of  America  is  planning  to  bring  back 
at  once  to  California  all  the  Kibei  Shimin  still  in  Japan  who  will  come. 

Exhibit  E. — California  Joint  Immigration  Committee 

(Copy  of  report  prepared  at  the  request  of  the  Dies  Committee,  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, on  Japanese  problems  and  propaganda) 

The  150,000  Japanese  in  continental  United  States  form  one  of  the  country's 
most  foreign-minded  racial  groups.  The  native-born  among  them  are  American 
citizens,  but  they  are  dominated  by  their  ineligible  alien  parents,  whose  patriotism 
for  Japan  and  its  emperor,  whom  they  worship  as  a  god,  is  almost  fanatical. 
Because  of  this  domination  and  their  strongly  Japanese  racial  characteristics, 
these  American-born  Japanese  are  not  assimilated  into  the  social  structure  of  this 

Japanese  immigrants  have  never  been  welcome  here  because  of  their  aggressive- 
ness, unassimilability,  and  low  living  standards.  In  1892  the  first  unsuccessful 
attempt  was  made  to  keep  them  out  of  San  Francisco,  and  soon  so  many  coolie 
laborers  were  coming  that  there  was  much  agitation  for  an  exclusion  law  similar 
to  that  barring  the  Chinese.  Congress  was  unsympathetic,  but  Japan,  fearing 
the  stigma  of  an  exclusion  law  because  12,000  Japanese  came  in  in  1  year,  agreed 
in  1900  to  keep  her  laborers  out  of  continental  United  States.  This  was  the  first 
gentlemen's  agreement. 

In  violation  of  this  agreement,  from  1901  to  1908,  inclusive,  51,689  Japanese, 
most  of  whom  were  or  became  laborers,  entered.  California  continued  to  protest, 
and  in  1907  President  Theodore  Roosevelt,  to  save  Japan's  pride,  negotiated 
another  gentlemen's  agreement,  the  details  of  which  were  secret,  although  it  was 
announced  that  Japan  had  again  agreed  not  to  send  laborers  to  continental 
United  States. 

This  agreement  was  also  violated,  and  the  American  courts  were  powerless  to 
enforce  its  terms,  since  it  was  neither  law  nor  treaty.  Between  1909,  when  it 
went  into  effect,  and  1924,  when  the  agreement  was  terminated,  the  Japanese 
population  of  continental  United  States  increased  from  76,714  to  131,357.  Pro- 
lific picture  brides  contributed  to  this  increase,  each  family  averaging  five  children. 

The  Japanese  quickly  acquired  land,  not  being  content  to  work  as  day  laborers, 
and  frequently  depleted  it.  Women  and  children  worked  with  the  men,  and  this 
sort  of  competition  helped  to  drive  out  the  Caucasian  population,  notably  in  cer- 
tain communities  in  the  Sacramento  Valley.  The  Japanese  were  assertive, 
antagonistic,  and  not  too  honest. 

Failing  to  get  relief  from  Congress,  California  in' 1913  enacted  an  alien  land 
law,  prohibiting  aliens  ineligible  to  citizenship  from  purchasing  land  or  leasing 
agricultural  land.  The  Japanese  circumvented  this  law  in  a  measure  by  operating 
in  the  names  of  their  American  children.  The  agricultural  communities  of  Cali- 
fornia seemed  overrun  with  Japanese.  Feeling  against  them  ran  high,  but  there 
was  little  violence.  The  other  Pacific  Coast  States  had  the  same  problem,  in  a 
lesser  degree. 

In  1924  California  and  her  neighboring  States  made  such  a  convincing  presenta- 
tion of  their  Japanese  problem  to  Congress  that  the  exclusion  measure,  barring 
aliens  ineligible  to  citizenship  as  permanent  residents,  was  included  in  the  Immi- 
gration Restriction  Act.  The  fight  was  a  hard  one,  for  Japan  had  enlisted  many 
friends  to  her  cause — church  people,  idealists,  foreign  traders,  employers  of  cheap 
labor,  and  uninformed  Government  officials. 

Japan  protested  against  the  measure,  claiming  discrimination  and  hurt  national 
pride.     She  has  even  claimed  that  because  we  have  thus  insulted  her  she  is 


avenging  herself  by  her  present  predatory  course  in  Asia  and  will  close  the  door 
to  us  in  China  unless  we  open  our  door.  This  attitude  overlooks  the  fact  that 
the  open  door  of  trade  in  China  is  guaranteed  by  international  treaty,  while  immi- 
gration is  a  purely  domestic  matter.  But  Japan  brought  exclusion  on  herself 
by  24  years  of  evasion  of  the  spirit  and  letter  of  two  agreements  not  to  send  her 
laborers  to  the  United  States. 

A  number  of  extensive  campaigns  to  break  down  the  exclusion  measure  have 
been  inaugurated  during  the  years  since  1924,  but  each  has  failed.  Japan  has 
spent  much  money  on  these  campaigns,  and  has  even  attempted  to  propagandize 
in  our  schools  through  a  textbook  giving  an  erroneous  statement  of  the  exclusion 
problem.  This  book  was  written  in  Hawaii  under  the  joint  auspices  of  the  Terri- 
torial Board  of  Education,  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  and  the  Japanese 
Government,  and  introduced  into  the  schools  there.  After  protest  it  was  re- 
written, but  because  of  serious  omissions  leaves  much  to  be  desired  as  an  authentic 

The  Japanese  have  been  disliked  and  distrusted  wherever  they  have  migrated. 
Australia  excluded  them  summarily  and  even  contemptuously  in  1900,  but  because 
of  that  firm  attitude  they  have  long  since  ceased  to  protest.  Today  there  are 
less  than  2,500  Japanese  in  the  Commonwealth.  Canada  wanted  to  exclude  them 
but  was  induced  to  accept  a  gentlemen's  agreement,  which  has  been  violated 
since  its  inception,  and  British  Columbia's  long  protests  are  now  culminating  in  a 
demand  for  deportation  of  all  Japanese.  Canada  does  not  grant  the  franchise 
to  orientals,  nor  does  she  accept  them  for  military  duty.  Several  South  American 
countries,  notably  Brazil  and  Peru,  have  had  trouble  with  the  Japanese,  and  even 
South  Africa  excludes  them. 

Although  no  more  are  coming  in,  there  are  still  many  alien  Japanese  in  Cali- 
fornia, living  a  typically  Japanese  life  and  controlling  in  large  measure,  by 
tremendous  industry,  skill  and  incredibly  low  living  standards,  the  fruit,  berry, 
and  vegetable  industry  of  the  State.  This  control  of  much  of  our  food  supply  is 
disquieting,  as  they  are  distrusted.  The  Tanaka  memorial  calls  for  control  of 
the  food  supply  of  desirable  localities. 

But  the  main  problem  now  is  the  second  generation  Japanese,  or  Nisei,  of 
wdiom  there  are  more  than  50,000  in  California.  They  apparently  want  to  be 
part  of  the  social  structure  but  are  not  welcome  because  of  their  too  evident  racial 
characteristics.  They  complain  constantly  of  racial  discrimination,  but  their 
plight  is  the  direct  result  of  their  parents  forcing  themselves  unwanted  on  this 
country.  They  are  splendid  people  in  many  ways,  good  students  and  workers, 
but  they  are  "Americans  with  Japanese  faces."  They  cannot  find  work  except 
among  their  own  kind,  and  while  intermarriage  is  forbidden  in  California,  they 
really  do  not  desire  it,  considering  it  an  insult  to  the  pride  and  glory  of  the  Yamato 
race.  Even  in  Hawaii  there  is  little  intermarriage  between  the  Japanese  and  other 
races,  particularly  the  Caucasian.  They  must  live  in  segregated  districts,  which 
they  resent,  but  are  accepted  on  equal  terms  into  the  Army,  where  most  of  them 
seem  quite  happy. 

These  conditions,  while  unfortunate,  are  the  result  of  the  determination  of  the 
Caucasians  to  keep  their  country  and  their  blood  white,  and  involves  no  claim  of 
superiority.  Our  laws  against  which  the  Japanese  protest  were  enacted  to  keep 
out  immigrants  who  cannot  be  absorbed  into  the  lifeblood  of  the  country,  and  who 
form  unassimilated  racial  blocs.  The  Founding  Fathers  of  the  Republic  stipu- 
lated that  citizenship  should  be  granted  only  to  free  white  persons.  But  a 
grave  mistake  was  made  when  citizenship  was  granted  to  all  born  here,  regardless 
of  fitness  or  desire  for  such  citizenship.  Another  grave  mistake  was  the  granting 
of  citizenship  to  the  Negroes  after  the  Civil  War. 

One  of  the  greatest  handicaps  which  the  Nisei  must  fight  is  the  possessive  atti- 
tude of  Japan.  Koki  Hirota,  former  foreign  minister,  said  in  1938  that  the 
Japanese  in  America  must  be  educated  as  Japanese  to  retain  their  Japanese  vir- 
tues, and  that  the  Migration  Association  of  Japan  keeps  close  connection  with 
them  for  that  purpose.  More  than  60  percent  of  their  number  are  citizens  of 
both  Japan  and  the  United  States  because  they  were  registered  as  Japanese  at 
birth  and  have  not  expatriated,  although  free  to  do  so  under  Japanese  law.  Much 
publicity  has  been  given  to  expatriation  campaigns,  and  there  is  much  public 
affirming  of  allegiance  to  the  United  States  and  much  flag  waving,  but  no  official 
expatriation  figures  are  forthcoming  or  available.  American  official  sources  say 
there  is  little  actual  expatriation.  Japanese  births  are  still  being  registered  at 
the  consulate.     Loss  of  family  standing  and  inheritance  in  Japan  are  the  chief 


reasons  given  for  lack  of  expatriation,  but  how  much  property  in  Japan  did 
coolie  immigrants  leave  behind? 

Japanese  consuls  and  visiting  dignitaries  play  a  large  part  in  the  life  of  the 
Nisei,  who  are  constantly  being  advised  by  them  to  be  "good  Americans."  Even 
Matsuoka,  educated  in  the  United  States  but  hating  it,  has  advised  this. 

The  influence  of  the  Japanese  language  schools  may  be  responsible  for  many 
of  the  troubles  of  the  Nisei.  There  are  248  of  these  alien-controlled  schools  in 
California,  teaching  about  18,000  children  the  culture  and  emperor  worship  of  Japan 
daily  after  public-school  hours.  In  1939  these  schools  cost  the  Japanese  $398,000. 
Textbooks  printed  in  Japan,  superseding  those  approved  by  the  California  State 
Board  of  Education,  and  teaching  patriotism  to  Japan  and  emperor  worship,  were 
used  in  these  schools  until  the  Japanese  learned  the  fact  was  known,  when  they 
were  stacked  away  and  the  approved  books  again  used.  This  occurred  on  Feb- 
ruary 14,  1941.  An  attempt  was  made  by  the  California  Joint  Immigration 
Committee  to  have  the  recent  California  Legislature  enact  a  law  prohibiting  the 
teaching  in  language  schools  of  allegiance  to  a  foreign  government,  but  the 
Japanese  lobby,  much  in  evidence,  was  apparently  successful  in  having  the  bill 

This  Japanese  lobby  was  able  to  defeat  a  measure  in  the  1939  California  Legis- 
lature to  curb  espionage  activities  of  Japanese  fishermen  in  southern  California. 
The  F.  B.  I.  questioned  the  source  of  the  large  sum  of  money  spent  in  that  fight. 
The  activities  of  these  fishermen  have  been  too  persistently  exposed  to  be  mere 

Walter  Tsukamoto,  former  national  president  of  the  Japanese  American 
Citizens  League,  a  Sacramento  attorney  and  United  States  Army  Reserve  officer, 
is  the  guiding  spirit  of  the  Japanese  lobby  in  the  State  legislature.  In  1940  he 
received  an  award  from  the  Japanese  Young  People's  Society  of  Chicago  as  "the 
Nisei  of  the  year"  for  his  activities  in  helping  to  defeat  the  afore-mentioned  fishing 

The  Nisei  are  urged  by  their  leaders  to  be  active  in  American  politics  and  to  use 
their  bloc  of  25,600  California  votes  for  the  benefit  of  the  Japanese,  alien  as  well 
as  native  born.  They  are  even  urged  to  join  with  the  Negroes  to  make  a  sizable 
bloc  which  may  swing  an  election,  or  break  down  the  laws  which  Americans  have 
enacted  for  their  own  protection  and  welfare.  They  have  been  very  active 
recently  in  entertaining  publicly  newspapermen  and  politicians,  getting  the  latter 
to  bestow  their  trophies  and  laud  them  for  their  "Americanism" — 25,600  is  a 
large  number  of  votes. 

Study  trips  to  Japan  for  young  Nisei  are  financed  by  the  Japanese  Government. 
One  such  party  leaves  early  in  July.  A  3-months  trip  costs  $190.  This  goes  on 
each  year,  and  the  returning  children  frequently  engage  in  lecture  tours  to  spread 
the  word  about  the  wonders  of  Japan  among  their  fellows.  Entrance  examina- 
tions in  Japanese  universities  are  eased  for  Nisei  wishing  to  study  there,  and 
money  for  the  purpose  is  loaned  to  them  by  the  Japanese  Government.  Some 
are  trained  to  propagandize  in  this  country. 

Many  American-born  children  are  sent  to  Japan  in  early  childhood  for  educa- 
tion, and  when  they  return  are  practically  alien  Japanese,  frequently  speaking  no 
English.  There  were  about  50,000  of  these  Kibei  Shimin  in  Japan  until  recently, 
when  the  passage  of  the  1940  American  nationality  law,  presuming  expatriation 
of  those  who  have  been  in  the  country  of  their  parents  for  more  than  6  months 
was  passed.  To  avoid  losing  their  American  citizenship  under  this  law  many  of 
them  are  scurrying  back  before  the  deadline  in  the  middle  of  July.  After  that 
time  they  will  be  in  grave  danger  of  losing  it. 

The  California  Joint  Immigration  Committee  is  maintained  primarily  to  protect 
the  exclusion  measure  against  repeal  or  modification  and  notify  the  public  in 
regard  thereto.  It  contends  that  these  unfortunate  and  highly  undesirable 
conditions  are  proof  of  the  unassimilability  of  the  Japanese  and  the  necessity  of 
their  exclusion  as  permanent  residents.  All  Japanese,  both  here  and  in  Japan, 
are  constantly  agitating  for  immigration  quota,  claiming  that  the  number  that 
could  enter  thereunder  (185  annually)  would  be  negligible.  But  added  to  that 
basic  quota  would  be  all  those  coining  in  under  nonquota  classification — visitors, 
students,  ministers,  diplomats,  businessmen,  and  particularly  alien  wives  for 
American-born  Japanese  (much  desired).  These  wives  would  become  the 
mothers  of  large,  unassimilable  families,  and  so  the  Japanese  problem  would  be 
aggravated  and  perpetuated.  Quota  would  also  necessarily  be  extended  to  all 
other  oriental  countries,  bringing  the  annual  immigration  from  the  Orient  to  well 
over  1,000.     The  basic  principle  of  exclusion  of  those  ineligible  to  citizenship 


must  not  be  destroyed  or  weakened,  either  by  grant  of  quota  or  by  grant  of 

naturalization  to  the  colored  races  of  Asia. 

Dorothy  Kaltenbach,  Secretary, 
California  Joint  Immigration  Committee, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 

The  Chairman.  No.  Thank  you  very  much.  We  have  another 

Mr.  Strobel. 


The  Chairman.  State  your  name  and  capacity,  please. 

Mr.  Strobel.  H.  L.  Strobel,  farmer  from  Monterey  County. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Strobel,  in  which  capacity  do  you  appear? 
Do  you  represent  the  Associated  Farmers? 

Mr.  Strobel.  Not  in  this  particular  instance,  sir.  I  think  I  repre- 
sent the  vegetable  interests  in  Monterey  County  more  than  any  other 
particular  group. 

The  Chairman.  Proceed,  Mr.  Strobel. 

Mr.  Strobel.  Mr.  Chairman:  I  think  that  a  great  deal  has  been 
said  here  today  regarding  the  participation  of  the  Japanese  in  the 
production  of  fruits  and  vegetables.  I  am  primarily  interested  in 
dispelling  some  of  the  misinformation  that  has  apparently  gone 
throughout  the  Nation. 

Much  has  been  said,  that  if  the  Japanese  were  removed  from  the 
California  area  or  from  their  farming  occupations  in  California,  it 
might  result  in  a  serious  shortage  of  necessary  vegetables  for  the  rest 
of  the  Nation.  I  think  that  I  can  make  a  statement  to  the  contrary 
without  fear  of  being  contradicted. 

I  believe  that  the  American  farmers,  or  the  farmers  of  California, 
are  entirely  capable,  and  with  the  land  now  occupied  by  Japanese, 
will  produce  in  just  as  large  a  quantity  the  vegetables  that  have  been 
formerly  produced  by  the  Japanese  in  our  farming  areas.  I  think 
the  rest  of  the  Nation  need  have  no  fear  as  to  the  amount  of  vege- 
tables that  will  come  from  California.  There  will  be  no  appreciable 
lessening  of  the  flow  to  the  eastern  markets  and  to  those  canning  and 
processing  agencies  which  have  formerly  carried  on  their  operations 
with  some  Japanese  production. 


I  might  say  that  many  of  us  have  been  concerned  with  the  Japa- 
nese problem.  I  think,  without  taking  anything  else  into  considera- 
tion, that  we  must  realize  that  we  are  at  war  now  and  that  there  is 
a  very  serious  problem,  as  has  been  stressed  by  speaker  after  speaker 
here,  in  maintaining  the  status  of  the  Japanese  as  it  is  at  the  present 
time,  where  they  have  freedom  of  access  throughout  our  entire  State 
and  are  not  confined,  you  might  say,  to  the  areas  of  the  State  of 
California.  They  are  free  to  roam  around  more  or  less.  It  is  impos- 
sible to  maintain  any  vigilance  over  all  of  their  activities  and  their 
actions  and  many  of  them  are  constantly  moving  from  one  place  to 


I  do  not  agree  with  some  of  the  speakers  or  some  of  the  farmer 
speakers  who  say  that  the  mere  removal  of  the  Japanese  from  Cali- 
fornia would,  perhaps,  serve  the  end  that  we  seek.  I  think  that  it 
would  be  a  mistake  to  evacuate  the  Japanese  from  California,  and 
then  turn  them  loose  without  any  supervision  of  their  activities  in 
some  other  location  or  some  other  State.  I  feel  that  that  would  merely 
make  a  harder  job  then  ever  for  the  military  authorities  to  try  to  follow 
the  movement  of  those  Japanese  throughout  the  many  different  areas 
that  they  might  be  resettled  in  if  there  was  no  proper  supervision  of 
their  movements  and  their  activities. 


We  have  had  some  recommendations  that  these  people  be  moved 
into  the  Mountain  States  where  they  might  work  in  the  beet  harvest 
and  other  types  of  agricultural  produce.  I  notice  that  in  some  of  the 
suggested  States  opposition  is  now  arising  as  to  the  removal  of  the 
Japanese  to  those  particular  points.  As  a  personal  observation  I  feel 
that,  perhaps,  we  are  entitled  to  kill  our  own  snake,  so  to  speak,  and 
if  there  are  areas  within  the  State  of  California  which  are  acceptable 
to  the  military  authorities  where  thes*e  people  might  be  evacuated,  and 
for  their  own  protection  where  they  might  be  put  under  restraint  of 
one  kind  or  another  with  the  proper  supervision  of  the  military  author- 
ities, or  whatever  authorities  they  might  designate  to  do  that  job,  and 
that  if  these  people  were  maintained  in  these  particular  localities,  their 
services  could  be  utilized  under  proper  supervision.  They  might  be 
taken  out  to  work,  if  they  desired  to  work,  in  the  morning,  and  be 
brought  back  at  night.  Their  labor  could  be  utilized,  and  I  think  that 
that  would,  perhaps,  be  as  good  a  solution  of  this  problem  as  any  you 
might  offer. 

Of  course,  we  all  must  realize  that  the  military  authority  has  the 
power  to  move  these  people  to  any  place  which  they  deem  safe  and 
necessary.  I  don't  think  that  any  of  us  have  any  right  to  oppose  the 
removal' of  these  Japanese,  no  matter  where  they  are  being  moved, 
if  it  is  the  judgment  of  the  Navy  or  the  Army  or  the  military  authori- 
ties so  charged  that  their  removal  to  these  particular  areas  constitutes 
a  method  of  safety  for  the  balance  of  the  country. 

I  think  that  we,  perhaps,  very  often  take  our  own  particular  prob- 
lems into  consideration  too  much.  I  have  heard  a  great  deal  of  stress 
laid  here  before  this  committee  on  the  hardships  that  might  be  visited 
upon  certain  aliens  by  evacuating  them  from  one  area  to  another 
area,  or  by  removing  them. 

I  want  to  call  the  committee's  attention  to  the  fact  that  many  of 
our  own  citizens  are  being  inconvenienced,  many  of  our  small  business- 
men are  going  out  of  business  owing  to  the  war  effort  and  due  to  the 
fact  that  materials  they  formerly  dealt  in  and  that  are  necessary  to 
maintain  their  business  life  are  now  being  given  priorities  as  far  as 
the  Army  and  Navy  are  concerned.  Those  men  are  going  out  of 
business.  Many  inconveniences  are  being  visited  upon  our  own 
citizens.  So  I  do  not  feel  at  this  time  it  works  any  great  hardship 
upon  a  group  of  aliens  to  have  their  activities  supervised,  and  in  the 
interest  of  safety  of  our  own  country  have  them  removed  from  one 
point  to  another. 



I  would  like  to  say  in  connection  with  some  of  the  figures  that 
you  read,  the  participation  of  the  Japanese  in  the  production  of 
fruits  and  vegetables  in  California  has  been  overemphasized  to  a 
very  great  extent,  with  the  possible  exception  of  canning  tomatoes. 
The  canning-tomato  situation  is  indeed  a  serious  one,  and  upon  the 
most  authoritative  figures  that  we  have  been  able  to  obtain  we 
arrived  at  the  conclusion  that  Japanese  are  growing  somewhere  in 
the  neighborhood  of  45  to  60  percent  of  the  canning  tomatoes  that 
are  canned  in  the  State  of  California.  Now,  it  does  not  necessarily 
mean  that  if  the  Japanese  are  removed  from  the  occupations  that 
they  are  now  engaged  in  that  this  60,000  acres  of  tomatoes,  or  any 
appreciable  part  of  it,  will  not  be  produced.  The  only  thing  that 
might  stand  in  the  way  of  many  American  farmers  taking  over  this 
acreage,  or  as  much  of  it  as  is  necessary,  that  they  are  not  now  pro- 
ducing, would  be  the  ability  of  the  processors,  or  some  agency  to 
furnish  them  with  tomato  plants. 

I  don't  know  whether  you  gentlemen  are  familiar  with  the  growing 
of  tomatoes  or  not  but  sometime  around  the  1st  of  February  hot 
beds  are  set  out,  or  plants  are  planted  in  hot  beds,  and  these  plants 
are  maintained  and  kept  there  until  sometime  around  the  middle 
of  April,  or  whatever  time  the  weather  breaks,  and  then  these  plants 
are  transplanted. 

Now,  we  can't  go  out  overnight  and  say  to  the  canning  industry 
that  we  will  get  an  acreage  pledged  by  American  farmers  to  take  up 
the  acreage  that  is  vacated  by  the  Japanese  unless  the  tomato  plants 
are  available.  I  believe  if  the  tomato  plants  are  available  that  we 
can  go  out  to  our  American  farmers  and  from  a  patriotic  standpoint, 
if  nothing  else,  get  them  to  take  up  any  part  of  the  acreage  that  the 
canners  deem  sufficient  or  deem  necessary  to  maintain  California's 
position  in  the  production  of  canned  tomatoes. 


In  checking  on  this  particular  phase,  we  called  a  man  who  was 
formerl}7  a  produce  grower  in  Monterey  County,  who  is  now  located 
in  Kern  County.  We  discussed  this  situation  with  him  over  the 
telephone  and  asked  him  to  what  extent  tomatoes  were  produced  in 
the  Kern  County  area  for  canning.  He  didn't  have  a  great  deal  of 
information  on  it  at  that  particular  time,  but  he  called  us  back  about 
a  week  later  and  said  that  he  had  gone  out  and  talked  to  some  one  of 
the  canning  producers  who  operated  in  that  particular  area,  and  that 
he  himself  was  increasing  bis  tomato  acreage  to  500  acres;  that  lie  was 
going  to  produce  enough  plants,  provided  he  could  get  the  necessary 
seed,  that  would  take  care  of  some  2,000  acres  for  that  particular 
processor  in  that  area.  He  would  endeavor  to  secure — and  I  under- 
stand now  that  he  has  secured — the  sign-up  of  other  American 
farmers  of  approximately  2,000  acres  of  tomatoes  in  that  particular 

Now,  that  is  2,000  acres  of  tomatoes  that  have  not  been  grown  in 
past  years.  That  is  an  entirely  new  acreage.  It  is  an  acreage  that 
follows  some  of  the  new  potato  acreage,  and  some  of  the  land  that 
the  farmers  of  Kern  County  are  utilizing  in  this  defense  picture. 


So  I  feel  that  the  part  that  the  Japanese  played  in  the  production 
of  fruits  and  vegetables  has  been  very  much  overemphasized  and  that 
the  American  farmer  can  and  will  take  up  wherever  they  leave  off. 


Much  has  been  said  here  about  the  method  of  taking  over  and  taking 
care  of  the  property  of  these  people  who  are  evacuated.  We  have 
two  or  three  exchanges  of  leases  and  property  in  Monterey  County. 
I  talked  to  one  of  the  men  yesterday  who  was  a  party  to  one  of  the 
deals.  This  Japanese  had  certain  land  that  was  leased  and  he  had 
certain  crops  that  had  been  planted.  Certain  operations  had  already 
been  performed,  and  he  had  machinery.  They  got  the  two  largest 
implement  dealers  in  Monterey  County  to  act  as  a  board  of  appraisers. 
They  went  down  to  this  Japanese  ranch.  Separately  they  arrived 
at  an  evaluation  of  the  machinery  that  the  Japanese  owned.  Their 
figures  were  taken  together.  Where  there  was  a  discrepancy  they 
were  arbitrated  and  put  into  shape  where  all  parties  were  satisfied. 
An  appraisal  of  the  amount  of  work  and  fertilizer  and  other  things 
that  the  Japanese  had  invested  in  the  process  of  growing  this  par- 
ticular crop  were  taken  into  consideration  and  he  was  remunerated 
for  his  interest  in  his  particular  crop,  his  lands  and  machinery  on  the 
basis  of  what  this  so-called  informal  board  arrived  at,  and  I  believe 
that  everybody  was  satisfied.  The  Japanese  was  satisfied  that  he 
had  gotten  a  fair  deal.  The  other  people  were  satisfied  that  they  had 
performed  their  obligations  to  the  Japanese. 

I  do  not  think  it  is  the  intent  of  anyone  in  California  to  take  any 
advantage  of  or  exploit  the  Japanese  in  their  evacuation  of  lands  or 
vocations  that  they  might  now  occupy.  But  it  is  necessary  that  this 
problem  be  met. 

I  think  it  has  also  been  touched  upon  here  today  that  many  of  these 
Japanese  farmed  and  controlled  huge  areas  of  land,  large  acreages, 
and  that  they  have  to  hire  of  necessity  the  same  labor  that  the  white 
farmers  in  that  particular  occupation  or  area  use. 


Now,  the  Filipinos  have  had  numerous  meetings,  and  I  think  this 
committee  is  familiar  with  the  fact  that  some  of  these  Filipino  or- 
ganizations have  gone  on  record  that  they  will  no  longer  work  for 
Japanese  or  on  Japanese-controlled  acreages,  which  makes  it  almost 
impossible  for  some  of  these  Japanese  to  continue  their  occupation 
and  the  production  of  vegetables  and  other  crops  on  the  land  that  they 
now  occupy.  Any  of  the  services  that  are  now  performed  by  the 
Japanese  I  feel  certainly  can  be  performed  by  the  American  farmers, 
or  the  native  California  farmers  without  any  let-down  in  the  amount 
of  production  that  the  Nation  might  need  in  this  time  of  stress. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  about  fresh  vegetables? 

Mr.  Strobel.  Fresh  vegetables? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Yes. 



Mr.  Strobel.  I  would  say  that  the  Japanese  produce,  as  a  whole, 
somewhere  between  8  and  12  percent  of  the  vegetables  that  are  pro- 
duced in  California. 

Now,  those  figures  would  not  be  applicable  to  California  as  a  State 
because  in  certain  localities  the  Japanese  produce  a  much  greater 
percentage  of  the  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  such  as,  we  will  say,  in 
the  Santa  Maria  Valley,  than  they  do,  perhaps,  in  other  locations. 

Now,  in  our  particular  area  I  believe  it  is  safe  to  say  that  the  Jap- 
anese produce  somewhere  between  10  and  12  percent  of  the  fresh 
vegetables  that  are  shipped  out  of  Monterey  County.  That  includes 
San  Benito  and  Watsonville  because  that  whole  area  is  included  in 
one  shipping  area.  There  would  be  other  localities  where  there  would 
be  practically  no  Japanese  farmers,  so  the  larger  percentage  that 
exists  in  one  is  offset  by  the  lesser  percentage  in  another. 

Taking  the  State  as  a  whole,  I  believe  the  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables 
they  produce  amount  to  somewhere  between  10  and  12  percent  of  the 

Mr.  Arnold.  Have  you  been  associated  with  Japanese  people  in 
your  business  or  your  operations?  Have  you  been  pretty  closely 
associated  with  them? 

Mr.  Strobel.  I  know  lots  of  Japanese  all  throughout  the  State, 
and  while  my  business  connections  with  the  Japanese  have  consisted 
entirely  of  shipping,  handling  lettuce  for  one  Japanese,  I  do  know 
the  Japanese  because  of  the  nature  of  the  work  that  I  do  for  farmers. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Is  it  your  opinion  that  most  all  the  Japanese  will 
have  to  be  included  in  these  aliens  who  are  sent  out  of  this  area? 

Mr.  Strobel.  I  would  say  so,  yes:  because  I  do  not  see  how  the 
Army  or  any  other  agency  could  do  the  job  that  is  necessary  to  be 
done  unless  they  were  all  included. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  think  it  is  impossible  to  determine  whether 
or  not  Japanese  aliens  and  citizens  are  loyal  to  this  country? 


Mr.  Strobel.  I  would  say  that  it  would  be  almost  impossible  for 
any  man  or  for  any  agency  to  determine  the  extent  of  the  loyalty  of 
any  Japanese  to  our  country  when  you  take  into  consideration  some 
of  the  statements  that  the  gentleman  who  preceded  me  on  this  stand 
made,  when  you  take  into  consideration  the  fact  that  the  Japanese 
children  in  my  particular  area  and  throughout  practically  the  entire 
State  of  California  and,  perhaps,  the  United  States,  as  far  as  I  know — I 
am  only  familiar  with  California — attend  our  schools  for  a  certain 
time  and  then  they  in  turn  attend  a  Japanese  language  school  at 
which,  we  have  from  very  good  authority,  they  are  taught  the  Jap- 
anese customs  that  are  brought  down  to  them  from  the  old  country; 
that  the  Japanese  religion  enters  into  it,  and  that  they  have  in  many 
cases  been  taught  that  the  Japanese  Emperor  is  their  Emperor,  no 
matter  if  they,  by  accident  of  birth,  happen  to  be  born  in  California  or 
any  other  part  of  the  world. 


Mr.  Arnold.  Their  Emperor  and  their  god? 

Mr.  Strobel.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arnold.  They  are  in  a  different  category  from  a  German  or 

Mr.  Strobel.  I  believe  to  a  certain  extent,  to  a  great  extent  that 
they  are  in  a  different  category;  yes,  sir. 

I  believe  that  you  have  a  better  opportunity  to  determine  whether 
a  German  or  an  Italian  is  loyal  to  this  country  than  you  would  have 
with  the  Japanese.  The  Japanese  have  a  racial  similarity  so  that  is 
very  hard  for  the  average  man  to  note  any  difference  between  them 
when  he  sees  them  just  occasionally.  Unless  they  are  all  under 
restraint  you  will  have  no  way  of  knowing  who  is  who  and  ascertaining 
unless  you  stop  each  and  every  one  of  them  and  by  very  minute  in- 
spection of  his  permit,  or  whatever  it  was,  know  what  he  was  doing 
in  a  particular  area. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  if  the  military  authorities  are  forced  to  evacuate 
practically  all  the  Japanese  it  is  because  of  their  inability  to  convince 
them  that  they  are  loyal  to  this  country? 


Mr.  Strobel.  I  think  that  that  would  be  the  case,  sir.  A  word  as 
to  those  who  object  to  the  Japanese  being  evacuated  into  their  locality. 
I  think  that  we  are  adopting  a  selfish  attitude  when  we  say  that  we 
don't  want  the  Japanese  here  or  there.  I  think  that  wherever  the 
military  authorities  deem  it  the  best  and  safest  place  to  put  them  is 
the  place  that  they  will  be  put  and  that  they  should  be  put,  and  that 
we  should  cooperate  with  the  military  authorities  in  time  of  crisis  by 
not  placing  any  undue  obstacles  in  then  handling  of  this  situation. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  don't  think  any  prejudice  should  enter  in.  It 
should  be  a  case  of  ability  to  prove  loyalty  to  this  Government  of  ours? 

Air.  Strobel.  I  feel  that;  yes,  sir.  I  think  that  any  citizen  during 
this  time  of  crisis  is  going  to  be  subjected  to  more  or  less,  we  will  say, 
infringement  on  his  civil  rights.  I  have  heard  that  so  much  until  I 
am  beginning  to  be  a  little  fed  up  with  it.  But  nevertheless  all  of 
us  are  going  to  have  to  forego  certain  civil  rights  that  we  have  enjoyed 
in  peacetime  because  we  are  now  at  war  and  war  is  a  serious  business. 

Mr.  Arnold.  That  is  all. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  thank  you  very  much,  Mr.  Strobel. 

Mr.  Strobel.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman,  for  the  opportunity  of 
being  heard. 

The  Chairman.  We  appreciate  it  very  much. 

Mr.  Ayres  of  the  State  Grange?     (No  response.) 

Well,  the  committee  will  stand  recessed  until  Monday  morning 
at  9:30. 

(Whereupon,  at  3:45  p.  m.,  the  committee  adjourned  until  9:30  a.  m., 
Monday,  February  23,  1942.) 


MONDAY,  FEBRUARY   23,    1942 

morning  session 

House  of  Representatives, 
Select  Committee  Investigating 

National  Defense  Migration, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

The  committee  met  at  9:40  a.  m.,  in  the  Post  Office  Building,  San 
Francisco,  Calif.,  pursuant  to  notice,  Hon.  John  H.  Tolan  (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Present  were  Representatives  John  H.  Tolan  (chairman),  of  Cali- 
fornia; Laurence  F.  Arnold,  of  Illinois;  and  John  J.  Sparkman,  pf 

Also  present:  Dr.  Robert  K.  Lamb,  staff  director;  John  W.  Abbott, 
chief  field  investigator;  Leonard  A.  Thomas,  counsel;  and  F.  P. 
Weber,  economist. 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  please  come  to  order. 

We  would  like  to  have  the  East  Bay  panel  come  forward. 

Will  you  announce  your  names  and  your  official  capacity  for  the 

Mr.  Hassler.  John  F.  Hassler,  city  manager  of  Oakland. 

Mayor  Gaines.  Frank  S.  Gaines,  mayor  of  Berkeley. 

Mayor  Slavich.  John  S.  Slavich,  mayor  of  Oakland. 

Chief  Wallman.  B.  A.  Wallman,  chief  of  police  of  Oakland. 

Mr.  Johnson.  W.  J.  Johnson,  captain  of  police,  Berkeley. 

Chief  Smith.  Verne  Smith,  chief  of  police,  Alameda. 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  C.  R.  Schwanenberg,  city  manager  of 

Mayor  Godfrey.  M.  C.  Godfrey,  mayor  of  Alameda. 

Mr.  Fisk.  Chester  C.  Fisk,  city  manager  of  Berkeley. 

The  Chairman.  I  now  want  to  say  to  you  gentlemen  that  this 
committee  appreciates  your  coming  over  here.  We  are  simply  a 
fact-finding  body.  We  are  a  sort  of  sounding  board  of  the  Congress  of 
the  United  States,  to  take  back  to  Congress  your  facts  and  your 
fears  and  any  suggestions  or  recommendations  you  have  to  make.  So 
just  treat  this  hearing  this  morning  as  informal. 

Who  of  the  panel  should  talk  first  as  to  the  East  Bay  conditions? 
Mr.  Slavich,  will  you  start  out  first? 

Mr.  Slavich.  Let  Mr.  Hassler  talk  first. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  Mr.  Hassler,  Congress  knows  very  little 
about  the  East  Bay.  I  think  the  best  way  to  approach  the  problem 
would  be  to  tell  us  what  you  have  in  the  East  Bay. 





Mr.  Hassler.  I  feel  we  are  very  vulnerable  in  the  East  Bay.  We 
have  both  the  naval  supply  base  and  the  port  of  embarkation  in 
Oakland.  In  Alameda  we  have  the  naval  aviation  base,  connected 
by  an  underpass,  as  you  know,  from  Alameda  to  Oakland;  all  very 
Vulnerable  and  veiy  exposed.  We  feel  in  Oakland,  and  I  know  that 
the  mayor  and  our  council  feel  the  same  way,  that,  as  regards  the  alien 
problem,  the  great  majority  of  alien  Japanese  and  American  citizens 
descendants  of  Japanese  are  loyal  to  this  country.  However,  we  feel 
that  the  time  has  passed  for  an  investigation  of  each  case,  and  I  feel 
that  the  loyal  Japanese  and  the  loyal  aliens  could  better  show  their 
loyalty  to  this  country  by  leaving  the  area  at  the  request  of  the 
Federal  Government. 

Certainly  when  they  have  left  the  area  each  case  could  be  decided 
on  its  merits  and  those  who  are  proved  to  be  loyal  could  return  to 
their  homes. 

I  have  a  different  feeling  as  regards  the  older  people  who  are  alien 
Germans  or  alien  Italians.  I  feel  that  a  great  number  of  those  were 
unable  to  obtain  citizenship  when  they  came  to  this  country  because 
of  lack  of  education.  Many  of  them  are  the  parents  of  fine  Americans, 
a  great  number  of  whom  are  serving  in  the  armed  forces.  I  feel  that 
those  cases  should  be  investigated  fully  before  any  of  them  are  re- 
moved from  the  area. 

Oakland,  Alameda,  Berkeley,  and  our  East  Bay  cities  are  in  a  defense 
zone.  They  are  subject  to  raids  by  the  enemy  and  we  should  have 
the  protection  of  the  Federal  Government. 

I  don't  know  of  anything  else  to  add  to  that  statement,  Congress- 

The  Chairman.  About  how  many  people  have  you  in  the  East 

Mr.  Hassler.  Oh,  I  imagine  we  have  around  750,000  in  Alameda 
and  Contra  Costa  Counties. 

The  Chairman.  And  what  municipalities  are  there? 

Mr.  Hassler.  Well,  in  Alameda  County  we  have  Hay  ward,  San 
Leandro,  Oakland,  Alameda,  Berkeley,  Albany,  Emeryville,  and  Pied- 
mont. In  Contra  Costa  County  we  have  Pittsburg,  Martinez,  Wal- 
nut Creek,  Orinda,  and  several  other  smaller  cities.  Richmond,  of 
course,  is  a  very  vulnerable  point. 

The  Chairman.  Outside  of  the  naval  air  base  at  Alameda,  the  Oak- 
land supply  depot  and  the  War  Department  embarkation  improvement 
there,  jtou  have  a  lot  of  oil  industries,  have  you  not? 


Mr.  Hassler.  We  have  defense  plants,  we  have  shipyards  that  are 
employing  probably  at  the  present  time  40,000  people  and  that  will 
run  up  to  75,000  people.  We  have  oil  refineries.  We  have  every- 
thing that  is  used  in  war.  We  have  defense  plants  throughout  the 
district.  We  have  there  probably  150,000  men  working  in  defense 
projects.  I  don't  know  of  any  part  of  the  country  that  is  more  tied 
up  with  the  defense  set-up  at  the  present  time  than  the  East  Bay  cities. 


The  Chairman.  I  hope  that  you,  as  well  as  some  of  the  other  wit- 
nesses, keep  touching  on  this  point.  I  am  very  much  interested  in  it. 
How  are  they  being  guarded?  Do  they  have  sufficient  guards  for 
those  different  places? 

Mr.  Hassler.  At  the  present  time  we  need  many  more  guards  to 
properly  safeguard  them.  We  are  using  our  local  police  forces,  which 
are  very  small  in  all  the  cities,  including  the  larger  cities.  They  are 
not  adequate  to  protect  the  civilian  population  and  also  the  defense 
plants.  Neither  the  Coast  Guard  nor  the  State  Guard  has  put  any- 
body in  Oakland  on  our  own  defense  projects.  They  are  guarding 
the  bridges  and  some  of  the  naval  and  army  establishments;  but  there 
are  many  others  over  there  that  should  be  guarded. 

It  shouldn't  be  a  local  problem.  Cities  like  Oakland,  Alameda, 
and  Berkeley  are  not  financially  able  to  take  care  of  increasing  the 
personnel  of  the  police  and  fire" department  without  levying  taxes  at 
an  irregular  tax-budgeting  time.  To  put  a  hundred  men  on  the 
Oakland  police  force  would  cost  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars,  and  we 
could  probably  use  a  thousand. 

The  Chairman.  Of  course,  you  don't  mean  to  give  us  the  impres- 
sion that  while  you  are  short  in  numbers  you  are  short  in  efficiency? 

Mr.  Hassler.  We  are  not  short  in  numbers  for  our  own  needs  at  all. 

The  Chairman.  Chief  WaHman  there  is  pretty  well  recognized  in 
this  country  for  his  police  work. 

Mr.  Hassler.  I  am  only  talking  about  the  burden  that  was  added 
because  of  the  war. 

The  Chairman.  Mayor  Gaines,  do  you  have  anything  to  add? 
Give  us  a  picture  of  Berkeley.     That  is  what  we  would  like  to  have. 



Mayor  Gaines.  Mr.  Chairman,  in  Berkeley  we  have  a  number  of 
important  defense  industries,  also  important  research  laboratories 
having  to  do  with  the  war  effort,  located  at  the  University  of  Cali- 
fornia.    Hence,  our  position  too  is  quite  vulrerable. 

The  Chairman.  What  is  the  approximate  enrollment  at  the 
University  of  California  now? 

Mayor  Gaines.  About  14,000  students  at  the  Berkeley  campus 
itself;  about  23,000  on  the  7  campuses  which  make  up  the  University 
of  California.  But  we  are  conducting  important  research  at  the 
University  campus  itself,  and  that  is  a  thing  that  justifies  careful 

We  have  in  Berkeley  itself  approximately  1,500  enemy  aliens, 
including  Japanese,  Germans,  and  Italians.  Of  the  1,500  approxi- 
mately one-third  are  Japanese.  We  have  a  total  Japanese  population 
estimated  at  approximately  1,300,  a  great  many  of  whom  are  native- 
born  American  citizens. 


I  should  like  to  suggest  for  the  consideration  of  the  committee  a 
method  for  dealing  with  the  whole  problem  of  enemy  aliens,  namely, 


that    of    dividing   them   into    three    general    categories:  Dangerous, 
suspicious,  and  friendly. 

Of  the  dangerous  and  suspicious  groups  there  seems  to  be  little 
doubt  as  to  who  should  handle  the  cases.  There  it  should  be  the 
established  agencies,  it  seems  to  me.  But  within  the  friendly  cate- 
gory, the  expatriated  Jews  from  Germany,  for  instance,  it  seems  to 
me  it  might  be  well,  having  sorted  them  out  to  Federal  agencies,  to 
leave  the  matter  of  determining  the  degree  of  their  loyalty  and 
friendliness  to  local  police  authorities.  They,  by  reason  of  their  more 
direct  and  intimate  knowledge  of  the  persons  themselves  are  likely  to 
be  in  a  better  position  to  pass  upon  their  loyalty  than  would  a  de- 
tached Federal  agency,  which  perhaps  would  have  to  adhere  to  some 
sort  of  routine  formula. 

I  suggest  that  for  consideration  as  a  method  which  I  understand 
was  used  with  satisfactory  results  in  dealing  with  a  similar  situation 
in  England  at  the  outset  of  war  there. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  Mayor,  you  feel  that  the  local 
enforcement  officers  should  play  a  little  bit  more  important  part  in  the 
decision  as  to  who  are  dangerous  enemy  aliens  or  not.  Is  that  the  fact 
you  are  trying  to  get  over  to  this  committee? 

Mayor  Gaines.  Yes;  that  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  Now  it  is  up  to  the  Army  about  these  areas. 

Mayor  Gaines.  That's  right. 

The  Chairman.  They  consult  with  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investi- 
gation. Attorney  General  Warren  on  the  stand  Saturday  said  that 
while  the  local  enforcement  and  State  enforcement  agencies  trans- 
mitted to  the  F.  B.  I.  all  information,  no  information  came  back  to 
your  police  officers  as  to  who  are  the  enemy  aliens  or  the  names  of  the 
enemy  aliens.  We  will  have  the  Department  of  Justice  in  this  after- 
noon to  answer  that  proposition.  But  that  is  your  fact,  anyway: 
That  the  local  enforcement  agencies  should  play  a  more  important 
part  than  the  F.  B.  I.  as  to  who  are  dangerous  aliens  and  also  with 
regard  to  hardship  cases,  people  that  the  local  enforcement  agencies, 
like  your  police  officers,  know.  They  have  lived  there  for  years  and 
they  know  that  they  are  absolutely  loyal.  That  is  the  point  you  want 
to  get  over,  is  it  not? 

Mayor  Gaines.  That  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  And  I  think  you  are  right  about  it,  too. 

Mayor  Gaines.  That  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  Go  ahead,  Mr.  Mayor. 

Mayor  Gaines.  I  have  one  other  thought  to  present  for  considera- 
tion by  the  committee.  Obviously  there  will  have  to  be  some  con- 
siderable transfer  of  those  who  can  properly  be  called  enemy  aliens  to 
places  where  they  can  be  kept  in  safe  custody,  but  at  the  same  time 
can  be  offered  an  opportunity  to  utilize  their  time  advantageously. 


I  have  in  mind  the  Japanese  more  particularly.  I  have  had  pre- 
sented to  me,  and  I  shall  pass  it  on  to  this  committee  for  its  records, 
a  master  plan  for  the  development  of  cooperative,  farms,  the  objectives 
of  which  are: 

1 .  To  enable  voluntary  evacuation  inland  away  from  strategic  areas. 


2.  To  keep  from  the  public  relief  rolls  those  Japanese  aliens  who, 
through  removal  of  their  means  of  livelihood,  face  eventual  want. 

3.  To  add  to  the  economic  resources  of  the  United  States  in  these 
critical  times  by  maintaining  these  Japanese  aliens  in  productive 

4.  To  sequester  approved  Japanese  aliens  where  proper  Govern- 
ment agencies  may  easily  supervise  their  conduct  and  foster  continued 
loyalty  to  the  United  States  of  America. 

5.  To  reduce  post-war  destitutions  among  alien  families. 

This  is  a  plan  which  has  been  carefully  developed  by  a  committee. 

The  Chairman.  Will  you  be  able  to  leave  that  with  us  and  make 
it  a  part  of  our  record? 

Mayor  Gaines.  Yes.  I  shall  be  glad  to  submit  this  for  the  con- 
sideration of  the  committee.  It  is  a  thing  that  has  been  very  care- 
fully worked  out  and  I  think  offers  a  partial  solution  at  any  rate  to  the 
cases,  voluntary  or  otherwise,  which  should  perhaps  in  the  public 
interest  be  placed  outside  of  the  combat  area.  I  shall  be  very  happy 
to  submit  this. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much. 

(The  material  referred  to  above  is  as  follows:) 

A   Master  Plan  for  Cooperative  Farms,  Inc. 

(Hi    Korematsu,    acting   chairman,    proponent   committee   for   evacuated    alien 

resettlement  program) 

We  present  this  as  a  possible  solution  to  an  economic  and  social  problem  which 
faces  the  State  of  California  during  these  critical  times. 

We,  the  proponents  of  this  plan,  are  Americans. 

While  we  want  to  be  humane,  to  uphold  the  common  goals  of  decency,  human- 
ity, and  liberty,  we  are  not  permitting  any  undue  sympathies  to  mislead  our  good 
judgment.  We  are  for  any  and  all  programs  which  have  as  their  object  the 
advancement  of  our  American  interests  and  we  are  eager  to  contribute  in  every 
way  possible  toward  the  downfall  of  everything  that  is  beneficial  to  the  Japanese 

We  would  like  to  recommend  the  plan  attached  herewith  because  we  believe 
that  the  law-abiding  aliens,  especially  the  Japanese,  residing  in  the  State  of 
California  to  be  of  economic  value,  and  because  gathering  aliens  in  Government 
camps  or  indifference  by  the  Government  to  evacuees  will  only  add  to  the  expense 
of  the  Government  and  we  feel  will  not  produce  the  return  which  is  so  desirable 
from  the  viewpoint  of  the  American  people. 

This  war,  like  many  others,  can  be  won  through  unity,  coordination,  and  mutual 

Therefore,  your  kind  attention  is  respectfully  requested. 


1.  To  enable  voluntary  evacuation  inland  away  from  strategic  areas. 

2.  To  keep  from  the  public  relief  rolls  those  Japanese  aliens  who,  through 
removal  of  their  means  of  livelihood,  face  eventual  want. 

3.  To  add  to  the  economic  resources  of  the  United  States  in  these  critical  times 
by  maintaining  these  Japanese  aliens  in  productive  activity. 

4.  To  sequester  approved  Japanese  aliens  where  proper  Government  agencies 
may  easily  supervise  their  conduct  and  foster  continued  loyalty  to  the  United 
States  of  America. 

5.  To  reduce  post-war  destitutions  among  alien  families. 


The  sudden  onslaught  of  war  in  the  Pacific  has  not  only  plunged  the  United 
States  into  the  throes  of  a  mighty  conflict,  but  fn  line  with  many  other  changes  in 
our  national  life  has  brought  up  a  question  of  vital  importance! — what  to  do  with 


aliens  in  this  country,  particularly  with  those  who  have  been  residing  in  localities 
designated  as  strategic  areas. 

Many  thoughts  have  been  expressed  and  many  schemes  have  been  presented. 
These  have  crystallized  in  the  recent  action  by  Pacific  coast  Members  of  Congress 
who,  in  our  Nation's  Capital,  have  recommended  programs  to  the  President  of  the 
United  States. 

Briefly,  these  programs  would  place  the  control  of  enemy  aliens  under  the 
War  Department,  would  immediately  evacuate  such  aliens  and  their  families 
from  strategic  areas,  would  intern  them  temporarily  in  available  Civilian  Con- 
servation Corps  camps  pending  the  working  out  a  long-range  resettlement  project, 
and  would  provide  Federal  assistance  for  all  uninterned  aliens  whose  means  of 
livelihood  are  affected  by  the  war. 

In  close  conformity  to  these  recommendations  we  propose  the  immediate  estab- 
lishment of  Cooperative  Farms,  Inc.,  which,  it  is  intended,  shall  be  the  forerunner 
of  similar  establishments  sufficient  in  number  to  care  for  all  Japanese  aliens  who 
are  subject  to  evacuation  from  restricted  localities  where  they  have  been  living 
and  working. 

The  authors  of  this  plan  are  definitely  not  concerned  with  disloyal  Japanese 
aliens.  These  subversive  elements  have  been  or  are  being  taken  into  custody 
by  the  proper  governmental  agencies,  according  to  official  announcement  by 
Attorney  General  Francis  Biddle. 

This  plan  is  a  result  of  our  interest  in  seeking  a  feasible  solution  to  the  problems 
created  by  recent  evacuation  orders. 

Originators  of  the  plan  are  Christian  leaders  who  are  American  citizens  of 
Japanese  parentage,  who  have  worked  it  out  in  collaboration  with  outstanding 
citizens  of  other  national  and  racial  backgrounds.  Continuous  thought  has  been 
directed  to  the  matter  since  the  attack  upon  Pearl  Harbor,  and  the  project  has  now 
reached  the  point  where  endorsement  of  leading  Americans  and  approval  of  the 
public  in  general  is  sought. 

Those  governmental  agencies  most  directly  concerned  have  been  kept  constantly 
advised,  so  that  this  plan  is  not  unfamiliar  to  them. 


Cooperative  farms  are  planned  because  the  production  of  food  is  essential  to 
the  winning  of  the  war  by  the  United  States.  The  majority  of  Japanese  aliens 
are  well  experienced  in  the  production  of  foodstuffs.  Those  whom  the  war  has 
forced  out  of  other  pursuits  may  readily  be  trained  in  the  art  of  farming,  so  that 
they,  too,  may  again  become  productive.  Farm  labor  is  scarce,  because  main- 
are  turning  to  better-paid  work  in  defense  industries.  The  cooperative  farms, 
with  their  available  manpower,  will  aid  in  offsetting  a  part  of  this  labor  shortage. 


1.  Location. — The  location  and  establishment  of  Cooperative  Farms,  Inc.,  is 
subject  strictly  to  Government  approval.  They  may  be  established  away  from 
the  seacoast  and  strategic  areas,  in  regions  where  the  pursuit  of  agriculture  is 
possible,  and  where  essential  transportation  and  communicative  facilities  and 
electric  power  are  readily  available. 

2.  Size.- — Each  unit  of  the  cooperative  farms  will  be  of  such  size  as  may  be 
deemed  practicable  in  light  of  vaiious  circumstances.  As  many  families  as 
feasible  will  be  permitted  to  work  on  these  farms  and  thus  support  themselves, 
and  produce  food  for  public  and  Government  markets. 

S.  Products. — Products  of  the  farms  should  be  thoroughly  diversified.  They 
may  include  dairv  products,  poultry,  eggs,  livestock,  vegetables,  berries,  grains, 
sovbeans,  sugar  beets,  cotton,  and  sach  important  experimental  crops  as  guayule, 
as"  substitute  source  of  rubber  supply.  Whatever  is  deemed  by  governmental 
authorities  to  be  most  needed  will  be  produced,  so  as  to  fit  closely  into  the  general 
scheme  of  national  defense  and  the  winning  of  the  war. 

4.  Experimental  stations. — Close  touch  will  be  maintained  with  agricultural 
colleges  and  experimental  stations.  Cooperative  faims  may  themselves  become 
an  important  adjunct  of  the  United  States  experiment  stations  of  the  Federal 
and  State  Department  of  Agriculture,  as  an  emergency  governmental  project 
to  insure  production  of  food  products  vitally  needed  to  maintain  the  health  of 
the  Nation  and  its  armed  forces. 


5.  Control  and  management — (a)  Board  of  directors. — Full  executive  authority 
for  the  creation,  management,  and  control  of  the  farms  will  be  vested  in  a  board  of 
directors  of  15  members,  all  loyal,  approved  citizens  of  the  United  States. 

(b)  Advisory  committee. — Serving  under  the  board  of  directors  will  be  an 
advisory  committee.  To  this  committee  will  be  appointed  representatives  of 
various  governmental  agencies — Federal,  State,  and  county,  who  are  long  ex- 
perienced in  farming,  livestock,  and  poultry  raisins;  and  in  agriculture  in  general. 
This  committee  will  possess  no  executive  authority.  All  its  acts  will  be  subject 
to  approval  by  the  board  of  directors. 

(c)  Administrative  staff. — Also  serving  under  the  board  of  directors,  and  with 
the  cooperation  of  the  advisory  committee,  is  to  be  an  administrative  staff,  all 
American  citizens,  including  a  group  graduated  in  agriculture  and  animal  hus- 
bandry, who  will  serve  as  technical  supervisors. 


It  is  obvious  that  financing  is  required  by  the  corporation  to  purchase  the 
necessary  acreage,  adequate  housing,  buildings  necessary  for  livestock  and 
poultry,  provide  farm  equipment,  proper  seed  and  fertilizer  storage  space,  and 
other  necessary  expenses.  There  are  several  methods  by  which  adequate  financing 
of  the  project  can  be  attained: 

1.  Federal  Security  Agency. — The  Federal  Security  Agency  supported  by  vast 
sums  of  money  advanced  by  the  Reconstruction  Finance  Corporation,  lays  great 
stress  in  its  operations  upon  the  creation  of  cooperatives  among  small  farmers. 
Considerably  more  than  200,000  farmers,  scattered  through  every  State  in  the 
Union,  have  been  helped  by  the  Farm  Security  Administration  to  form  themselves 
into  more  than  10,000  small  cooperatives  which  are  today  doing  business  with 
marked  success. 

If  a  Federal  Security  Agency  loan  were  granted  in  the  form  of  a  Government  loan 
to  aid  for  the  establishment  and  execution  of  the  cooperative  farms,  the  Federal 
Government  would  secure  eventual  return  of  funds  which  otherwise  it  might  be 
called  upon  to  extend  outright  in  the  form  of  charity  for  poverty-stricken  Japanese 

2.  Personal  contribution. — Voluntary  contributions  are  anticipated  from  Ameri- 
can citizens  of  Japanese  parentage,  the  Nisei,  as  well  as  from  other  Americans  who 
are  conversant  with  the  need  for  prompt,  constructive,  intelligent  action  to  meet 
the  situation  brought  about  by  the  war.  However,  the  funds  from  these  last- 
named  sources  may  be  used  for  the  preliminary  expenses  of  organizing  the  project 
and  placing  it  in  operation. 

8.  Establishment  of  cooperative  farms  in  which  aliens,  as  well  as  citizens,  may 
invest  through  special  licenses  issued  by  the  United  States  Treasury  Department. — 
According  to  recent  reports  (February  3)  from  the  United  States  Treasury  De- 
partment, "A  special  license  ruling  required  that  the  foreigners  get  special  licenses 
before  buying  more  than  1  percent  of  any  class  of  stock  of  any  corporation. 
Since  foreign  assets  tied  up  in  this  country  by  freezing  orders  cannot  leave  the 
United  States,  they  are  frequently  permitted  to  be  invested  here."  (Foreign 
Funds  Control,  Circular  No.  222). 

4.  Direct  Government  aid. — Direct  governmental  financial  aid,  for  reestablish- 
ment  of  law-abiding  aliens  removed  from  strategic  areas,  as  an  emergency  govern- 
mental project. 


In  1913  the  California  State  Legislature  enacted  the  alien  land  law,  which 
provided  that  no  alien  who  was  ineligible  for  citizenship  (which  includes  the 
Japanese)  could  own  land  in  this  State,  though  he  could  lease  land  for  3-year 
periods.  To  meet  the  situation  brought  about  by  this  law,  many  so-called  "family 
corporations"  were  formed  among  the  Japanese.  Such  corporations  had  the 
privilege  of  owning  land,  provided  the  majority  of  their  stockholders  were  citizens 
of  the  United  States.  Japanese  nationals  could  be  members  of  the  board  of  di- 
rectors, and  could  legally  be  paid  salaries  for  their  services. 

In  1920  the  voters  of  California  adopted  an  initiative  measure  which  made 
unlawful  the  land-leasing  privilege  and  also  deprived  the  ineligible  alien  of  the 
right  to  acquire  shares  in  any  landholding  corporation. 

The  Supreme  Court  of  California  has  held,  however,  that  an  ineligible  alien  has 
the  legal  right  to  make  an  outright  gift  of  money,  land  or  other  property  to  his 
American-born  children,  and  that  these  children  have  the  same  right  to  name 
their  own  father  as  trustee  of  their  property  as  has  any  other  American  citizen. 

60396— 42— pt.  29 10 


In  conformity  with  the  alien  land  law,  the  cooperative  farms  will  be  an  organ- 
ized corporation,  incorporated  under  the  laws  of  the  State  of  California,  with  no 
individual  owning  any  proprietary  interest  therein.  Only  citizens  of  the  United 
States  may  be  incorporators,  or  directors.  The  corporation  may  engage  in  all 
such  agricultural,  marketing,  and  other  production  and  business  pursuits  as  may 
be  covered  in  the  scope  of  its  articles  of  incorporation  and  may,  of  course,  acquire 
and  hold  land. 

Thus,  in  the  cooperative  farms,  Japanese  aliens  may  be  productive,  self-sup- 
porting and  self-respecting,  and  without  extra  expense  upon  the  Government  for 
their  detention  and  care.  They  can  receive  no  profits  from  the  crops  they  help 
raise,  however,  and  can  have  no  proprietary  interest  therein.  They  may  not 
even  receive  a  bonus  or  any  similar  gratuit}^  but  will  receive  only  regular  wages. 

There  will  be  no  undue  competition  with  neighboring  farms  and  agencies.  All 
products  may  be  handled  through  proper  Federal  and  State  agencies. 


In  evolving  the  plan  for  the  establishment  of  cooperative  farms,  there  has  been 
no  desire  to  depict  the  problem  of  the  Japanese  alien  and  his  dependents  other 
than  it  really  is. 

No  sympathy  is  felt  by  the  originators  of  this  plan,  nor  should  be  felt  by  them 
or  others,  toward  those  subversive  aliens  who  would  harm  the  country  which  has 
given  them  shelter. 

Cooperative  Farms,  Inc.,  is  a  patriotic  endeavor  to  accomplish  the  five  major 
objectives  set  forth  on  the  title  page  of  this  brief  outline,  and  which  are  repeated 

1.  To  enable  voluntary  evacuation  inland  away  from  strategic  areas. 

2.  To  keep  from  the  public  relief  rolls  those  Japanese  aliens  who,  through  re- 
moval of  their  means  of  livelihood,  face  eventual  want. 

3  To  add  to  the  economic  resources  of  the  United  States  in  these  critical  times 
by  maintaining  these  Japanese  aliens  in  productive  activity. 

4.  To  sequester  approved  Japanese  aliens  where  proper  Government  agencies 
may  easily  supervise  their  conduct  and  foster  continued  loyalty  to  the  United 
States  of  America. 

5.  To  reduce  post-war  destitutions  among  alien  families.     Therefore 


Desires  approval  of  the  public- — As  hereinafter  indicated,  the  plan  for  Coopera- 
tive Farms,  Inc.,  was  first  conceived  by  a  group  of  American-born  college  gradu- 
ates of  Japanese  stock.  Now  there  is  sought,  for  placing  the  plan  in  operation, 
the  approval  of  those  leaders  who  believe  that  such  farms  will  go  far  toward 
alleviation  of  the  present  difficulties  faced  by  both  the  United  States  Government 
and  by  the  loyal  Japanese  who  have  been  law-abiding  and  who  are  being  evacuated 
from  their  homes  and  farms. 

These  aliens  who  arc  being  evacuated  without  security  may  turn  their  sym- 
pathies toward  the  Axis;  it  will  bring  their  distrust,  in  the  democratic  principles 
of  America,  and  it  will  be  defeating  the  very  thing  we  are  defending  as  a  nation 
at  war. 

Thus,  a  constructive  program  has  been  developed.  Care  has  been  taken  to 
keep  interested  Government  agencies  advised  of  this  plan  during  its  develop- 
ment. This  practice  will  be  continued.  It  has  been  in  a  spirit  of  cooperation, 
•not  with  the  ideas  of  assuming  or  interfering  with  any  Government  prerogatives, 
that  the  Cooperative  Farms,  Inc.,  has  been  advanced.  We  submit  this  plan 
with  the  belief  that  it  is  both  constructive  and  thoroughly  practical. 

This  plan  is  respectfully  submitted  for  your  kind  consideration.  An  acknowl- 
edgment will  be  sincerely  appreciated. 

Committee  for  Evacuated  Alien  Resettlement  Program. 

advisory  committee  (pro  tem)  for  cooperative  farms,  inc.,  for  evacuated 
alien  resettlement  program 

Dr.  Galen  M.  Fisher,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

William  C.  James,  Friends  Service  Committee. 

Robert  R.  Gros,  Public  Relations,  Pacific  Gas  &  Electric. 

Dean  C.  B.  Hutchison,  College  of  Agriculture,  University  of  California. 


Dr.  Lawton  Harris,  Church  Federation,  Young  Men's  Christian  Association. 

Dean  Walter  J.  Homan,  San  Francisco  State  Teachers  College. 

Dr.  Alfred  G.  Fisk,  San  Francisco  State  Teachers  College. 

William  F.  Benedict,  former  assistant  secretary  to  Mayor  Rolph,  of  San 

Harry  L.  Kingman,  general  secretary,  University  of  California,  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association. 

Russell  Profntt,  Associated  Cooperatives. 

Cooperative  farm  programs  as  now  familiarized  have  had  the  sympathies  and 
the  assistance  of  such  important  offices  concerned  with  alien  problems,  as  United 
States  Department  of  Agriculture;  State  Attorney  General;  United  States  At- 
torney; Farm  Security  Administration;  Church  Federation;  Friends  Service 
Committee;    College  of  Agriculture,  University  of  California-  and  others. 


Mayor  Gaines.  I  might  have  other  suggestions  to  offer  later  or 
to  submit  to  the  committee  before  it  concludes  the  hearings. 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  sir.  Before  we  ask  questions  of  Mr.  Slavich, 
I  want  to  say  to  this  panel  that  we  might  as  well  meet  this  thing 
head  on.  We  didn't  come  out  of  the  clouds.  We  are  sent  out  here 
to  find  out  what  the  people  of  the  Pacific  coast  feel  about  this  problem, 
their  facts  and  fears,  and  any  solutions  they  have.  You  are  3,000 
miles  away  from  Washington.  It  is  the  finest  opportunity  the  Pacific 
coast  has,  because  we  take  this  word  -right  back  there.  The  Army 
and  Navy  and  the  F.  B.  I.  will  read  this  report.  So  we  have  got 
to  meet  this  thing  head  on.  This  is  the  most  vulnerable  part  of  the 
United  States.  They  tell  us  in  Washington  that  the  Pacific  coast 
can  be  bombed.  They  also  tell  us  that  we  can  lose  this  war.  Maybe 
we  are  a  little  bit  jittery  back  there,  but  that  is  what  the  highest 
authorities  tell  us  in  Washington. 

What  we  want  to  obtain  from  this  panel  as  much  as  anything 
else  is  what  you  are  doing  over  there,  the  picture  of  the  East  Bay 
which  we  can' bring  back  to  Washington. 

There  is  another  thing  that  keeps  bothering  me  all  the  time.  We 
have  got  to  think  in  terms  of  reprisals,  too.  We  have  prisoners 
back  in  Japan,  Singapore,  and  different  places.  We  have  prisoners 

Another  thing  that  keeps  bothering  me  is  that  this  war  is  going  to 
end.  The  United  States,  it  has  often  been  said,  is  a  melting  pot  of 
all  races  and  religions  on  down  the  line.  We  have  got  to  live  here  in 
the  future.  How  best  can  we  handle  this  situation  with  the  least 
hardship  to  anybody?  Under  the  Executive  order  of  the  President 
issued  Friday  it  is  all  up  to  the  Army.  The  reason  for  that  Executive 
order  is  that  the  representatives  of  California,  Oregon,  and  Washing-* 
ton  met  almost  daily  back  there  and  we  finally  evolved  this  recom- 
mendation that  the  President  outlined  in  his  Executive  order. 

How  much  the  evacuation  of  those  on  the  Pacific  coast  is  going 
to  be,  I  don't  know.  We  met  with  General  DeWitt  Saturday  after- 
noon for  over  an  hour.  He  cannot  appear  because  the  border  line 
between  what  is  confidential  and  not  confidential  is  very  close.  He 
said  that  he  would  permit  us  to  say  this,  though:  The  order  that 
goes  into  effect  tomorrow  stands  just  exactly  as  it  is.  He  has  received 
as  yet  no  instructions  from  Washington  under  this  new  Executive 
order.     Not  one.     But  he  said  that  we  could  tell  the  people  that 


there  will  be  no  mass  evacuation.  It  will  be  taken  step  by  step,  and 
every  hardship  case  will  be  looked  into. 

That  is  where  you  are  going  to  play  a  very  important  part.  You 
know  you  have  Italians  over  there  in  your  districts  who  are  just  as 
loyal  as  any  citizens.  They  are  among  the  best  people  we  have  over 
there.     So  there  is  where  you  are  going  to  play  an  important  part. 

That  is  the  longest  talk  I  have  made  in  all  the  hearings  I  have  been 
in  so  far,  but  I  did  want  to  get  that  thought  over  to  you. 

Mayor  Slavich,  what  have  you  got  to  add  to  this? 



Mayor  Slavich.  Mr.  Chairman,  you  just  said  something  that  I 
have  in  my  mind;  in  fact,  talked  about  it  with  the  boys  coming  over 
here  this  morning.  I  refer  to  the  wholesale  exodus  and  wholesale 
evacuation  of  the  aliens.  I  don't  think  it  should  be  done  on  a  whole- 
sale basis.  I  think  it  would  throw  a  lot  of  hardship  on  various 
people  who  are  not  able  to  take  out  citizenship  papers  possibly  due  to 
lack  of  formal  education,  although  they  are  fine  citizens.  I  think 
possibly  the  Japanese  question  has  to  be  approached  a  little  differently. 
I  don't  know  whether  or  not  we  are  able  to  get  the  necessary  informa- 
tion on  Japanese  American-born  citizens  or  not.  The  F.  B.  I.  seems 
to  have  a  lot  of  information  we  haven't  got,  because  we  have  evidently 
had  reports  on  some  that  don't  quite  agree  with  the  F.  B.  I.  reports. 

I  don't  think  it  is  a  local  problem  when  it  comes  to  its  final  solution. 
I  think  the  case  should  be  more  of  a  Federal  problem  to  be  solved  by 
some  referee  appointed  by  the  Federal  Government  or  some  board 
set  up  to  determine  whether  or  not  we  should  tolerate  them  longer  in 
our  midst. 

But  I  will  say  tins:  That  I  think  we  should  approach  the  question 
very  carefully.  I  have  read  Mayor  Rossi's  and  Chief  Dullea's 
interpretation.  I  think  I  quite  agree  that  the  German  and  Italian 
aliens  primarily  should  be  given  special  treatment,  because  personally 
I  know  a  lot  who  have  boys  in  the  Army  and  it  would  be  a  crime,  I 
think,  to  send  them  away  in  these  prohibited  areas  when  their  own 
flesh  and  blood  is  fighting  for  the  cause.  We  have  got  to  be  very 
careful  of  that  particularly. 


The  Chairman.  Of  course,  with  respect  to  what  you  say  about 
naturalization  cases,  as  I  understand  it  they  are  about  18  months 
behind — where  people  who  have  taken  out  their  first  papers  can't  get 
a  hearing.  Also  there  are  cases  where  they  have  had  their  hearing 
but  the  order  has  not  yet  been  signed.  They  are  so-called  enemy 

Chief  Wallman,  I  want  to  give  you  this  information.  If  anybody 
asks  you  or  the  rest  of  the  panel  about  those  cases,  technically  they 
are  enemy  aliens,  but  we  have  a  bill  before  the  House  Judiciary  Com- 
mittee, which  will  probably  be  reported  out  this  week,  giving  a 
discretionary  power  with  the  Department  of  Naturalization,  don't 
you  see,  in  those  kind  of  cases. 


Now  they  are  out  as  far  as  their  status  is  concerned.  If  anybody- 
asks  you  about  that,  that  is  the  answer.  We  are  going  to  try  to  take 
care  of  that.     It  is  very,  very  bad. 

Chief  Wallman,  what  have  you  to  say? 



Chief  Wallman.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  am  in  accord  with  everything 
that  has  been  said.  I  know  that  you  are  very  familiar  with  our  set-up 
in  the  city  of  Oakland.  We  have,  as  you  know,  60^  square  miles  and 
I  would  safely  say  that  there  are  325, 000  people  in  the  city  of  Oakland, 
with  approximately  400  peace  officers.  Overnight  many  of  those 
men  have  been  given  duties  that  are  rather  unusual  to  those  of 
regular  police  officers. 

We  also  know  that  we  have  no  budget  prepared  to  take  care  of 
employing  the  necessaiy  number  of  men  that  must  guard  vulnerable 
points,  and  there  are  any  number  there,  both  in  our  industries  and  our 
utilities.  I  believe  that  if  we  are  going  to  take  any  action  it  should  be 
taken  now,  and  just  as  quickly  as  possible,  because  it  may  be  too  late 
next  week  or  next  month.  As  Mr.  Gaines  has  said,  I  believe  that  we 
can  do  our  duty.  If  it  is  the  duty  of  the  peace  officers  to  pass  upon 
the  alien,  I  believe  that  we  can  do  that.  Again  we  must  have  more 
employees,  and  I  am  also  sure  that  we  must  get  much  information 
from  the  Department  of  Justice. 

The  Chairman.  What  are  you  getting  now,  generally  speaking? 

Chief  Wallman.  Well,  the  system  is  this:  We  give  whatever  infor- 
mation we  may  receive  or  obtain  through  investigation  to  the  Depart- 
ment of  Justice.  I  believe  that  if  we  wanted  that  information  or  any 
additional  information  later  we  could  get  it.  I  have  not  asked  for  it, 
but  I  believe  they  would  give  it  to  us. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  right  there — I  am  sort  of  talking 
out  loud  with  you  here.  Don't  you  think  that  regarding  hardship 
cases,  the  local  enforcement  officers  know  more  about  that  than  the 
F.  B.  I.? 


Chief  Wallman.  I  certainly  do,  and  we  have  those  contacts.  I 
think  we  are  in  a  better  position  to  pass  upon  them.  Of  course,  I 
have  heard  of  some  cases  about  which  I  wouldn't  know  just  what  to 
do,  such  as  dependents.  Those  are  now  being  supported  by  either 
the  State  or  the  county  charity.  They  have  to  be  moved,  of  course, 
the  same  as  anybody  else.  Possibly  we  could  pass  upon  them.  We 
may  make  some  mistakes.  But,  again,  if  they  are  going  to  be  moved 
has  there  been  any  preparation  made  for  a  camp?  I  have  always 
believed  that  that  is  the  logical  place  for  them  instead  of  scattering 
them  throughout  other  parts  of  the  city  or  probably  into  another 
county  or  State,  and  particularly  in  the  city  where  they  probably 
will  have  to  be  moved  again  and  again  as  the  areas  increase  in  extent. 

But  I  think  uppermost  in  my  mind,  Mr.  Chairman,  is  this:  That 
whatever  we  are  going  to  do  we  should  do  quickly.  That  is  upper- 
most in  my  mind — speed. 

11104  •      SAN   FRANCISCO   HEARINGS 

The  Chairman.  Could  you  outline  just  what  you  have  in  mind  in 
regard  to  speed;  that  is,  what  steps  you  think  should  be  taken? 

Chief  Wallman.  Well,  I  understand  that  we  couldn't  move  out 
this  morning  and  probably  not  tomorrow,  but  it  seems  to  me  that 
there  should  be  some  preparation  made  if  it  hasn't  already  been  made. 
If  it  has,  I  have  no  knowledge  of  it.  If  we  have  to  move  tomorrow  or 
the  next  clay,  these  aliens  could  be  sent  to  certain  points  provided  for 
by  the  Federal  Government.     I  think  that  is  very  important. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  I  can  tell  you  what  ideas  we  had  in  mind 
when  the  three  delegations  of  the  Pacific  coast  met.  That  is  that 
everyone,  citizens  and  noncitizens  alike,  would  have  to  register  and 
who  remains  in  certain  districts  will  depend  upon  the  judgment  of  the 

"When  we  go  down  to  the  different  departments  of  the  Navy  and 
War,  we  have  to  register.  We  have  to  have  a  badge  and  one  thing 
and  another.  I  don't  know  whether  it  will  get  that  far  or  not,  but 
it  may  be  on  a  permit  basis  as  to  who  remains,  because  the  Executive 
order  is  directed  against  all  citizens.  The  details  have  not  been  worked 
out  as  yet,  but  it  is  probably  going  to  be  on  a  permit  basis.  There 
is  not  going  to  be,  a  great  big  fanfare  or  anything  like  that  about  it. 
However,  the  trouble  is  that  just  one  enemy  alien  can  do  a  great  deal 
of  damage  in  any  one  district.     Is  that  not  correct,  Chief? 

Chief  Wallman.  Yes,  sir. 


The  Chairman.  And  I  think  the  Pacific  coast  with  our  aircraft 
factories,  power  lines,  dams,  and  other  such  things  is  particularly 
vulnerable.  So,  after  all  is  said  and  done,  we  have  got  to  do  this  job 
with  p.s  little  hardship  as  we  can.  But  it  is  still  war.  I  think  that  is 
the  way  it  is  going  to  be  handled.  However,  you  can  say  to  your 
people  over  there  that  the  details  have  not  been  worked  out  as  yet. 
It  will  all  depend  on  the  instructions  that  General  DcWitt  will  receive 
from  Washington.  He  may  have  them  today,  I  don't  know.  But 
I  think  that  is  the  way  it  is  going  to  be  worked. 

Was  there  anything  else,  Chief,  that  you  wanted  to  ask? 

Chief  Wallman.  No.  I  can't  think  of  anything  right  now,  Mr. 

The  Chairman.  You  did  make  one  point  there.  You  think  that 
your  police  force  should  be  increased? 

Chief  Wallman.  Well,  I  think  that  it  should  be,  under  the  present 
conditions.  On  the  other  hand,  if  we  would  speed  up  on  the  evacua- 
tion of  enemy  aliens,  probably  it  wouldn't.  We  could  get  by  with  our 
present  force. 

The  Chairman.  Of  course,  if  there  is  an  attack  on  the  Pacific  coast 
here — and  they  tell  me  that  it  is  not  only  possible  but  it  is  probable— 
because  Japan  has  to  win  this  war  quick  or  she  is  not  going  to  win  it 
at  all.  So  I  am  trying  to  think  along  with  you  gentlemen  this  morn- 
ing and  see  if  there  is  anything  that  we  can  anticipate.  I  don't  look 
upon  England  as  comparable  with  the  Pacific  coast.  England,  or 
rather  London,  is  built  of  brick  and  stone.  A  few  incendiary  bombs 
in  San  Francisco  alone  could  sweep  the  city  and  that  also  holds  for 
the  East  Bay.     We  are  anxious  about  it  and  we  would  like  to  get  a 


picture  of  the  East  Bay,  what  is  being  done  and  what  can  be  done  to 
make  us  a  little  bit  more  secure. 

Captain  Johnson,  have  you  anything  to  add? 

Mr.  Johnson.  Mr.  Chairman,  if  you  don't  mind  a  suggestion,  it 
might  be  well  to  call  upon  Mr.  Fisk,  the  city  manager,  before  calling 
on  me. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  all  right.  We  will  hear  from  you,  Mr. 



Mr.  Fisk.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  just  jotted  down  a  few  points  Here 
rather  hurriedly.  In  the  first  place,  I  think  we  all  must  keep  in  mind 
the  danger  from  sab  >tage.  That  is  something  that  none  of  us  can 
afford  to  overlook.  It  has  been  pointed  out  here  that  additional 
personnel  is  needed  in  the  police  and  fire  departments,  probably  of  all 
cities  in  this  area,  and  I  think  they  are  a  very  necessary  part  of  this 
general  picture.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  there  is  so  much  personnel 
needed  that  I  doubt  whether  any  city  can  ever  find  adequate  money 
to  take  care  of  that.  It  is  something  that  goes  far  beyond  any  normal 
set-up.  Therefore,  I  think  that  some  consideration  should  be  given 
by  this  committee  to  the  matter  of  some  Federal  aid  in  connection 
with  this  sort  of  thing. 

Fundamentally,  those  of  us  in  this  room  are  charged  with  the 
responsibility  of  protecting  our  own  people  insofar  as  we  possibly  can. 
I  don't  mean  to  raise  any  question  about  the  Army's  authority  or 
anything  of  that  kind,  but  it  is  our  job  to  take  care  of  our  own  people 
as  best  we  can  through  our  civilian  defense  and  through  the  duly 
constituted  authorities  which  are  parts  of  city  government. 

Let  us  just  take  the  police  and  fire  as  an  example.  It  has  been 
pointed  out  to  you  already  that  we  might  have  serious  problems  grow- 
ing out  of  fire.  I  believe  you  pointed  that  out,  Mr.  Chairman,  your- 
self. I  am  not  going  to  go  into  a  lot  of  detail  about  it,  but  there  is 
no  question  about  the  seriousness  of  that  situation.  Our  buildings 
are  in  a  large  measure  frame  throughout  the  bay  area,  and  I  think 
we  have  to  keep  that  in  mind  in  studying  this  general  question. 

I  think  action  should  be  taken  quickly  along  whatever  lines  are  to 
be  followed  on  a  constructive  basis  to  solve  this  particular  problem. 
I  don't  think  we  can  afford  to  wait  very  long  so  far  as  this  thing  is 


There  are  two  other  points  I  would  like  to  raise.  One  of  them 
has  to  do  with  the  areas  which  have  been  restricted  and  prohibited. 
I  realize,  of  course,  that  those  areas  are  established  by  the  Army. 
However,  in  the  case  of  our  own  city  I  would  like  to  raise  a  question 
as  to  how  the  determination  of  those  areas  was  made  and  whether  or 
not  they  were  properly  established  for  the  best  interests  of  the  public 
or  for  the  city  as  a  whole.  I  don't  know  whether  this  committee  can 
take  that  under  consideration  or  not,  but  I  would  like  to  raise  that 
question.  I  think  that  there  ought  to  be  some  careful  study  made, 
perhaps  not  only  in  our  own  city  but  in  some  of  the  other  cities. 


Again,  I  am  not  going  to  go  into  great  detail,  but  so  far  as  the  city 
of  Berkeley  is  concerned  I  think  that  matter  needs  to  be  very  care- 
fully reviewed  on  the  basis  of  this  present  set-up  and  consideration 
of  some  revisions  thereto. 

One  other  thing  that  I  want  to  mention,  and  this  probably  is  not 
a  part  of  this  hearing,  but  it  may  be  of  interest  to  you  and  the  other 
two  gentlemen  with  you  as  Members  of  Congress.  All  of  us  agree 
that  the  situation  out  here  is  not  one  to  be  trifled  with  and  I  know 
Congress  has  that  feeling  in  mind.  This  is  a  critical  area  and  I 
believe  every  step  should  be  made  to  expedite  the  delivery  to  the 
cities  of  the  materials  which  have  been  made  possible  under  this 
$100,000,000  grant  by  Congress,  so  that  the  materials  may  be  in  the 
hands  of  the  cities  where  they  can  be  used  at  the  earliest  possible  date. 

I  believe  that  covers  the  points  which  I  have  in  mind  at  the  moment, 
Mr.  Chairman.  Perhaps  before  the  close  of  the  hearing  I  might  have 
another  word  to  add. 

The  Chairman.  You  see,  you  can  get  all  the  facts  you  want  and 
then  it  depends  on  what  you  do  about  them.  As  a  result  of  your 
remarks,  Mr.  Fisk,  I  was  just  thinking,  shouldn't  there  be  some 
official  or  some  department  to  check  back,  for  instance,  like  on  the 
Pacific  coast,  to  see  how  the  Army  and  F.  B.  I.  and  enforcement 
officers  are  getting  along?     It  would  be  a  sort  of  clearing  house. 

Mr.  Fisk.  I  think  there  is  no  question  about  that,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  war  came  on  us  all  at  once.  There  should  be 
a  clearing  house.  I  am  still  convinced  that  the  city  of  Oakland  and 
the  city  of  Alameda  and  the  city  of  Berkeley  know  more  about  hard- 
ship cases  than  any  department  of  the  Government.  You  know. 
You  have  lived  there  for  years.  I  was  trying  to  think  in  terms  of  our 
recommendation:  Shouldn't  there  be  some  sort  of  a  clearing  house  of 
this  information  between  the  local,  State,  F.  B.  I.,  and  Army? 

Mr.  Fisk.  Definitely.     I  think  it  should  be  coordinated. 

The  Chairman.  The  Army  simply  cannot  take  care  of  all  these 
matters.  It  is  just  too  much  for  them.  They  are  fighters  and  they 
are  getting  ready  to  fight,  as  far  as  that  is  concerned.  They  are  in 
good  shape  here  on  the  Pacific  coast.  I  can  give  you  that  information. 
But  that  is  the  opinion  that  I  have.  So  our  visit  out  here  is  just  abso- 
lutely a  futile  gesture  unless  we  go  back  to  Washington  with  some 

Now,  Mr.  Mayor,  what  have  you  got  to  say? 



Mayor  Godfrey.  Generally  speaking,  my  thoughts  are  quite  in 
agreement  with  expressions  that  have  already  been  made.  Because 
we  are  situated  geographically  as  we  are  and  because  of  physical  con- 
ditions, I  believe  every  possible  effort  should  be  made  by  the  Federal 
Government  to  assist  with  our  problem,  not  only  with  enemies  from 
without  but  those  from  within. 

As  far  as  hardship  cases  are  concerned,  I  think  your  thought  is 
correct  in  stating  that  local  authorities  are  better  qualified  to  pass  on 
those  cases  than  anyone  else  might  be.  However,  any  plan  that  may 
be  adopted  should  be  worked  out,  I  think,  by  the  Army  or  the  F.  B.  I., 


or  some  Federal  Government  agency  rather  than  by  local  authorities. 
Our  local  peace  officers  are  not  very  many  and  have  a  big  job  to  do. 
They  would  be  very  happy  and  are  able  to  cooperate  with  any  plan 
that  is  worked  out,  but  the  definite  plan  should  come  from  sources, 
I  believe,  other  than  the  individual  municipalities  or  the  collective 

I  am  very  definite  in  my  thinking  as  regards  the  establishment  of 
camps,  if  and  when  alien  enemies  or  others  whose  loyalty  may  be 
questioned  are  removed  from  the  area.  There  should  be  some  definite 
plan  as  to  where  they  are  going,  not  any  haphazard  removal.  I  am 
not  saying  there  is  no  such  plan,  but  I  thoroughly  believe  that  that  is 
a  very  important  angle. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Schwanenberg. 



Mr.  Schwanenberg.  I  would  just  like  to  stress  one  or  two  points 
and  bring  them  to  your  attention.  The  East  Bay  area  is  definitely 
very  vulnerable.  In  the  city  of  Alameda  we  have  the  naval  air 
station  at  one  end  of  the  island.  It  is  an  island  about  7  miles  long 
and  from  a  mile  to  2  miles  wide.  There  are  five  major  shipyards  along 
the  northern  edge  and  there  is  the  Oakland  Airport  at  the  eastern  end 
of  the  island.  While  the  Oakland  Airport  is  in  Oakland,  it  is  really 
in  Alameda. 

The  whole  situation  is  very  vulnerable,  and  steps  should  be  taken 
to  remove  immediately  all  enemy  aliens  and  all  American  citizens 
whose  loyalty  can  in  any  way  be  questioned.  We  are  at  war  and 
we  can't  afford  in  this  area  to  take  any  chances. 

We  have  always  had  the  reputation  in  this  country  of  being  tolerant 
and  giving  consideration  to  everybody.  It  is  very  possible  that 
injustices  will  be  done.  That  will  be  necessary.  There  are  many 
injustices  done  during  wartimes.  If  there  are  any,  they  can  be 
rectified  later.  But  in  the  present  situation  I  don't  believe  we  can 
afford  to  take  any  chances  at  all,  and  something  should  be  done 
immediately  to  remove  the  enemy  aliens  and  to  remove  any  citizens 
whose  loyalty  is  in  the  least  bit  questioned.  If  later  it  is  proved 
that  they  are  loyal,  they  can  then  be  returned  to  their  homes.  It  is 
something  that  must  be  done  and,  in  my  opinion,  immediately. 

I  agree  with  the  other  gentlemen  in  regard  to  some  of  the  alien 
cases.  I  think  the  local  authorities  could  be  of  very  great  assistance 
to  the  Federal  authorities  in  most  of  these  cases,  because  I  believe 
that  we  know  the  cases.  We  know  the  aliens,  or  at  least  some  of 
the  aliens,  that  possibly  could  be  trusted  and  are,  maybe,  as  good 
citizens  as  we  are.  There  isn't  any  question  but  what  some  of  them 
are  better  citizens  than  a  lot  of  the  citizens  that  we  have  in  this 
country  today. 

I  think  that  is  about  all  I  have  to  say. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much.     Mr.  Smith,  please.    ' 




Chief  Smith.  With  your  permission,  Congressman,  I  won't  be 
quite  as  tactful.  I  think  from  your  remarks  that  you  are  considering 
the  Italian,  German,  and  Japanese  question  as  a  whole.  T  think  that 
is  a  mistake.  I  think  that  there  are  two  divisions — the  question  of  the 
Italian  and  German  aliens,  and  the  question  of  the  Japanese  citizen. 

I  say  that  even  though  we  are  showing  our  racial  tolerance  by  hav- 
ing some  of  the  Japanese  citizens  in  the  audience  listening  today. 

I  think  they  are  two  entirely  different  questions,  because  for  years 
we  have  known  ItaJian  and  German  aliens  and  there  is  a  common 
meeting  ground  between  their  minds  and  our  own. 

There  is,  so  far  as  I  can  ascertain,  no  particular  common  meeting 
ground  for  the  oriental  and  occidental  mind.  In  other  words,  as  an 
experienced  police  officer,  I  find  it  practically  impossible  to  obtain 
information,  to  obtain  true  impressions  of  the  Japanese.  It  is  much 
more  difficult,  in  fact  more  nearly  impossible  than  it  is  with  the  other 
two  classes  of  aliens. 

Therefore,  I  think  it  should  be  treated  as  a  different  problem  and, 
to  be  perfectly  blunt  about  it,  I  would  recommend  the  internment 
in  the  very  near  future  of  all  male  Japanese  on  the  coast  here.  That 
is  my  recommendation.     1  wish  you  gentlemen  would  consider  it. 

I  say  that  for  very  obvious  reasons.  I  think  speed  is  a  very  im- 
portant factor.  It  isn't  a  question  of  injustice  because  you  know  very 
well  that  the  Government  will  treat  all  the  interned  people  in  a  very 
humane  manner,  make  them  comfortable,  and  all  that  sort  of  thing. 
Then  at  our  leisure,  as  opportunity  offers,  any  injustice  can  be  recti- 
fied. But  I  think  it  is  a  very  important  question  of  speed,  Congress- 
men, and  I  wish  that  you  gentlemen  would  consider  that. 

That  is  the  principal  point  I  wanted  to  make. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you,  sir. 

Mr.  Johnson? 



Mr.  Johxsox.  Mr.  Chairman,  up  to  the  time  that  Chief  Smith 
spoke,  I  found  myself  very  much  in  accord  with  all  of  the  recom- 
mendations that  had  been  made,  up  to  that  time.  However,  strictly 
speaking  from  a  police  standpoint,  the  situation  with  reference  to  the 
Japanese  is  quite  different  than  it  is  with  reference  to  the  Italians 
and  the  Germans.  I  believe  both  Chief  Wallman  and  Chief  Smith 
will  agree  with  me,  that  the  police  are  able  to  get  the  information 
that  we  should  have  in  order  to  know  just  what  our  position  is  in  the 
cases  of  the  Italians  and  the  Germans,  but  we  cannot  get  the  infor- 
mation that  we  should  have  with  reference  to  the  Japanese. 

I  might  just  as  an  example  state  that  one  young  Japanese  has  ap- 
proached us  recently.  He  was  California  born,  and  he  told  us  that 
he  wanted  to  aid  the  local  authorities.  He  pointed  out  to  us  that 
today  he  is  a  man  without  a  country.  His  decision  is  to  aid  the 
local  authorities. 

The  Chairman.  Right  there,  Captain,  the  attorney  general  of  Cali- 
fornia, Earl  Warren,  testified  Saturday — I  am  asking  this  question  to 


see  if  you  agree  with  him — that  he  has  never  received  a  report  from 
any  of  the  city  or  county  enforcement  officers  where  a  Japanese  has 
divulged  any  information  that  would  be  of  value. 

Mr.  Johnson.  Mr.  Chairman,  that  is  substantially  correct.  I 
would  say  that  is  substantially  correct. 

The  Chairman.  They  have  had  it  from  Germans  and  they  have 
had  it  from  Italians  and  they  have  had  it  from  every  other  nationality, 
but  never  from  the  Japanese.     Is  that  correct? 


Mr.  Johnson.  Quite  true.  Up  to  within  the  last  few  days,  no 
information  whatsoever,  to  my  knowledge,  has  come  voluntarily  from 
the  Japanese  to  the  police.  None  whatsoever.  However,  just 
recently  now,  and  what  the  motives  might  be  I  am  unable  to  say, 
certain  3Toung  California-born  Japanese  have  approached  us  and,  as 
1  was  relating,  are  attempting  to  lead  us  to  believe  that  they  are  on 
our  side  and  do  want  to  aid  us.  So,  whether  they  do  or  not  we  don't 
know.     It  is  virtual!}7  impossible  to  tell. 

The  Chairman.  Captain,  in  the  discussions  of  the  Senators  and  the 
Representatives  from  the  three  Pacific  Coast  States,  several  times  it 
was  pointed  out  to  us  that  there  has  not  been  a  single  case  of  sabotage 
so  far  on  the  Pacific  coast.  But  we  have  finally  come  to  the  conclusion 
that  that  was  really  an  anomalous,  dangerous  condition.  Sabotage 
will  come  when  the  attack  comes.     Do  you  agree  with  us  on  that? 

Mr.  Johnson.  Emphatically  so.  There  is  no  question  in  my 
mind  about  that,  Mr.  Chairman.  None  of  us  knows  what  is  going 
to  happen  here,  but  there  is  one  thing  of  which  we  are  dead  certain. 
That  is  what  has  already  happened  at  Pearl  Harbor  and  we  all  know 
how  it  was  brought  about  there.  There  is  no  question  about  that. 
That  is  factual,  that  is  history.  We  know  what  happened  there,  but 
we  don't  know  what  might  happen  here  in  the  future.  However,  it 
seems  to  me  that  it  is  fairly  good  thinking  to  believe  that  what  hap- 
pened there  might  well  also  happen  here. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  at  Pearl  Harbor,  Honolulu,  there 
wasn't  a  single  indication  of  sabotage  until  the  attack  happened? 

Mr.  Johnson.  Not  until  the  correct  time,  the  proper  time. 

The  Chairman.  It  was  timed  very  well. 

Mr.  Johnson.  Surely. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  finish? 

no  instructions  for  accepting  contraband  property 

Mr.  Johnson.  I  have  two  other  minor  comments.  One  is  that 
the  local  authorities  would  like  to  receive  official  instructions  from 
whatever  Federal  agency  is  going  to  bring  about  or  direct  any  of 
these  movements  or  projects.  I  have  reference  now  to  the  surrender 
of  certain  contraband  alien  property.  We  have  received  no  instruc- 
tions whatsoever  by  the  Attorney  General,  but  by  reading  the  news- 
papers and  listening  to  our  radios  we  learn  that  on  certain  days  up  to 
certain  hours  certain  property  was  to  be  surrendered  to  the  local  police. 

In  certain  cities  the  police  refused  to  receive  that  property.  And 
properly  so.     They  had  no  official  instructions  whatsoever,  but  just 


taking  it  for  granted  that  newspaper  publicity  was  correct  and  perhaps 
the  radio  people  were  correct,  we  in  Berkeley  set  about  to  prepare  our 
receipts  so  that  we  would  be  properly  protected.  Our  printer  worked 
all  night  in  order  that  we  would  be  ready.  We  had  to  staff  our  offices, 
and  in  about  3  days  I  believe  over  400  different  aliens  brought  in 
property  worth  thousands  of  dollars.  Some  of  it  was  very  bulky. 
All  of  that  movement  was  carried  on  without  any  official  instructions 
whatsoever  from  any  Federal  agency. 

The  Chairman.  Of  course,  that  is  right  in  line  with  this  investiga- 
tion. We  were  hardly  here  before  we  came  across  the  situation  with 
respect  to  a  custodian  for  alien  property.  The  reason  for  that  is 
simply  this,  that  the  pressure  from  the  Pacific  coast  for  a  solution  of 
that  problem  is  greater  than  from  any  part  of  the  United  States.  In 
New  York,  in  the  New  England  States,  it  is  not  present  there  at  all. 
So  it  has  been  sort  of  lagging  here  on  account  of  jurisdiction.  The 
problem  is  the  jurisdiction  of  the  agency  that  should  handle  it.  There 
should  be  a  regional  custodian  right  here  for  this  alien  property. 
Whether  it  is  livestock  or  whether  it  is  furniture  or  what  not,  there 
should  be  someone  in  charge  to  see  that  they  are  not  cheated  out 
of  the  value  of  their  property  by  reason  of  forced  sale  or  something 
of  that  kind. 

I  think  that  is  the  most  immediate  thing.  Speaking  for  myself  as 
one  member  of  this  committee,  we  are  not  going  to  wait  for  our  report 
but  we  are  going  to  wire  them  to  that  effect.  When  this  evacuation 
starts  tomorrow,  it  is  simply  going  to  be  terrible.  I  am  glad  you 
brought  that  out.  We  have  been  constantly  considering  that  situa- 
tion, Captain. 

Mr.  Johnson.  I  would  also  like  to  add  that  the  police  in  the  East 
Bay  cities  have  any  number  of  times  daily  endeavored  to  obtain 
official  instructions  from  somebody  here  in  San  Francisco,  but  the 
official  information  is  just  not  available.  We  cannot  get  it  either 
from  the  United  States  attorney's  office  or  from  anybody  else's  office. 

The  Chairman.  Maybe  they  don't  know. 

Mr.  Johnson.  I  couldn't  say. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  been  moving  pretty  fast  back  there. 
We  have  quite  a  problem. 


Mr.  Johnson.  Just  one  more  point  and  then  I  will  be  finished.  On 
this  matter  of  the  prohibited  areas  and  restricted  areas,  in  Berkeley, 
Mr.  Fisk  already  mentioned  this  and  I  just  wanted  to  add  a  little 
emphasis  to  what  he  said.  A  quarter  of  our  city  has  been  cut  out 
and  designated  as  a  class  A  prohibited  area.  That  is  on  the  north 
side  of  University  Avenue,  but  on  the  south  side  of  University  Avenue 
I  believe  we  have  more  important  national  defense  industries  than  we 
do  on  the  north.  That  is  in  the  wide-open  area.  It  is  not  in  the  pro- 
hibited area.  The  larger  part  of  our  aliens  live  in  the  south,  in  the 
open  area. 

I  don't  know  who  laid  out  the  boundary  line,  but  I  do  know  that 
the  local  authorities  were  not  consulted  and  the  boundary  line  was 
cut  out  at  a  street  that  was  straight  and  then  another  at  right  angles. 


Then  there  were  two  streets  that  run  parallel,  and  then  there  was  a 
twilight  zone  and  nobody  knew  where  the  line  was  for  several  blocks. 

That  is  all  I  have. 

The  Chairman.  Of  course,  there  should  be  coordination.  That 
is  why  we  are  out  here — to  learn  from  the  people  themselves  who 
are  directly  involved  in  the  problems.  We  are  more  or  less  of  a 
sounding  board  to  get  that  back  to  Washington.  I  think  that  is 
very  valuable. 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  I  would  just  like  to  make  one  comment  to 
bear  out  what  Chief  Smith  and  Captain  Johnson  have  stated.  At  a 
certain  golf  course  in  California  where  they  make  reservations  for 
Sunday  golf  playing,  it  is  frequented  by  a  large  number  of  Japanese 
who  hold  reservations  for  every  Sunday  morning.  Some  of  these 
Japanese,  part  of  them  at  least,  are  American  citizens.  On  the 
morning  of  December  7  there  wasn't  a  Japanese  that  showed  up  on 
that  golf  course  to  claim  his  reservation  and  play  golf  that  morning. 

Now,  you  can  draw  your  own  conclusions,  but  that  is  a  fact. 

The  Chairman.  Mayor  Gaines,  I  think  you  said  you  probably 
would  have  some  more  remarks  to  make.  Is  there  anything  further 
that  occurs  to  you?  We  are  about  finished  now  because  we  have  so 
many  more  witnesses. 

multiplicity  of  investigations 

Mayor  Gaines.  Congressman  Tolan,  I  had  in  mind  dealing  with 
the  point  that  has  been  emphasized  by  Captain  Johnson  and  by  your- 
self in  your  comments.  I  do  feel  that  there  is  great  need  for  more 
coordinated  effort.  For  instance,  in  the  case  of  the  intelligence  serv- 
ices themselves,  at  the  present  time  the  F.  B.  I.  and  the  intelligence 
services  of  the  Army  and  Navy  are  working  on  this  problem.  So  far 
as  I  can  see  they  are  not  coordinating  their  own  efforts.  The  result 
is  that  there  are  a  great  many  enemy  aliens  who  are  subjected  to  a 
series  of  investigations. 

The  Chairman.  May  I  interrupt  you  there?  Why  don't  you  gen- 
tlemen who  appeared  here  this  morning  reduce  to  writing  and  send 
to  this  committee  to  Washington  recommendations  on  just  that  point, 
coordination  between  the  local  officers,  and  the  Army,  and  the  F.  B.  I., 
and  the  Navy  Intelligence?  That  will  be  of  great  assistance  to  us 
and  it  may  be  very  helpful  in  our  national  defense  program.  I  think 
you  can  do  it  as  applicable  to  the  East  Bay  district.  I  think  that  can 
be  done  because,  after  all  is  said  and  done,  on  March  16  we  have  to 
get  a  report  in  with  certain  recommendations. 

You  can  give  us  some  cases  where  it  works  out.  Also  in  regard  to 
that  area  that  you  mentioned  in  Berkeley.  I  don't  know  how  those 
areas  were  established.  I  have  no  idea  about  that.  The  jurisdiction 
is  in  the  Army. 

Mayor  Gaines.  I  have  in  mind  particularly  the  matter  of  intelli- 
gence at  the  moment,  although  the  area  problem  quite  obviously 
needs  some  attention. 

I  have  just  one  other  comment  at  the  moment.  I  may  submit  some 
information  to  the  committee  subsequently.  I  understand  the  record 
is  to  be  kept  open  for  a  time. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 



Mayor  Gaines.  I  do  feel  that  while  there  is  an  important  difference 
between  Japanese  aliens  and  Germans  and  Italians  that  it  would  be 
unwise  to  relax  vigilance  so  far  as  the  Italians  and  the  Germans  are 
concerned.  We  are  well  aware  of  the  activities  of  Fritz  Weidemann 
and  his  staff  here  on  the  coast  prior  to  the  time  he  was  returned  to 
Germany  by  our  own  Government,  and  undoubtedly  there  has  been 
a  continuing,  subtle,  persistent  Nazi  activity.  Therefore,  while  we 
do  need  to  differentiate  to  a  degree,  it  is  nevertheless  wise  to  keep  a 
vigilant  eye  on  both  German  and  Italian  nationals  as  well. 

I  think  that  is  all  for  the  present,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Hassler? 

Mr.  Hassler.  I  just  want  to  say  one  word,  Congressman,  and 
that  is  this.  You  say  to  write  a  letter  to  the  committee,  but  that 
takes  so  much  time.  I  think  we  need  immediate  action  on  one 
matter,  and  that  is  this:  That  in  the  East  Bay  cities  we  should  have 
a  representative  of  the  military  forces  to  advise  with  local  govern- 
ment. I  think  that  should  be  done  by  recommendation  of  your 
committee  by  wire  to  the  proper  authorities  immediately.  In  other 
words,  when  they  established  this  prohibited  area  it  was  not  done 
by  taking  it  up  with  the  local  authorities  and  the  twilight  zone 
spoken  of  here  may  have  been  also  done  in  other  cities.  One  repre- 
sentative of  the  armed  forces  in  our  entire  county  would  be  enough, 
but  he  could  advise  with  us  and  find  out  if  we  are  doing  the  job 
right.  I  think  it  would  show  where  other  prohibited  zones  could  be 

Procrastination  has  been  shown  in  the  burning  of  the  Normandie 
and  fires  in  the  East  and  many  other  catastrophes  in  other  parts  of 
the  country.  But  we  wait  for  advice,  we  wrrite  letters,  and  time 

Mr.  Fisk.  May  I  say  this,  Mr.  Chairman?  I  wrote  to  the  Army 
about  a  week  or  10  days  ago  and  asked  them  if  they  had  somebody 
to  sit  down  with  us  and  tell  us  how  these  areas  were  established.  I 
have  had  no  reply  to  that,     I  was  out  of  the  city  Friday  and  Saturday. 

I  know  the  Army  has  a  lot  of  things  to  do,  but  I  think  this  is  a 
matter  of  some  immediacy,  and  I  am  certain  that  we  can  all  work 
together  to  the  general  interests  of  the  public.  But  I  agree  with 
what  Mr.  Hassler  has  said.  This  is  not  the  time  to  wait  on  these 
things.  It  is  the  time  to  act,  We  ought  to  act  in  a  proper  manner. 
That  is  what  all  of  us  want  to  do,  but  I  think  we  should  do  it  now  and 
not  30  days  from  nowT  or  some  other  time. 

The  Chairman.  I  don't  think  it  will  take  long.  I  think  all  we 
have  to  do  is  to  ask  General  DeWitt,     He  has  the  jurisdiction. 

Mr.  Hassler.  That  would  be  the  thing  to  do.  There  should  be 
some  way  to  get  them  over  tomorrow  or  this  afternoon.  Immediately, 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  this  question.  In  regard  to  these 
statistics  has  the  Army  consulted  with  you  local  officials  at  all  about 

Mr.  Hassler.  I  have  never  seen  any  of  them. 

Mr.  Fisk.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Who  makes  the  survey  of  it? 


Mr.  Fisk.  Of  the  districts?  That  is  something  that  we  have  been 
unable  to  find. 


Chief  Smith.  They  evidently  took  a  map,  Mr.  Chairman,  and  arbi- 
trarily made  the  districts. 

Mr.  Johnson.  Mr.  Chairman,  one  point  I  would  like  to  mention 
just  because  it  is  specific.  For  weeks  we  have  been  told  through  the 
medium  of  the  press  that  on  February  24  large  numbers  of  aliens 
would  be  evacuated  from  certain  districts.  Now  we  understand  that 
the  local  authorities  are  not  going  to  do  it,  that  it  is  probably  going 
to  be  done  by  some  Federal  agency.     Which  one  we  don't  know. 


Recently  the  newspapers  have  said  it  was  to  be  done  by  the  Army. 
However,  today  is  the  23d  and  we  have  received  no  official  instruc- 
tions whatsoever  as  to  how  it  is  to  be  done,  who  will  do  it,  and  any 
other  details.  I  know  we  haven't  in  Berkeley  and  I  don't  believe  the 
other  jurisdictions  have  either.  And  today  is  the  day  preceding  the 
evacuation.  We  don't  know  who  is  going  to  do  it  or  how  it  is  going 
to  be  done.  Still,  understand,  normally  when  a  State  or  Federal 
officer  comes  into  our  city  he  immediately  contacts  the  local  police 
forces  for  assistance.  He  doesn't  know  what  the  streets  are,  he 
doesn't  know  the  people.  So  the  customary  thing  is  to  contact  our 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  if  this  committee  had  not  come  out 
here  it  would  have  remained  in  status  quo?  This  problem  would  not 
have  been  solved  at  all;  isn't  that  right?  This  is  about  the  only  way 
we  could  get  it  to  the  Government? 

Mr.  Fisk.  That  is  perhaps  the  only  way  Congress  would  have 
gotten  it.  I  think  we  would  have  had  to  find  some  way  of  getting 
act  on. 

The  Chairman.  We  will  take  that  up  with  General  DeWitt  today. 

Mr.  Hassler.  You  will  be  in  contact  with  the  general  today? 

The  Chairman.  I  will  have  to  call  him  up.  We  will  be  in  hearings 
all  day  today.  But  it  is  too  bad  we  did  not  have  this  panel  on  Satur- 
day. We  were  with  him  an  hour  Saturday  afternoon  and  we  could 
have  discussed  that  right  with  him.  Now,  we  will  have  to  call  him 
up  before  we  leave. 

I  think  that  is  very,  very  important.  I  am  glad  you  brought  it  up, 
because  those  are  the  things  that  count. 

Mayor  Gaines.  I  might  point  out  that  midnight  tonight  is  the 
deadline  really  on  this  thing 

The  Chairman.  Yes;  I  know. 

Did  you  have  anything,  Congressman  Arnold? 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  would  like  to  ask  a  few  questions  on  my  own 
responsibility  without  having  consulted  you. 

I  realize,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  you  are  familiar  with  this  area  and 
this  is  the  area  from  which  you  come.  Anyone  can  answer  these 
questions  who  sees  fit. 


Is  it  your  idea  that  the  local  authorities  should  have  the  responsi- 
bility of  saying  which  Italian  and  German  aliens  are  evacuated  and 
which  remain? 

Chief  Smith.  No. 


Mayor  Gaines.  I  may  answer  that,  since  I  believe  I  raised  the  point. 
First  of  all,  I  think  there  should  be  three  categories  established:  The 
dangerous,  the  suspicious,  and  the  friendly. 

Mr.  Arnold.  How  are  you  going  to  determine  that? 

Mayor  Gaines.  Within  the"  friendly  category,  I  think  the  local 
authorities  should  be  consulted  without  question  on  the  ground  that 
they  are  most  familiar  with  local  folk  and  are  best  qualified  to  deal 
with  local  situations. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Who  can  say  who  is  friendly  and  who  is  unfriendly? 
Do  you  think  your  local  authorities  want  to  take  that  responsibility? 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  No,  no. 

Mayor  Gaines.  I  think  the  Federal  authorities  can  determine  first 
of  all  who  are  dangerous.  Certainly  they  would  have  a  pretty  good 
idea  as  to  who  are  suspicious.  That  of  necessity  leaves  a  residue  that 
might  be  counted  friendly  but  subject  to  further  investigation. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Of  course;  I  hope  the  F.  B.  I.  has  all  that  information, 
but  their  force  is  not  large  and  there  are  a  great  many  aliens  on  this 
coast  of  Italian  descent  and  perhaps  of  German  descent.  I  don't 
know  how  many  German  aliens  you  have. 

Mayor  Gaines.  A  great  many. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  come  from  a  district  that  is  one-third  German;  very 
few  aliens,  however.  I  don't  know  just  how  any  agency  of  the  Gov- 
ernment, or  local  agency  either,  would  determine  who  is  loyal  and  who 
is  not  loyal,  even  among  the  citizens. 

Mr.  Hassler.  Congressman,  I  feel  that  the  Department  of  Justice 
cooperating  with  the  local  police  force  could  determine  that.  It 
wouldn't  be  any  problem  there  at  all. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  think  we  have  time  for  all  that? 

Mr.  Hassler.  No  ;  not  now. 

Mayor  Slavich.  Midnight  tonight  is  the  border-line  point. 

Mr.  Hassler.  We  have  been  in  the  war  3  months  almost  and  we 
are  just  taking  that  question  up  now. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  mean  as  to  the  future.  I  am  not  referring  to  the 
ones  who  are  to  be  evacuated  tomorrow,  but  we  all  know  of  this 
recent  Executive  order.  Do  you  think  we  have  time  to  study  indi- 
vidual situations? 

Mr.  Hassler.  We  presumed  that  the  Department  of  Justice  had 
all  these  cases  investigated  and  ready  for  the  evacuation,  because  they 
didn't  contact  us  and  we,  of  course,  took  it  for  granted  that  they  knew 
what  they  were  doing  and  that  they  would  handle  the  cases. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Don't  you  believe  that  the  Army  will  have  to  take 
into  consideration  the  fact  that  if  they  leave  one  alien  Italian  family, 
for  instance,  and  remove  another  there  will  be  a  great  deal  of  hard 
feeling  toward  the  Government  on  the  part  of  those  who  are  removed? 
They  will  claim  they  are  as  loyal  as  the  ones  who  remain. 


Mayor  Gaines.  Congressman,  I  might  suggest  that  perhaps  it  is 
necessary  to  act  under  a  sweeping  order  in  this  case,  but  that  does  not 
necessarily  need  to  be  final.  Those  persons,  who  by  reasonable  test 
can  be  determined  to  be  loyal,  can  later  be  restored  to  then  own  sur- 

Mayor  Slavich.  Would  you  remove  them  in  the  meantime? 

Mayor  Gaines.  Well,  tonight  is  the  deadline.  I  don't  know  if  you 
can  do  anything  else.     But  it  can  be  straightened  out  later. 

no  mass  evacuation  anticipated 

The  Chairman.  Tonight  is  the  deadline  for  this  evacuation,  but 
there  are  going  to  be  more  evacuations.  General  DeWitt  said 
Saturday  afternoon  to  the  public  that  there  is  not  going  to  be  any 
mass  evacuation,  it  is  going  to  probably  be  done  over  weeks  and 
months.  So  what  we  are  now  talking  about  is  not  on  the  borderline  of 
tonight,  but  the  future  evacuations.  I  thought  that  your  ideas  were 
simply  to  cooperate  with  the  F.  B.  I.  and  the  Army.  That  was  the 
idea,  was  it  not?     To  give  them  whatever  information  you  have? 

Mayor  Gaines.  That  is  all  right,  too.  But  so  far  as  enemy  aliens 
are  concerned  tonight  is  the  deadline.  Now,  as  to  second  generation 
folk,  that  is  left  under  the  Presidential  order,  as  I  understand  it,  to  the 
discretion  of  the  Army.  That  can  take  place  over  a  period  of  time. 
But  so  far  as  enemy  aliens  are  concerned,  midnight  tonight  apparently 
is  the  deadline. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  gentlemen  don't  think  that  men  in  politics 
should  have  the  final  say  as  to  who  is  removed  and  who  isn't? 

Mayor  Slavich.  No.     Don't  ask  the  mayor  to  appoint  a  committee. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  know.  As  a  Member  of  Congress,  I  have  been 
glad  that  we  didn't  have  to  say  who  was  to  go  into  the  Army  and  who 
wasn't,  especially  before  December  7.  It  was  pretty  "hot."  These 
mothers  all  wanted  their  boys  out  of  the  Army  and  I  was  very  glad 
to  leave  those  decisions  to  the  War  Department.  I  just  wondered 
if  you,  out  here  in  the  Bay  Area,  wanted  political  considerations  to 
enter  into  it. 

Mayor  Slavich.  We  are  rationing  tires.  We  don't  want  to  ration 
anything  like  tins. 

Mr.  Fisk.  All  we  want  is  to  get  it  done  on  the  best  basis  possible 
and  we  want  it  done  quickly.  We  don't  want  it  put  on  a  political 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  want  everybody  who  is  disloyal  to  this  country 
removed,  and  people  who  are  loyal  to  remain? 

Mayor  Gaines.  That  is  right.  Speaking  for  myself,  it  makes  no 
difference  who  accomplishes  it,  the  Army,  the  Navy,  or  what  you 
call  "political"  so  long  as  it  is  done.     I  think  it  is  a  public  duty. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Of  course,  the  Army  is  responsible  for  the  defense 
of  this  coast  and  you,  as  city  officials,  are  mighty  glad  that  you  have 
someone  who  is  defending  the  coast  and  is  responsible  for  it. 

Mr.  Fisk.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  I  take  it  you  don't  want  to  interfere  with  this 
defense,  but  you  don't  want  hardships  to  be  worked  on  people  whom 
you  feel  are  loyal? 

Mayor  Gaines.  That  is  correct. 

60396— 42— pt.  29 11 



Mr.  Schwanenberg.  I  would  rather  see  50,000  people  put  in  a 
camp  and  be  sure  that  we  were  protected  than  to  have  one  person 
stay  out  of  an  internment  camp  who  was  a  danger  to  the  protection 
of  this  coast.     That  is  my  position. 

The  Chairman.  And  you  say  that  because  just  one  individual 
can  cause  a  lot  of  damage? 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  That  is  right.  Ard  there  are  nearly  a  million 
people  in  our  area  that  we,  as  city  officials,  feel  definitely  responsible 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Don't  you  feel  that  a  person  of  alien  ancestry 
should,  if  he  is  a  loyal  American  citizen,  realize  that  this  evacuation 
is  necessary  for  the  security  of  our  Nation,  and  be  willing  to  abide 
by  the  military  decision  and  simply  count  it  as  a  sacrifice  necessary 
in  war  time? 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  If  he  is  a  good  American  citizen  he  should 
be  glad  to  do  it. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Now,  there  has  been  some  complaint,  and  I 
think  a  just  complaint,  about  the  lack  of  coordination.  You  gentle- 
men understand,  of  course,  that  prior  to  this  Executive  order  there 
wasn't  any  well-defined  authority  as  to  who  was  to  do  these  various 
things.  General  DeWitt,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  did  not  receive  his 
instructions  until  yesterday.  I  am  wondering  if  you  have  made  any 
effort  in  the  last  day  or  two  to  form  a  committee  for  the  purpose  of 
contacting  General  DeWitt,  or  anyone  whom  he  might  designate, 
to  discuss  these  matters  with  you? 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  We  haven't  formed  a  committee,  but  we 
have  a  very  active  committee  in  Alameda  County,  in  which  all  of 
the  defense  council  and  all  of  the  municipalities  are  represented. 
All  of  these  problems  are  taken  up  and  discussed  and  handled  through 
them.     We  could  have  a  meeting  within  an  hour  from  now. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Has  that  council  or  committee  or  any  committee 
made  any  effort  to  have  a  meeting? 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  I  don't  believe  so,  although  we  have  contacted 
the  various  Government  agencies,  the  F.  B.  L,  the  United  States 
attorney's  office  and  all  the  agencies  that  we  knew  about. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  That  was  prior  to  Friday. 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  That's  right. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  But  we  understand  now  that  the  authority  is 
vested  in  one  man. 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  Up  to  this  moment  I  didn't  know.  I 
wasn't  aware  of  that  fact. 


Mr.  Fisk.  Congressman,  as  I  said  a  few  minutes  ago,  I  mailed  a 
letter  and  was  told  it  should  have  gone,  after  a  lot  of  time  was  wasted 
trying  to  find  the  right  person,  to  the  commanding  general  of  the 
Army  in  this  area.  That  letter  was  sent  to  him;  it  has  been  there  for 
some  time  and  I  have  yet  to  hear  from  him. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Yes;  but  you  must  appreciate  this  fact:  That 
prior  to  the  President's  Executive  order  and  prior  to  his  receipt  of 


instructions  under  that  Executive  order  he  was  probably  as  badly  in 
the  dark  as  you  were. 

Mr.  Fisk.  I  am  perfectly  willing  to  grant  that,  but  let  us  not  have 
the  idea  prevalent  here  that  nobody  has  made  any  attempt  to  find  out. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  No;  the  thing  I  am  trying  to  get  across  is  that 
things  have  been  changed  materially  since  Friday,  and  I  simply  offer 
it  as  a  suggestion  that  you  gentlemen  make  an  effort  to  establish 
contact  with  General  DeWitt  or  someone. 

Mr.  Fisk.  I  am  willing  to  keep  trying. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Or  someone  under  him  whom  he  charges  with  that 
responsibility.  Personally,  I  think  that  such  a  contact  would  be 
welcomed  by  those  in  authority,  and  I  think  it  would  be  a  fine  thing 
for  you  to  do  it. 

Here  is  one  other  point  that  I  want  to  be  sure  that  we  get  clear. 
Reference  has  been  made  several  times  to  the  fact  that  in  dealing  with 
these  hardship  cases,  and  even  in  defining  dangerous  zones  or  strategic 
areas,  and  so  forth,  the  local  authorities  probably  knew  more  about  it 
than  the  others.  Of  course,  that  is  true  and  they  should  be  used; 
any  information  that  they  have  should  certainly  be  made  use  of. 
But  I  don't  believe  anv  of  you  gentlemen  want  to  leave  the  impression 
that  the  final  decision  in  any  of  these  matters  should  rest  with  anyone 
except  the  one  who  has  the  responsibility  of  the  coast  defenses. 
Isn't  that  correct? 

Mr.  Fisk.  Right. 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  Right. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  In  other  words,  in  every  instance  final  decision 
would  be  his? 

Mr.  Fisk.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Schwanenberg.  I  just  want  to  say  this  in  order  to  clear  any- 
thing that  might  have  been  said.  As  far  as  the  cities  on  our  side  have 
been  concerned,  we  have  received  the  finest  of  cooperation  from  both 
the  Army  and  the  Navy.  The  cooperation  has  been  wonderful  and 
they  have  assisted  us  to  the  limit  of  their  ability  and  possibly  to  the 
limit  of  their  power  to  do  so.  We  have  very  friendly  relations  with 
all  of  them. 

Mr.  Fisk.  That  is  correct.     That  goes  for  our  city. 

The  Chairman.  Gentlemen,  we  appreciate  very  much  your  coming 
here  this  morning.  We  have  learned  some  very  valuable  facts  from 
this  panel.  We  are  very  grateful,  as  I  say,  for  your  attendance  here. 
I  have  traveled  about  50,000  miles  and  it  is  nice  to  be  back  home 
looking  into  the  faces  of  my  constituents.     We  thank  you  very  much. 

We  will  stand  in  recess  for  5  minutes. 

(Whereupon  a  short  recess  was  taken.) 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  please  come  to  order. 

Mrs.  Crivello?     Congressman  Sparkman  will  ask  the  questions. 


Mr.  Rispoli.  I  am  Mr.  Rispoli,  of  the  Italian  Welfare  Agency. 
Mrs.  Crivello  does  not  speak  English  and  I  prefer  her  daughter, 
Mrs.  Damoto,  speak. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  are  the  daughter  of  Mrs.  Crivello? 


Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Mr.  Rispoli,  are  you  connected  with  the  family? 

Mr.  Rispoli.  No,  no.  I  am  executive  secretary  of  the  Italian 
Welfare  Agency,  which  is  a  Community  Chest  agency. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Mrs.  Damato,  will  you  give  Mrs.  Crivello's  full 

Mrs.  Damato.  Francesca  Crivello. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Where  does  she  live? 

Mrs.  Damato.  2751  Hyde  Street,  San  Francisco. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Who  lives  with  her? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Two  sons  and  one  daughter  are  living  there  at  the 
present  time. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  are  the  names  of  the  children? 

Mrs.  Damato.  One  is  Nicholas  Crivello.  The  second  is  Vincent 
Crivello,  and  the  other  Tillie  Crivello. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  these  children  work? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  do  they  do? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Nicholas  is  a  police  officer  in  San  Francisco  and 
Vincent  had  his  own  business  until  3  days  ago  when  he  entered  the 
Naval  Reserve  on  Treasure  Island.  He  is  in  the  Navy  now.  Tillie 
stays  home.     She  takes  care  of  the  house  with  my  mother. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Who  supports  your  mother? 

Mrs.  Damato.  My  brother,  Nicholas. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  She  is  a  widow? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Is  her  home  in  a  prohibited  or  restricted  area? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes;  it  is  in  a  prohibited  area. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Is  she  a  citizen? 

Mrs.  Damato.  No. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Are  the  children  citizens? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes;  we  were  all  born  here  in  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  How  many  children  are  there  in  all? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Eight. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  all  eight  are  American  citizens? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  One  is  a  police  officer  of  the  city  of  San  Fran- 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  One  is  in  the  United  States  Navy? 

Mrs.  Damato.  The  United  States  Navy.  Then  I  have  another 
one  in  the  United  States  Navy  in  Pearl  Harbor. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  mean  another  brother? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  have  two  brothers  in  the  Navy? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Will  it  be  necessary  for  your  mother  to  move 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes.  She  will  be  the  only  member  in  the  family 
who  has  to  move  and  she  owns  her  own  home  here.  The  family  owns 
the  home. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  The  family  owns  the  home? 


Mrs.  Damato.  The  family  owns  the  home;  yes.  She  is  the  only  one 
who  has  to  leave  home.  She  has  to  leave  and  she  feels  badly  about 
leaving  the  rest  of  the  family.     She  is  the  only  one  that  has  to  go. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Where  will  she  go? 

Mrs.  Damato.  To  my  sister.  I  have  a  married  sister  living  in 
Greenwich  Street  in  San  Francisco. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  In  the  same  city? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  she  will  go  over  to  the  home  of  your  married 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes.  But  she  feels  she  should  be  in  her  own  home. 
She  feels  more  independent. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  how  long  has  she  lived  in  the  United  States? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Forty  years. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Where  was  she  born? 

Mrs.  Damato.  In  Palermo,  Sicily,  Italy. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  How  old  is  she  now? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Sixty-two. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  How  does  it  happen  that  she  never  became  an 
American  citizen? 


Mrs.  Damato.  She  was  illiterate.  She  didn't  know  how  to  read 
or  write  Italian  either,  and  then  when  she  came  here  she  started  to 
raise  this  large  family  and  she  didn't  have  time  for  anything.  She 
just  worked  night  and  day  and  it  never  entered  her  mind  in  any.  way 
that  she  should  become  a  citizen  for  any  reason,  because  she  always 
felt  loyal  to  the  United  States.  In  fact,  she  always  feels  that  this  is 
her  own  country.  And  now  when  she  is  ordered  to  evacuate  she  feels 
that  she  is  a  citizen  and  shouldn't  be  treated  that  way. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Your  father  was  not  an  American  citizen? 

Mrs.  Damato.  No.  He  was  illiterate  also  and  it  never  entered 
his  mind  either  to  become  a  citizen  because  he  didn't  know  how  to 
read  or  write  and  it  is  difficult  for  anyone  who  doesn't  know  a  language. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Suppose  later  it  becomes  necessary  to  move  still 
farther  into  the  interior,  where  will  she  go? 

Mrs.  Damato.  She  has  nowhere  to  go. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  all  of  the  children  live  in  San  Francisco? 

Mrs.  Damato.  We  all  live  here  in  San  Francisco. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  With  the  exception  of  the  one  that  is  at  Pearl 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Does  she  feel  that  some  provision  should  be  made 
whereby  cases  such  as  hers  would  be  taken  care  of? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes;  she  does.  She  feels  that  there  should  be  some- 
thing done. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  am  sure,  however,  she  realizes  that  in  a  time  of 
great  national  emergency  such  as  this  is  all  of  us  are  going  to  be  called 
upon  for  sacrifices. 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes;  she  understands  that. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  that  if  she  does  go  or  if  she  does  have  to 
move  farther  into  the  interior,  that  will  be  reckoned  as  her  sacrifice 
in  winning  the  war. 


Mrs.  Damato.  Yes;  she  realizes  that. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  have  anything  further  to  say,  or  I  wonder 
if  your  mother  would  like  to  add  anything  to  what  you  have  already 

Mrs.  Damato.  She  can't  speak  very  good  English,  though,  but  she 
does  feel  as  if  she  shouldn't  be  treated  as  an  enemy  alien — as  a  dan- 
gerous alien.  She  thinks  she  ought  to  have  a  little  more  consideration 
because  she  has  two  sons  in  the  service  and  she  has  been  here  for  years, 
most  of  her  life.  As  far  as  she  is  concerned  she  feels  as  much  a  citizen 
as  we  American-born  citizens.  All  her  sentiments,  all  her  feelings  are 
for  the  United  States.     She  has  no  thought  of  Italy  in  any  way. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  any  distinction  between  her  and  the  rest  of  us 
would  be  technical? 

Airs.  Damato.  Yes.  She  raised  all  her  children  here  and  we  are 
all  Americans.  We  all  have  American  sentiments  and  feelings.  She 
always  thought  of  this  country  as  her  own  country  and  she  thinks  she 
ought  to  be  treated  in  a  more  considerate  manner,  that  she  shouldn't 
be  sent  away  from  her  home.  That  is  the  way  she  feels  about  it. 
She  feels  that  she  is  being  sent  away,  while  the  rest  of  the  family  are 
being  allowed  to  stay. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Of  course,  you  appreciate  the  difficulty  of  our 
drawing  the  line  at  some  particular  dividing  point? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes;  I  understand.  But  she  thinks  that  something 
should  be  done  to  sort  out  the  friendly  people  and  send  them  back  to 
their  homes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  think  there  might  be  some  system  of  registra- 

Mrs.  Damato.  I  think  so.     I  think  there  should  be. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  A  requirement  to  carry  an  identification  card,  a 
permit  of  some  kind? 

Mrs.  Damato.  And  then  people  who  have  known  her  all  these  years, 
know  her  character  and  know  her  ways,  could  sponsor  her.  She  could 
have  sponsors  for  her. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  believe  you  agree  with  me  that  we  all  have  a 
feeling  that  in  solving  this  problem  every  effort  will  be  made  to  see 
that  proper  provision  is  made  for  deserving  cases? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  This  is  one  problem  that  must  be  solved  without 
a  great  deal  of  time  in  which  to  work  out  the  details? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  But  I  believe  that  we  can  feel  certain  that  every 
effort  will  be  made  to  see  that  all  deserving  persons  receive  full  and 
proper  consideration. 

Mrs.  Damato.  And  then  she  is  under  a  doctor's  care.  She  goes 
there  about  once  a  month  for  her  heart  condition  and  blood  pressure. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  feel  that  after  she  is  removed  from  her  home 
to  that  of  your  sister  that,  if  it  is  possible,  the  Government  should 
have  a  reviewing  agency? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arnold.  To  carefully  go  into  individual  cases,  and  where 
they  are  satisfied  beyond  a  doubt  that  such  persons  as  your  mother 
are  loyal  to  the  United  States,  they  should  then  be  allowed  to  return 
to  their  home  imder  some  sort  of  license  or  identification? 


Mrs.  Damato.  Yes.  I  think  that  there  should  be.  Yes,  that  is 
what  I  think  should  be  done. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  then  not  be  removed  in  future  evacuations? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Especially  if  they  should  have  to  evacuate  into  the 
interior.  We  don't  want  to  see  her  go  away  because  she  is  alone  and 
she  isn't  well. 

Mr.  Arnold.  We  hope  that  will  be  worked  out. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Have  any  of  the  children  been  educated  in  Italy? 

Mrs.  Damato.  No. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Have  any  of  them  been  back  to  Italy? 

Mrs.  Damato.  No.     We  have  always  been  here  in  San  Francisco. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  degree  of  education  have  they  received  in 
this  country? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Most  of  them  just  went  through  grammar  school 
and  a  few  of  them  had  1  or  2  years  of  high  school,  but  they  have  never 
been  to  college.     None  of  us  has  been  to  college. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  All  of  them  have  been  engaged  in  various  activities? 

Mrs.  Damato.  All  of  them  have  been  engaged  in  various  activities, 


Mr.  Sparkman.  They  have  all  been  law-abiding  citizens? 

Mrs.  Damato.  Oh,  yes.     They  have  all  got  jobs,  you  know. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Thank  you  very  much.  We  appreciate  your  com- 
ing and  presenting  this  case  to  us. 

Mrs.  Damato.  Thank  you.1 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Mrs.  Maniscalo. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Let  us  have  the  entire  family.  We  will  make  room 
for  you  up  here. 

Mr.  Kjspoli.  This  is  just  part  of  the  family.  There  are  12  in  the 



Mr.  Arnold.  What  is  your  name  and  address? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Luciano  Maniscalo,  1846  Powell  Street. 

Mr.  Arnold.  North  Beach? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  are  the  ages  of  you  and  your  husband? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  My  husband  was  59  years  old  on  February  14th 
and  I  was  48  January  the  12th. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  how  long  have  you  been  married? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Thirty  years  on  "Disaster  Day,"  the  7th  of 

Mr.  Arnold.  How  many  children  do  you  have? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Twelve. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Are  some  of  the  children  in  the  armed  services? 


Mrs.  Maniscalo.  One  is  in  the  United  States  Navy;  he  has  been 
there  7  years.  One  is  on  a  United  States  transport;  he  has  been  there 
a  couple  of  months.     One  is  in  the  Army;  he  is  in  Tacoma,  Wash; 

'  The  committee  was  later  advised  by  Mrs.  Damato  that  her  mother  had  been  allowed  to  return  to  her 


My  daughter  is  in  the  ambulance  corps  and  the  other  was  reclassified 
for  the  Army.  I  don't  know  what  class  yet.  We  are  waiting  for  his 

Mr.  Arnold.  The  one  in  the  Navy  is  a  volunteer? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  He  volunteered  7  years  ago.  He  finished  7 
years  on  the  18th  of  January. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  the  one  in  the  transport  service,  of  course  he 
volunteered  for  that  service? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  He  volunteered  for  the  transport.  And  there 
is  one  in  the  Army.  He  was  drafted  on  June  the  3d  of  1941.  My 
daughter  volunteered  in  September.  I  don't  remember  the  date; 
she  is  the  one  in  the  Ambulance  Corps. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Which  children  are  here  with  you  today? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Well,  there  is  one  more  small,  one  between 
them  [indicating]. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Give  their  ages. 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Luciano,  he  is  14.  Rosie,  she  is  6.  Michael  is 
10  and  Angelino  will  be  4. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  where  are  the  other  four  children? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Home. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  are  their  ages? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Marion,  she  is  21;  Joseph,  16;  and  Theresa,  she 
is  going  to  be  9,  and  Frances  is  12. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  occupation  has  your  husband  practiced  for  the 
last  20  years? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Well,  at  first  he  used  to  work  at  the  Union  Iron 
Works  and  he  went  to  Alaska.  Then  he  got  his  boat  and  he  has 
been  a  fisherman  for  20  years. 

Mr.  Arnold.  He  bought  a  boat  and  has  been  a  fisherman? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arnold.  For  20  years? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Twenty  years  he  has  been  a  fisherman. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Was  he  able  to  make  a  good  living  at  crab  fishing? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Well,  when  they  was  catching  crab  they  was 
doing  all  right.     Sometimes  yes,  sometimes  no. 

Mr.  Arnold.  He  raised  a  pretty  good  sized  family,  though. 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  apparently  a  fine,  patriotic  family.  Has  your 
husband  been  able  to  obtain  any  work  since  the  7th  of  December? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  He  was  barred  from  fishing  after  December  7? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  That's  right. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  he  has  been  without  work  since? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  He  hasn't  been  working  since. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  rent  your  own  home? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arnold.  What  rent  do  you  have  to  pay? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Thirty  dollars  beside  gas  and  electric. 

Mr.  Arnold.  How  are  you  able  to  make  ends  meet  since  your 
husband  became  unemployed? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Well,  one  of  my  boys,  the  one  that  is  on  the 
transport,  he  gives  me  $50  and  another  boy  gives  me  $20  a  month, 
and  whatever  my  daughter  makes,  what  she  can  spare,  she  gives  me. 


She  makes  $18  a  week  and  she  gives  me  whatever  she  can  spare  out 
of  it. 

Mr.  Arnold.  None  of  your  children  are  married,  are  they? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  My  son  in  the  Navy  got  married  just  before  he 
left  for  Pearl  Harbor. 

Mr.  Arnold.  His  wife  is  back  with  her  folks? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  She  is  in  Long  Beach. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Are  you  a  citizen  and  is  your  husband  a  citizen? 

Mr.  Maniscalo.  My  husband  is  not  a  citizen,  but  I  am  a  citizen. 
I  lost  my  rights,  but  I  took  my  citizenship.  I  lost  my  rights  when  I 
married  him,  and  then  in  1934  I  got  my  papers  out. 

Mr.  Arnold.  When  did  he  come  to  the  United  States? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  August  2,  1901. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  where  has  he  lived  since  he  came  to  this  country? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  He  arrived  in  New  York  City  and  then  he  went 
to  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  Then  he  went  to  New  Orleans  and  he  came  to 
Pensacola  where  I  was  born,  and  we  got  married  there. 

Mr.  Arnold.  How  long  has  he  been  in  San  Francisco? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Since  March  12,  1917. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  say  you  were  married  in  Pensacola? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Yes.     I  was  born  there. 

Mr.  Arnold.  That  is  your  home? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  That  is  my  home. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Has  your  husband  made  any  effort  to  become  a 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Oh,  yes;  many  times.  He  went  in  1932.  He 
was  examined  and  he  passed  a  hundred  percent,  him  and  his  two 
witnesses.  But  he  don't  know  how  to  write  his  name,  and  I  have 
tried  since  and  he  can't  learn  yet. 

Mr.  Arnold.  He  can't  learn  it? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No.  Sometimes  he  even  cried.  He  tries  ot 
write  and  he  can't  do  it. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Can  he  write  in  Italian? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No. 

Mr.  Arnold.  He  has  no  education  in  Italian? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No,  none  at  all. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Is  that  the  only  thing  that  prevents  him  from  being  a 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  That  is  all.  We  have  been  trying  many  times. 
We  even  tried  as  soon  as  the  outbreak  of  war. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Is  he  as  loyal  an  American  as  you  are? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  I  think  he  is  more  loyal  than  I  am. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Has  he  ever  returned  to  Italy? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  He  has  never  gone  back  to  Italy.  In  fact,  I 
don't  think  he  ever  wrote  to  Italy  for  the  last  16  years,  so  he  is  more 
American  than  I  am. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  none  of  your  children  has  been  back  there, 
unless  it  would  be  the  boy  in  the  Navy? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No.  He  was  born  in  Pensacola.  Three  of  them 
were  born  in  Pensacola  and  nine  of  them  in  San  Francisco. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And,  in  fact,  he  has  severed  all  connections  with  Italy? 
I  mean,  with  anyone  in  Italy?  He  hasn't  written  back  there  for  17 


Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No;  for  40  years.  He  hasn't  been  to  Italy  in 
40  years. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  say  he  hasn't  written  back  there? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No.  We  don't  know  what  became  of  his  people 
or  anything.  He  says  his  mother  is  dead  and  we  never  write  .his 

Mr.  Arnold.  He  has  never  been  arrested  for  any  crime? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  For  what? 

Mr.  Arnold.  Your  husband  has  never  been  arrested? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No.  He  brought  me  two  crabs  one  time.  He 
brought  me  two  crabs  home  one  time.  He  got  arrested  for  bringing 
some  crabs  home  one  day,  but  I  don't  call  that  arrested. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  wouldn't  think  so.  Am  I  correct  that  you  were 
only  on  relief  during  the  depression  years? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  During  the  depression,  and  there  was  another 
time.  Well,  it  was  during  depression,  I  guess.  One  time  they  had  a 
very  bad  season  of  crab.     I  was  on  relief,  too,  but  I  don't  remember. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Does  he  have  any  membership  in  any  Italian  organiza- 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No. 

Mr.  Arnold.  He  attends  no  meetings  of  any  kind? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No. 

Mr.  Arnold.  In  other  words,  you  want  to  repeat  that  you  think  he 
is  as  loyal  as  you,  a  native-born  American? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  I  think  he  is  just  as  good  an  American  as  I  and 
his  sons  and  his  daughters. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  live  in  a  restricted  area? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No;  I  don't  think  that  is  in  a  restricted  area. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  don't  have  to  move  tomorrow? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No.  He  used  to  own  his  own  boat  and  then  he 
gave  it  to  me. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Now,  I  want  a  picture  of  the  group.  I  think  that 
would  make  a  very  good  picture. 

(Whereupon  a  picture  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Maniscalo  and  the  children 
present  was  taken  by  a  photographer.) 

Mr.  Arnold.  That  is  all  I  have,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  I  want  to  say  that  you  certainly  speak  veiy  fine 
English  yourself.  The  only  thing  that  you  can  say  against  the  record 
of  your  husband  is  that  they  took  two  crabs  away  from  him? 

Mrs.  Maniscalo.  Well,  he  took  a  couple  of  crabs  and  brought  them 
home,  and  so  he  got  arrested. 

The  Chairman.  Is  that  the  only  time  he  ever  did  some  "crabbing" 
with  you? 

_  Mrs.  Maniscalo.  No.     Now,  don't  say  that.     We  do  that  some- 
times.    That  is  the  reason  we  have  gotten  along  for  30  years. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  all. 

Mr.  Tramutolo. 



The  Chairman.  You  may  sit  down,  Mr.  Tramutolo.  Who  is  with 
you,  Mr.  Tramutolo? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  I  represent,  together  with  Mr.  Rispoli,  executive 
secretary  of  the  Italian  Welfare  Agency  (member  agency  Community 
Chest  of  San  Francisco),  Citizens'  Committee  to  Aid  Italians  Loyal 
to  the  United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Give  his  full  name  to  the  reporter. 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Milano  Rispoli. 

The  Chairman.  I  want  to  say  that  I  have  known  Mr.  Tramutolo 
for  25  years.  He  is  one  of  the  leading  attorneys  in  San  Francisco. 
I  have  great  respect  for  him.  We  are  pleased  to  have  you  appear  here 
Mr.  Tramutolo.     Congressman  Sparkman  will  interrogate  you. 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Thank  you  veiy  much.  May  I  make  a  state- 
ment, gentlemen,  that  will  clarify  my  position  here? 


I  speak  for  a  committee  of  businessmen  and  merchants  of  Italian 
descent,  all  of  whom  are  citizens,  which  committee  represents  the 
Italian  population,  citizens  and  noncitizens,  of  San  Francisco.  The 
estimated  population  of  Italians  here,  both  citizens  and  noncitizens, 
is  70,000.  Fully  appreciating  the  present  emergency  this  committee 
met  and  at  its  initial  meeting  unanimously  approved  my  acting  as 
its  spokesman  in  order  to  present  to  you  what  we  regard  as  hardship 
cases  which  will  be  affected  by  the  existing  order  of  evacuation.  At 
this  meeting  we  formulated  a  plan  to  present  definite  problems  needing 
immediate  solution.  We  are  not  unmindful  of  the  fact  that  the  upper- 
most and  most  important  thing  that  should  concern  everyone  is  the 
safety  of  our  country. 

You  have  already  heard  testimony  that  a  large  percentage  of  our 
scavengers  are  aliens.  I  would  rather  use  the  word  "noncitizen" 
than  "alien"  because  many  of  them  have  tried  to  become  citizens  but 
were  unable  to  do  so  because  they  cannot  read  or  write  the  English 
language.  May  I  at  this  point  make  this  observation,  that  there 
are  many  Italians,  who  are  unable  to  become  citizens  under  the 
present  law,  who  are  as  loyal  as  many  who  have  obtained  their  citi- 
zenship papers,  because  they  could  read  and  write  our  language. 
My  remarks  will  be  confined  to  the  Italian  situation  existing  here 
because  I  am  more  familiar  with  it  than  I  am  with  the  others.  I 
desire  to  go  on  record  as  stating  that  there  is  no  group  in  this  area, 
or  elsewhere,  who  are  more  loyal  than  those  of  Italian  descent.  And 
we  would  be  delighted  to  know  of  any  who  are  disloyal  so  that  we 
could  assist  the  Government  in  getting  rid  of  them.  Our  committee 
is  willing  to  cooperate  at  its  own  time  and  expense  with  the  Army, 
Navy,  or  any  other  branch  of  the  Government  in  ferreting  out  those 
who  are  disloyal,  because  it  is  to  our  interest  as  Americans  to  get  rid 
of  them  and  to  do  so  expeditiously.  In  an  emergency  such  as  we  are 
now  confronted  with  there  are  many  cases  that  you  would  not  be 
aware  of  unless  they  were  brought  to  your  attention. 

You  heard  this  morning  a  few  cases  which  are  examples  of  many 
and  I  shall  be  pleased  to  give  others  to  your  committee  should  you 


desire  them,  provided  that  for  the  time  being  their  names  be  not 
revealed.  The  reason  for  making  this  request  that  their  names  be 
withheld  temporarily  is  that  the  parents  do  not  like  the  attendant  pub- 
licity because  they  have  children  who  are  of  school  age  and  the  pub- 
licity would  have  a  tendency  to  affect  these  children. 

The  scavengers'  situation  presents  an  important  problem  that  must 
be  dealt  with.  These  people  of  necessity  must  start  their  work  after 
midnight  and  in  the  early  hours  of  the  morning  and  finish  as  soon  as 
possible  as  the  size  of  their  wagons  and  the  number  of  people  who 
work  upon  them,  if  they  were  to  work  after  7:30  in  the  morning,  would 
congest  our  already  overcongested  city. 

The  janitors'  organization  comprises  in  membership  approximately 
3,000,  1,200  of  whom  are  noncitizens,  and  they  must  do  their  work 
after  office  hours  and  work  through  midnight  and  until  the  early 
hours  of  the  morning  and  they  cannot  do  so  unless  the  curfew  require- 
ments are  modified.  Under  the  present  military  order  aliens  are 
required  to  be  off  the  streets  and  public  places  between  9  p.  m.  and 
6  a.  m. 

I  have  turned  over  to  Dr.  Lamb  the  scavengers'  and  janitors' 
problems  and  the  problems  of  those  who  bring  vegetables  and  produce 
to  our  markets.  The  original  letter  containing  these  facts  and  signed 
by  their  authenticated  representatives  have  been  delivered  to  Dr. 
Lamb.  In  appearing  before  your  committee  I  want  to  furnish  you 
with  authentic  information  and  not  my  personal  views  and  con- 
jectures for  I  know  as  legislators  you  want  facts  and  not  fiction. 


A  case  typical  of  many  that  I  could  present  is  that  of  a  family 
present  in  this  court  today.  The  mother  of  this  family  is  married  to 
an  American  citizen  but  upon  attempting  to  prove  it  she  was  unable 
to  do  so.  This  family  has  two  children  and  they  must  vacate  under 
the  existing  military  order  of  evacuation  and  they  do  not  know  where 
to  go.  The  two  children,  who  are  9  and  11  years  of  age,  were  born 
here  and  are  attending  school.  The  parents  merely  ask  that  the 
order  of  evacuation  be  stayed  until  the  school  term  ends  around 
May  or  June  of  this  year.  The  loyalty  of  the  mother  can  be  vouched 
for  by  her  neighbors  and  if  a  bond  were  necessary  her  friends  would 
put  up  any  reasonable  bond  so  as  to  assure  anyone  of  her  loyalty. 
May  I  state,  Congressman  Tolan,  that  this  family  lives  in  your  district. 

Another  case  that  has  been  brought  to  my  attention,  typical  of 
many  others,  is  that  of  a  widow  with  eight  children,  who  was  born  in 
the  United  States  and  who  resides  in  Salinas,  Calif.  With  her  eight 
children  she  resides  on  a  dairy  farm,  a  half  interest  in  which  was  left 
to  her  by  her  deceased  husband.  This  widow  was  born  in  the  United 
States  but  lost  her  citizenship  by  reason  of  the  fact  that  she  married 
a  noncitizen  prior  to  1922.  As  you  are  undoubtedly  aware,  anyone 
who  married  an  alien  prior  to  1922  lost  her  citizenship  even  though 
born  here.  This  widow  has  never  been  out  of  the  United  States  and 
her  only  means  of  livelihood  is  the  dairy  farm  of  which  she  owns  a 
half  interest  and  the  other  half  is  owned  by  her  brother-in-law,  who 
must  vacate  because  he  is  an  alien.  I  am  sure  you  can  readily  appre- 
ciate that  it  would  be  a  tremendous  hardship  to  ask  this  woman  and  her 
children  to  remove  from  the  dairy  farm,  which  is  in  a  prohibited  area. 
The  attorney  who  represents  this  woman  informs  me  that  he  has 
applied  for  her  repatriation.     But  I  feel  that  unless  more  help  is 


given  to  the  local  naturalization  office  the  tempo  of  their  work  cannot 
be  stepped  up.  I  do  not  want  to  be  understood  as  criticizing  the 
immigration  and  naturalization  bureau,  or  the  United  States  district 
attorney's  office,  or  the  office  headed  by  Mr.  Clark,  who  represents 
United  States  Attorney  General  Biddle  in  alien  problems,  because  all 
of  them  have  been  most  cooperative,  but  as  they  are  flooded  with  an 
unusual  amount  of  work  they  are  unable  to  handle  it  because  they 
are  understaffed.  The  naturalization  bureau  in  this  district  is  some- 
thing like  a  year  behind  in  its  work. 


The  Chairman.  Eighteen  months,  I  believe. 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  As  I  said  heretofore  our  committee  wants  to 
cooperate  with  any  agency  in  determining  those  who  are  loyal  and 
those  who  are  disloyal,  whether  they  be  citizens  or  noncitizens. 
Another  hardship  case  that  I  have  in  mind  is  that  of  the  father  of  a 
San  Francisco  born  boy  who  is  very  prominent  and  who  is  now  in 
the  Navy  and  is  one  of  Commander  Tunney's  righthand  men.  His 
father  has  been  a  member  of  the  carpenters'  union  for  twenty-odd 
years  and  his  family  consists  of  his  wife  and  eight  children  all  of 
whom  were  born  in  the  United  States.  The  father  is  unable  to 
become  a  citizen  because  he  cannot  read  or  write  the  English  language. 
I  am  of  the  opinion  that  the  naturalization  laws  should  be  amended 
so  that  the  determining  factor  in  granting  citizenship  should  be  the 
moral  character  of  the  applicant  rather  than  the  ability  to  read  and 
write.  I  think  some  modification  or  recommendation  should  be 
made  and  that  in  determining  one's  qualifications  for  citizenship 
the  test  should  be,  Is  the  applicant  a  person  of  good  moral  character? 

Another  case  is  that  of  a  married  man  whose  wife  was  born  here. 
They  have  five  children  who  also  were  born  here.  The  wife  lost  her 
citizenship  by  reason  of  her  marriage  to  this  man  prior  to  1922.  The 
husband  thereafter  acquired  his  citizenship,  but  this  fact  did  not 
automatically  restore  his  wife  to  citizenship.  This  situation  becomes 
merely  a  question  of  repatriation  which  she  has  applied  for,  but  she 
will  not  be  restored  to  citizenship  for  many  months  to  come  because 
of  the  congested  condition  of  the  naturalization  office  in  this  district, 
and  the  Government  in  tins  emergency  should  resort  to  using  auxiliary- 
help  which  is  available  here  in  California.  I  do  not  believe  the  tax- 
payers should  be  burdened  any  more  than  they  are  at  the  present  time 
and  the  way  to  obviate  any  further  load  being  placed  on  the  taxpayers 
is  for  the  Government  to  avail  itself  of  the  services  of  patriotic  in- 
dividuals and  groups  who  are  willing  to  aid  Government  agencies 

Under  the  direction  of  Hon.  C.  J.  Goodell,  judge  of  the  superior 
court,  local  members  of  the  bar  association  selected  in  excess  of  22,000 
air-raid  wardens  here  in  San  Francisco  who  are  to  perform  their  work 
at  no  expense  to  the  taxpayers;  likewise  auxiliary  police  and  firemen 
were  selected,  none  of  whom  are  to  be  paid,  who  are  rendering  their 
services  for  patriotic  reasons.  There  should  be  established  a  com- 
mittee or  committees  for  determining  the  loyalty  of  the  people  who 
are  affected  by  the  existing  military  order  of  evacuation. 


The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Our  executive  committee  comprises  15  members 
and  we  can  increase  this  number  if  the  military  authorities  or  the 
Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  or  any  other  Government  agency 
should  ask  that  it  be  done,  and  we  would  be  willing  to  function  as  a 
committee  to  determine  the  loyalty  of  the  Deople  affected  by  the 
existing  order  of  evacuation.  We  are  mindful  of  the  fact  that  we  are 
not  fighting  to  preserve  property  rights  but  that  we  are  fighting  for 
our  lives  and  to  preserve  our  liberty. 


The  Chairman.  Tell  us  about  the  DiMaggios.  Tell  us  about 
DiMaggio's  father. 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Neither  of  the  DiMaggio  seniors  is  a  citizen. 
They  have  reared  nine  children,  five  boys  and  four  girls,  eight  of  whom 
were  born  in  the  United  States  and  the  other  one  is  a  naturalized  citi- 
zen. Three  of  the  boys  are  outstanding  persons  in  the  sports  world. 
Joe,  who  is  with  the  Yanks,  was  leading  hitter  for  both  the  American 
and  National  Leagues  during  the  years  1939  and  1940.  His  younger 
brother  Dominic  is  with  the  Boston  Red  Sox  and  his  other  brother, 
Vincent,  is  with  the  Pittsburgh  team  of  the  National  League.  All 
three  are  so  outstanding  in  their  profession  that  their  record  is  well 
known  to  every  sports  follower.  With  the  DiMaggio  children  and 
grandchildren  they  are  a  sizable  number  and  if  you  could  have 
attended,  as  I  did,  the  wedding  of  Joe  DiMaggio  here  a  few  years  ago, 
you  would  have  some  realization  of  the  size  of  the  DiMaggio  clan. 
The  senior  DiMaggios,  though  noncitizens,  are  as  loyal  as  anyone 
could  be. 

The  Chairman.  What  is  the  older  DiMaggio's  occupation? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  DiMaggio,  Sr.,  is  a  fisherman  and  his  two  older 
boys,  Tom  and  Michael,  are  also  fishermen.  Joe  and  his  brother 
Dominic  and  the  oldest  boy  of  the  family,  Tom,  own  and  operate  a 
splendid  restaurant  among  the  many  located  in  the  North  Beach 
section  of  our  city.  To  evacuate  the  senior  DiMaggios  would,  in 
view  of  the  splendid  family  they  have  reared  and  their  unquestioned 
loyalty,  present,  I  am  sure  you  will  agree  with  me,  a  serious  situation. 
Many  of  the  people  affected  by  the  existing  order  have  boys  and  girls 
in  the  armed  forces  or  some  branch  of  the  Government  doing  defense 
work.  I  believe  that  it  would  be  destructive  and  have  a  tendency  to 
lower  morale,  which  all  of  us  are  interested  in  building  up,  if  infor- 
mation should  reach  those  in  the  armed  forces  that  their  relatives 
have  been  ordered  to  move  out  of  this  area  because  unfortunately 
they  are  not  citizens.  As  I  have  stated,  all  of  us  are  interested  in 
building  up  morale  which  is  indispensable  in  our  winning  this  war 
and  preserving  our  liberty. 

most  of  us  are  descendants  of  aliens 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  this  war  is  going  to  be  over  some 
day  and  we  still  have  got  to  deal  with  different  races.     Is  that  true? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Ours  is  a  cosmopolitan  nation  and  as  to  many 
of  us  it  would  not  be  necessary  to  go  back  farther  than  one  generation 
to  establish  the  fact  that  we  are  descendants  of  aliens.  As  I  stated 
heretofore  we  should  evolve  some  plan  whereby  we  could  determine 
the  loyalty  of  the  people  under  consideration  by  your  legislative  com- 


mittee.  I  am  positive  that  none  of  the  members  of  our  committee 
nor  the  people  whose  cause  we  are  pleading  are  in  sympathy  with 
Italy's  entry  into  this  war.  Mussolini's  following,  if  it  exists,  is  at 
best  negligible,  and  his  followers  in  this  area  can  be  numbered  on  one's 
hand  cutting  off  four  fingers.  This  is  a  crude  way  of  expressing  it 
but  what  I  am  trying  to  convey  to  you  is  this:  How  could  there  pos- 
sibly be  any  sympathy  for  Mussolini  who  plunged  his  country  into 
war  and  hasn't  the  faintest  idea  why  he  is  in  it  and  by  his  stupid  act 
has  used  and  is  using  millions  of  boys  and  girls  as  cannon  fodder? 
There  is  no  possible  way  that  this  war  can  end  by  which  Italy  will 
come  out  successfully.  So  if  there  is  any  doubt  in  the  minds  of  your 
legislative  committee  or  anyone  else  as  to  any  person  of  Italian  descent 
having  any  sympathy  for  Mussolini's  cause,  I  want  to  add  that  we 
would  like  to  know  them  as  we  are  convinced  that  we  could  handle 
their  cases  very  effectively  ourselves.  Obviously,  it  would  be  to  our 
interest  to  do  so. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Of  course,  you  recognize  the  fact  that  there  are 
some  areas  from  which  everybody  must  be  evacuated? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Yes.  That  would  apply  to  citizens  and  non- 
citizens  as  well. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Citizens  and  noncitizens  alike,  yes.  What  would 
be  your  recommendation  as  to  the  method  of  taking  care  of  these  hard- 
ship cases?  Would  it  be  some  kind  of  a  permit  to  remain  or  move 
back  in? 


Mr.  Tramutolo.  Yes.  Let  me  explain  what  we  have  in  mind,  Mr. 
Sparkman.  Suppose  you  were  the  one  in  authority  in  this  area  and 
you  said,  "All  right,  Mr.  Tramutolo,  I  will  give  your  committee  a  list  of 
aliens  in  the  San  Francisco  area  to  vouch  for."  In  that  event  we  would 
bend  backward  in  our  care  in  making  our  investigation  of  such  people, 
for  the  instant  you  distrusted  any  of  our  recommendations,  we  would 
be  hurting  the  people  whom  we  were  endeavoring  to  help.  This  work 
would  not  be  undertaken  for  pay  from  the  city,  State,  or  Federal 
Government,  but  we  would  do  this  work  in  the  knowledge  that  we 
were  not  only  undertaking  a  worthy  cause  but  that  we  would  also  be 
rendering  a  patriotic  service  to  our  country.  We  would  undertake  to 
give  you  every  possible  assurance  as  to  the  loyalty  of  the  individual 

We  have  in  San  Francisco,  and  I  assume  this  is  true  elsewhere, 
many  cases  where  the  husband  is  a  citizen  but  the  wife  is  not,  and 
vice  versa,  and  many  of  these  people  have  children  who  were  born 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  would  not  develop  a  system  whereby  there 
would  be  any  group  permits? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  No. 

Mr  Sparkman    You  would  let  each  case  stand  upon  its  merits? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Each  case  should  be  thoroughly  investigated,  for 
we  would  realize  that  if  the  investigation  were  slipshod  it  would  hurt 
the  people  whom  we  were  trying  to  help  and  certainly  would  hurt  our 
country  with  whose  safety  we  are  all  concerned. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  you  would  not  advocate,  I  am  sure,  taking 
the  final  decision  away  from  the  one  who  is  responsible  for  the  defense 
of  this  area? 


Mr.  Tramutolo.  Not  at  all.  There  should  be  no  difference  as  to 
where  responsibility  should  lie.  It  should  lie  with  those  in  charge  of 
our  defense.  And  if  in  the  wisdom  of  General  DeWitt,  who  is  in  charge 
on  the  west  coast,  after  submitting  to  him  the  problem  of  the  individual 
involved,  he  should  say,  "Well,  I  am  sorry,  but  the  individual  has  to 
be  evacuated,"  that  should  be  final,  as  authority  should  rest  with  the 
one  in  charge  of  the  defense  of  this  State. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Have  you  made  any  effort  to  contact  General 
DeWitt  or  anyone  under  him  with  reference  to  some  such  plan? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Well,  we  have  gone  so  far  as  to  have  had  a  meeting 
with  State  Attorney  General  Earl  Warren,  who  in  turn  suggested  that 
we  should  contact  General  DeWitt  with  respect  to  the  problems  we 
explained  to  him  (State  Attorney  General  Earl  Warren).  I  am  sure 
you  will  agree  that  General  DeWitt  is  tremendously  overworked  and 
nothing  would  please  us  more  than,  at  his  convenience,  to  sit  down 
and  give  him  our  views  in  line  with  what  I  have  explained  here  today. 
If  I  recall  correctly,  England  went  through  the  very  same  thing 
that  we  are  going  through  now  and  England  determined,  so  far  as 
aliens  in  her  country  were  concerned,  that  they  would  have  to  prove 
their  loyalty  before  any  consideration  would  be  given  them  and,  mind 
you,  they  required  Americans  to  do  the  very  same  thing  as  they  were 
classed  as  aliens.  I  do  not  believe  it  should  be  done  on  a  group  basis. 
I  believe  each  case  should  be  presented  individually.  Further,  some 
machinery  should  be  set  up  so  as  not  to  put  additional  burden  upon 
the  Army  authorities  or  Government  bureaus,  and  it  is  in  this  respect 
that  we  recommend  that  auxiliary  help  be  resorted  to  from  groups  that 
can  be  trusted  to  do  this  work  of  investigating.  There  are  in  this 
area  many  loyal  persons  who  are  awaiting  their  citizenship  but  whose 
cases  cannot  be  acted  upon  because  the  naturalization  office  is  already 
overburdened  with  work  and  in  my  opinion  is  understaffed.  This 
situation  could  be  relieved  if  the  Government  were  to  accept  auxiliary 
help  along  the  lines  that  I  have  indicated  heretofore  such  as  was  used 
in  selecting  air  raid  wardens  and  auxiliary  police  and  firemen. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  In  the  event  it  should  be  necessary  to  evacuate 
large  numbers  of  Italian  aliens  from  this  area  what  proposal  would  you 
offer  with  reference  to  the  handling  of  the  evacuation  and  also  with 
reference  to  employing  those  people  after  they  have  been  evacuated? 


Mr.  Tramutolo.  I  have  not  given  thought  to  the  question  that  you 
have  asked  me  nor  do  I  at  present  have  a  solution  for  it.  However,  if 
an  order  should  be  issued  requiring  Italian  aliens  to  remove  from  the 
Coast  inland,  say  twenty-five,  fifty  or  more  miles,  we  would  endeavor 
to  ascertain  what  counties  would  receive  them  and  I  feel  that  the 
counties  would  welcome  them  for  they  would  be  of  a  desirable  type. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  believe  that  is  all,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Chauncey,  I  think  you  have  a  pretty  good  idea 
there.  In  other  words,  you  are  not  quarreling  with  the  jurisdiction 
of  General  DeWitt? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Not  at  all. 

The  Chairman.  Or  the  Army  and  the  Navy.  But  you  want  to  be 
helpful.  Now,  the  evacuation  goes  into  effect  tonight;  of  course  we 
can't  do  anything  about  that.  But  there  will  be  other  evacuations 
ordered  under  the  Executive  order  of  the  President.    That  is  what  we 


are  concerned  about.  That  order  provides,  of  course,  that  all  citizens 
can  be  evacuated. 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  That  is  true. 

The  Chairman.  If  I  get  your  testimony  clear,  you  feel  this:  That 
the  law  enforcement  officers  of  the  State  of  California  as  well  as  com- 
mittees such  as  you  describe  can  be  helpful  to  General  DeWitt  in  the 
reduction  of  hardship  cases? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  That's  correct. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  I  think  that  Attorney  General  Warren 
should  see  General  DeWitt.  We  saw  him  Saturday  afternoon. 
You  feel,  Chauncey,  that  you  could  take  the  block  where  you  live, 
for  instance,  and  you  could  discover  and  report  to  General  DeWitt  or 
the  F.  B.  I.  any  disloyal  person  in  that  block  pretty  accurately,  could 
you  not? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Without  any  doubt. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  you  have  got  something  there.  We  will 
contact  h'im  again  before  we  leave  and  tell  him  what  you  say  and 
what  the  other  witnesses  have  said  here.  I  want  to  repeat  again  that 
the  war  is  going  to  be  over  sometime.  We  hope  it  will  be  very  soon. 
And  we  will  still  have  to  live  with  our  people.     Is  that  true? 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Tramutolo,  the  papers  you  submitted  citing 
two  hardship  cases  will  be  made  a  part  of  the  record. 

(The  papers  referred  to  above  are  as  follows:) 

Two  Samples  of  Hardship  Resulting  from  Evacuation 


Born  at  San  Ardo,  Calif.,  February  22,  1898.     Resides  in  Salinas,  Calif. 

Married  Battista  Vezzolo,  a  native  of  Italy,  on  January  3,  1917,  at  Gonzales, 
Calif.     Battista  Vezzolo  died  in  this  country  January  27,  1941. 

By  reason  of  her  marriage  to  an  alien,  Mrs.  Vezzolo  lost  her  citizenship.  A  peti- 
tion for  her  repatriation  is  now  pending. 

She  has  eight  children;  the  oldest  is  25  years  old  and  the  youngest  5  years  old. 
All  were  born  in  this  country. 

She  owns  a  one-half  interest  in  dairy  property  which  is  in  prohibited  area. 
The  other  half  interest  is  owned  by  her  brother-in-law  who  is  an  alien.  Mrs. 
Vezzolo  and  her  children  and  also  her  brother-in-law  will  have  to  move  out  of  the 
prohibited  area. 


Mr.  Restani  has  been  in  the  United  States  since  1901.  He  married  Mrs. 
Restani,  who  was  an  American  citizen,  prior  to  1922  and  by  reason  of  her  marriage 
Mrs.  Restani  lost  her  citizenship  and  there  is  now  pending  a  petition  for  her 

They  have  five  children,  all  born  here. 

Inasmuch  as  they  are  in  prohibited  area  they  will  have  to  move  out  of  San 
Francisco  as  soon  as  the  military  authorities  put  into  effect  the  present  order  that 
all  aliens  of  enemy  countries  must  move  out  of  area  No.  1  in  which  San  Francisco 
and  Alameda  Counties  are  included. 

Chauncey  Tramutolo,  Attorney  at  Law, 

San  Francisco,  March  18,  194.2. 
Mr.  Leonard  A.  Thomas, 

Tolan  Congressional  Committee,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Dear  Len:  Following  our  conversation  of  yesterday  and  our  previous  ones, 
I  suggest  that  pending  appropriate  amendments  to  the  naturalization  laws  the 

60396—42 — pt.  29 12 


following  classes  of  persons  should  be  exempt  from  the  existing  military  evacua- 
tion orders: 

(1)  Persons  who  have  lost  their  citizenship  (expatriated)  by  reason  of  marriage 
to  aliens.  This,  of  course,  applies  only  to  those  who  married  aliens  prior  to  the 
passage  of  the  Cable  Act  in  September  1922. 

(2)  Persons  whose  applications  for  citizenship  were  filed  and/or  pending  prior 
to  December  7,  1941. 

(3)  Persons  who  are  married  to  citizens  and  have  lived  in  the  United  States 
since  July  1,  1924,  and  whose  moral  character  can  be  proven. 

(4)  Persons  who  are  now  eligible  to  file  for  their  second  papers. 

(5)  Persons,  though  unable  to  read  or  write  the  English  language,  who  have 
dependents  (residing  in  the  United  States)  and  who  have  themselves  resided  in 
the  United  States  since  July  1,  1924. 

The  Dickstein  bill  which  I  understand  has  passed  the  House  and  is  now  pending 
before  the  Senate  is  a  step  in  the  right  direction,  but  in  my  humble  opinion  does 
not  go  far  enough. 

If  the  naturalization  director  of  this  district  is  in  need  of  additional  help  to 
hasten  action  on  the  foregoing  enumerated  classes  of  cases,  the  committee  of 
which  I  am  chairman  will  gladly  furnish  competent  help  without  expense  to  the 

Please  don't  forget  to  let  me  hear  from  you  before  you  return  to  Washington. 

I  trust  that  the  foregoing  few  suggestions  will  be  of  some  help  to  you  in  work- 
ing out  the  program  you  contemplate  with  the  military  authorities  and  the 
naturalization  bureau. 

With  kindest  regards,  I  remain, 
Sincerely  yours, 

Chauncey  Tramutolo. 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  Mr.  Rispoli  of  the  Italian  welfare  would  like 
to  say  a  few  words. 


Mr.  Rispoli.  I  just  want  to  say  a  few  words.  In  the  first  place, 
there  are  naturally  quite  a  few  social  problems  that  will  arise.  All 
the  people  come  to  our  agency,  we  being  the  recognized  agency. 
Mr.  Tramutolo  has  covered  most  of  the  hardship  cases,  so  I  would 
just  like  to  draw  my  conclusions. 

I  recommend  that  the  Government,  needing  employable  persons  in 
defense  industries,  consider  the  employable  Italian  aliens  for  work  in 
any  industry,  providing  that  complete  allegiance  to  the  war  effort  can 
be  properly  established. 

Secondly,  that  legislation  be  passed  by  Congress  permitting  Italian 
alien  residents,  of  good  moral  character,  who  have  resided  in  America 
continuously  since  July  1,  1924,  to  obtain  citizenship,  although 

Thirdly,  in  the  event  that  an  evacuation  is  necessary,  Federal  funds 
be  provided  for  relief  to  prevent  hardship  to  cases  of  needy  individuals 
because  of  State  and  county  indigent  and  settlement  laws  and  the 
inability  of  these  Government  units  to  provide  adequate  funds  im- 

Fourth,  for  the  unity  in  this  country  the  Government  should  aug- 
ment the  publicity  program,  which  will  strengthen  the  morale  of 
these  evacuees. 

I  can  say  that  the  people  are  a  little  nervous,  due  to  all  these  regu- 
lations coming  through  at  this  time.  However,  I  am  sure  that  they 
are  all  willing  to  cooperate,  but  we  would  like  to  know  if  this  is  the 


end,  and  if  not,  what  is  eventually  coming,  so  we  can  advise  them. 
As  the  previous  group  has  said,  local  representatives  and  the  heads 
of  the  Federal  agencies  are  more  or  less  at  a  loss  to  advise  them,  as 
all  the  regulations  come  direct  from  Washington.  If  we  could  explain 
these  regulations  to  them  it  would  probably  stop  a  lot  of  people  going 
to  the  Government  agencies.  We  are  always  glad  to  be  of  service  to 
the  community  chest  agencies.  Some  members  of  the  community- 
chest  agencies  are  here  and  they  can  testify,  if  you  wish. 

We  are  interested  in  people.  We  are  also  interested  in  the  fact 
that  we  are  at  war. 

The  Chairman.  Of  course,  I  think  we  all  appreciate  the  fact  that 
this  crisis  came  on  us  all  at  once.  I  know  that  everything  that  is  said 
here  is  not  in  criticism  of  the  Government  or  any  of  its  agencies. 
We  are  simply  here  to  get  the  facts  and  to  pass  them  on  to  Congress 
so  that  we  can  be  helpful. 

Mr.  Tramutolo.  No  criticism  at  all  is  intended.  Any  suggestions 
are  with  a  view  to  alleviating  the  conditions.  We  have  nothing  but 
praise  for  those  who  have  contacted  us  as  well  as  your  committee. 

Mr.  Rispoli.  The  Post  Office  Department  was  very  good  to  those 
who  applied  for  certificates  of  registration.  The  people  felt  right  at 
home  and  they  did  an  extra  fine  job. 

(The  following  reports  were  submitted  by  Mr.  Rispoli  subsequent 
to  the  hearings.) 

Summary  of  Problems  Affecting  the  Italian  Community  of  San  Francisco 

(Report  by  Milano  Rispoli,  Executive  Secretary,  Italian  Welfare  Agency,  and 
Member  Agency  Community  Chest  of  San  Francisco,  San  Francisco,  Calif.) 

I  shall  present  the  problems  which  have  arisen  since  December  the  7th  in  the 
Italian  colony  of  San  Francisco,  and  which  affect  the  Italian  aliens  of  this  group. 

The  most  important  and  immediate  problem  is  that  of  unemployment.  The 
first  factor  is  the  complete  loss  of  employment  to  Italian  alien  fishermen  for  the 
duration  of  the  war.  The  second  factor  is  the  loss  of  employment  for  all  Italian 
aliens  working  in  prohibited  areas.  This  group  includes  men  who  have  been 
working  in  certain  shipyards,  fisherman's  wharf  concerns,  and  other  business 
establishments  located  in  these  zones. 

The  third  factor  is  that  the  curfew  law  in  restricted  areas,  affects  several 
hundred  Italians  employed  as  scavengers  or  garbage  collectors,  janitors,  restaurant 
and  hotel  employees,  produce  market  employees;  who  must  work  late  at  night 
and  early  in  the  morning. 

The  fourth  factor  is  that  the  fishermen  are  not  entitled  to  unemployment  in- 
surance benefits,  since  they  have  worked  independently  from  organized  industry. 
While  some  of  these  can  be  supported  by  children  of  working  age,  most  are  in 
bad  financial  straits  due  to  their  lack  of  resources,  as  well  as  their  inability  to 
secure  future  employment.  This  particular  situation  causes  many  to  apply  for 
public  relief,  which  is  inadequate  today  in  view  of  the  rise  in  the  cost  of  living. 

The  second  major  problem  which  has  arisen  since  December  the  7th  is  the  one 
of  morale  at  home.  Characteristically,  the  Italian  is  a  home-loving  man.  His 
wife  and  his  children  come  first  in  his  mind  and  emotions.  He  is  also  a  highly 
emotional  individual  by  nature.  We  constantly  find  in  our  welfare  work  much 
fear  in  our  people  that  families  will  be  broken  up  through  new  regulations.  One 
example  is  Mrs.  Crivello  who  fears  that  she  will  be  separated  from  her  children 
and  grandchildren. 

Another  factor  in  the  field  of  morale,  is  the  psychological  effect  upon  the  second- 
generation  Italians  who  are  serving  in  the  armed  forces  of  the  United  States 
when  these  young  men  know  there  is  great  trouble  going  on  in  their  own  homes. 
An  example  of  this  is  the  Maniscalco  case. 

The  third  morale  factor  is  that  of  tremendous  fear  among  the  Italian  aliens  of 
more  drastic  action  on  the  part  of  the  United  States  Government.     They  fear 


the  loss  of  personal  property  and  that  they  will  be  forced  to  enter  internment 
camps,  although  they  are  100  percent  American  in  feeling  and  in  action.  One 
result  of  these  pressing  fears  are  the  three  suicides  of  last  week :  Martino  Battis- 
tessa,  Stefano  Terranova,  and  one  other. 

My  recommendations  to  alleviate  the  present  situation  are  as  follows: 
I  recommend  that  all  employable  Italian  aliens  be  considered  by  the  Govern- 
ment for  employment  in  any  industry,  providing  that  complete  allegiance  to  the 
war  effort  can  be  properly  established.  Second,  that  legislation  be  passed  by 
Congress  permitting  Italian  alien  residents  of  good  moral  character,  who  have 
resided  in  America  continuously  since  July  1,  1924,  to  obtain  citizenship  although 
illiterate.  Third,  that  in  the  event  that  mass  evacuation  is  necessary,  Federal 
funds  be  provided  for  relief  to  prevent  hardships  to  cases  of  needy  individuals 
because  of  the  State  and  county  indigent  and  settlement  laws,  and  the  inability 
of  these  government  units  to  provide  adequate  funds  immediately.  Fourth, 
that  for  the  unity  in  this  country,  the  Government  augment  the  publicity  program 
which  will  strengthen  morale  of  all  peoples,  regardless  of  their  nationality  to  unite 
for  victory  for  America. 

In  behalf  of  the  Italian  community,  I  wish  to  commend  officials  of  Federal 
agencies,  such  as  those  of  the  Department  of  Justice,  the  United  States  Attorney 
General's  office,  the  United  States  Post  Office  and  others,  for  their  very  fine 
treatment  of  our  people  in  enforcing  the  enemy  alien  regulations. 

Italian  Welfare  Agency, 
Milano  Rispoli,  Executive  Secretary, 


California 51,  000 

San  Francisco  (city  and  county) 12,  000 

Monterey  (city  and  county) l't  700 

Alameda  (not  including  Oakland) 4,  500 

Oakland 2,  800 

Contra  Costa  County l[  739 

San  Mateo  County 2,  400 

Marin  County 650 

Total. 25,789 

1940  United  States  Census 

Italians  in  California  (born  in  Italy) 100,  910 

Italians  in  San  Francisco  (born  in  Italy) 24,  036 


Cases  of  Giovanni  Peirano  and  Angelo  Romero. — These  are  individuals  who  have 
become  public  charge  and  responsibilities  of  Santa  Cruz  and  Santa  Clara  Counties, 
respectively.  Both  are  over  60  years  of  age  and  in  poor  health,  and  permanently 
unemployable.  They  have  no  resources  whatsoever  nor  relatives  who  could  assist, 
necessitating  their  applying  for  public  aid  through  the  public  welfare  department. 
However,  during  normal  times  they  would  have  been  advised  to  return  to  their 
county  of  legal  residence  where  we  would  be  sure  that  care  could  be  provided. 
Since  there  have  been  many  changes  we  do  not  know  how  to  advise  these  cases 
nor  would  we  ask  them  to  secure  permission  to  travel  until  definite  plans  can  be 
worked  out.    Both  cases  will  be  permanent  charges  for  the  remainder  of  their  lives. 

Case  of  Rodolph  Monciardini. — This  is  a  single  man  about  43  years  of  age, 
employed  by  Ghirardelli  Chocolate  for  the  past  20  years.  He  was  required  to  give 
up  his  job  and  home  because  both  were  located  in  a  prohibited  area. 

He  speaks  no  English  at  all  and  although  entitled  to  unemployment  benefits 
will  have  difficulty  in  reestablishing  himself  in  another  industry  since  he  is  not 
known  in  other  sectors  of  the  State  where  he  may  be  required  to  move. 

I  am  sure  this  type  case  should  be  given  a  license,  his  loyalty  to  the  United 
States  be  determined  as  well  as  provide  necessary  bond  from  his  employer  or 
other  reliable  person. 

Case  of  Vittoria  Santo,  Castroville,  Calif. — An  alien  mother  whose  husband  is  a 
citizen.  She  has  three  sons  in  the  United  States  Army  in  the  Philippines,  while 
another  son  is  with  the  Navy  in  this  country.      I  do  not  have  the  exact  details  of 


this  case  but  these  are  the  approximate  facts  and  I  am  sure  her  history  can  be 
obtained  if  it  is  required. 

Case  of  Ermete  Vanni. — This  case  is  typical  of  family  alien,  without  funds, 
because  of  the  internment  of  Mr.  Vanni  who  was  the  sole  support  of  wife  and  two 
children.  Mrs.  Vanni  is  about  35  years  of  age,  in  very  poor  health,  has  been 
hospitalized  twice  in  the  last  3  years  and  is  unable  to  find  employment.  It  is 
necessary  that  she  remain  at  home  to  take  care  of  the  children ;  one  of  whom  has 
been  confined  to  bed  for  heart  trouble  for  over  3  years.  Mr.  Vanni  was  interned 
as  he  was  a  member  of  toe  Italian  War  Veterans,  which  organization  is  known  as 
"Ex  Combattenti." 

Mrs.  Vanni  applied  for  public  assistance,  but  there  has  been  much  delay  in  her 
case  since  the  public  assistance  agency  was  of  the  opinion  that  this  case  should 
have  received  Federal  aid  through  the  United  States  Employment  Office,  which, 
of  course,  was  incorrect.  Nevertheless,  this  family  had  been  accustomed  to  a 
higher  standard  and  if  it  will  receive  public  aid  it  will  be  far  below  its  standard  of 
living.  If  more  would  be  known  regarding  disposition  of  Mr.  Vanni's  case  by  the 
Federal  authorities,  plan  could  be  made  for  the  care  of  family. 

There  are  many  Italian  families  affected  by  the  internment  of  the  wage  earner 
and  we  believe  that  in  cases  requiring  assistance  consideration  should  be  given  for 
possible  Federal  aid. 


I  was  born  in  Venice,  Italy,  in  1888,  of  Jewish  parentage.  I  went  through 
college  and  the  naval  academy,  and  in  1908  I  was  given  a  commission  in  the 
Italian  Navy.  During  the  last  World  War,  as  a  lieutenant,  I  was  in  command  of 
submarines  and  also  a  liaison  "officer  to  the  British  Adriatic  Squadron  (awarded 
the  British  Distinguished  Service  Cross).  In  1921-22  I  was  in  command  of  a 
gunboat  on  the  China  station.  Subsequently,  I  resigned  from  the  active  service; 
I  married  and  worked  in  Italy  and  elsewhere  in  Europe  and  Africa  for  industrial 

In  1931  I  left  Italy  for  the  last  time,  having  been  appointed  to  Shanghai, 
China,  as  the  general  agent  for  China  of  the  Italian  Shipbuilding  Corporations, 
Ansaldo,  Genoa,  and  Cantieri  Riuniti,  Triest,  accredited  to  the  Government  of 
Chiang  [Kai-shek.  In  this  capacity  I  have  had  several  negotiations  with  the 
minister  of  the  navy,  Admiral  Chen  Shao-Kuan  and  the  minister  of  finance, 
Dr.  H.  H.  Rung. 

In  1936  I  became  the  secretary  of  the  municipality  of  the  Italian  concession, 
Tientsin,  China,  a  nonpolitical  situation  with  administrative  responsibilities. 

In  1938,  when  the  German-Italian  collusion  began  and  when  the  Nazis  con- 
fiscated in  Vienna  an  inheritance  of  mine  from  a  relative  on  my  mother's  side,  I 
planned  to  come  to  the  States,  an  issue  that  I  considered  natural,  not  having  any 
next  of  kin  alive  in  Europe. 

In  1939  the  Fascists  put  in  effect  their  anti-Semitic  laws.  I  was  struck  from 
my  rank  as  a  commander,  naval  reserve.  I  was  deprived  from  all  my  civil  rights 
and  considered  as  an  enemy  alien.  I  was  subjected  to  strict  police  surveillance 
and  advised  to  carry  on  in  the  capacity  of  a  bookkeeper's  clerk.  My  money  was 
frozen  in  Italy  and  I  had  no  resources  to  pay  the  voyage  for  my  wife,  my  four 
children,  and  myself.  In  my  struggle  to  survive  until  my  5-year  contract  would 
be  over,  I  have  been  valiantly  assisted  by  my  wife,  who  is  by  birth  Italian  and 
Catholic,  and  who  is  also  vehemently  anti-Fascist.  As  she  is  the  only  daughter 
of  a  famous  Italian  admiral  who  had  been  a  minister  of  the  navy  and  who  died  in 
1930,  the  Fascists  felt  themselves  compelled,  although  very  reluctantly,  to  pay 
me  the  money  I  was  entitled  to  on  December  31,  1940. 

Two  months  later,  on  February  27,  1941,  we  arrived  safely  in  San  Francisco. 
The  Permanent  Immigration  Visas  (N.  5492-7)  had  been  secured  through  the 
American  consulate  general,  Tientsin,  China,  whose  officials  were  well  acquainted 
with  the  indignities  to  which  I  had  been  subjected,  and  with  the  persecution  that 
had  reached  a  dangerous  climax. 

Here  I  tried  at  once  to  find  employment  in  a  suitable  capacity  in  the  shipyards; 
I  have  visited  Bethlehem's,  Moore's,  Todd's,  and  so  forth,  but  already  in  the 
spring  last  year  there  were  no  defense  jobs  for  aliens. 

Then  I  have  worked  during  4  months  as  a  janitor  in  32°  chambers  in  a  cold- 
storage  plant.  At  last,  in  November,  the  Pacific  Bridge  Co.,  Alameda,  intended 
to  hire  me,  provided  I  had  a  clearance  from  the  Navy  Department.  Congressman 
Richard  J.  Welch  and  Dr.  Max  Ascoli,  the  president  of  the  anti-Fascist  Mazzini 
Society,  have  sponsored  my  request  in  Washington,  D.  C,  but  with  no  results  for 


the  time  being.  In  the  afternoon  of  December  7,  1941,  I  have  immediately 
volunteered  for  the  naval  reserve,  the  polite  answer  being  in  the  negative  on 
account  of  age  and  citizenship  requirements. 

I  resent  to  be  labeled  as  an  enemy  aline.  I  am  here  not  only  as  a  loyal  future 
citizen,  but  as  an  allied  alien  in  time  of  war.  I  have  exhausted  all  my  resources 
and,  under  the  present  circumstances,  I  am  unable  to  make  a  living  for  my 
family.  My  four  children,  ages  from  6  to  15,  all  speak  English  as  their  own 
language  and  are  doing  well  at  school.  During  their  stay  in  China,  and  two  were 
born  there,  they  have  learned  to  hate  the  Japs  and  to  love  America. 


Representatives  of  immigrant  serving  agencies  of  the  San  Francisco  Community 
Chest  met  on  February  27,  1942,  to  discuss  the  alien  situation  and  made  the 
following  recommendations  to  their  respective  national  offices  in  New  York  City : 

1.  The  Federal  Government  to  assume  total  responsibility  for  the  movement  of 
these  groups  under  military  orders  to  evacuate. 

2.  The  Federal  Government  to  designate  areas  to  which  they  may  go  and  in 
which  they  will  be  given  complete  military  protection. 

3.  The  total  cost  of  this  moving  and  resettlement  to  be  borne  by  the  Federal 

4.  Complete  legal  custodianship  of  property  for  aliens  and  citizens  so  evacuated. 

5.  Public  health  protection,  including  medical  care  and  sanitation. 

6.  Families  to  move  and  remain  as  a  unit  except  in  rare  cases  where  certain 
members  must  be  isolated. 

7.  A  rehabilitation  program  to  offer  these  people  opportunity  to  be  self- 

8.  The  Federal  Government  to  continue  financial  responsibility  until  such  a 
rehabilitation  program  may  be  accomplished. 

Copy  of  these  recommendations  has  been  sent  to  the  Honorable  Henry  L.  Stim- 
son,  Secretary  of  War,  Washington,  D.  C,  inasmuch  as  the  War  Department  had 
complete  control  of  the  situation  following  the  President's  proclamation. 

The  recommendations  were  made  by  experienced  social  workers  who  considered 
all  factors  involved. 


From  minutes  of  meeting  of  Committee  of  Immigrant  Serving  Agencies,  Family  Wel- 
fare Council,  Community  Chest  of  San  Francisco,  Friday,  February  SO,  191+2 

Present:  Allen  Blaisdell,  chairman,  International  Institute  Board,  Berkeley; 
Miss  Elizabeth  Baker,  American  Friends  Service  Committee;  Mrs.  Sidney  Kahn, 
National  Council  of  Jewish  Women;  Mrs.  Mary  Kimber,  American  Friends  Serv- 
ice Committee;  Herbert  Picard,  Hebrew  Immigrant  Aid  Society;  Rev.  Rugene 
J.  Shea,  Affiliated  Catholic  Charities;  Miss  Henrietta  Tichner,  National  Council 
of  Jewish  Women;  Sanford  Treguboff,  San  Francisco  Committee  for  Service  to 

Absent:  Frank  deAndreis,  Department  of  Immigration  and  Housing;  Mrs. 
Josephine  Duveneck,  American  Friends  Service  Committee;  Mrs.  Russell  Hast- 
ings, International  Institute  Board;  Mrs.  Marjorie  Leonard,  National  Council 
Committee  for  Foreign  Born;  Miss  Persis  Miller,  American  Committee  to  Save 
Refugees;  Milano  Rispoli,  Italian  Welfare  Agency,  Inc.;  Miss  Emilie  Taylour, 
Travelers  Aid  Society;  Mark  Tomas,  American  Red  Cross;  Miss  Annie  Clo 
Watson,  International  Institute;    Louis  Miniclier,  American  Red  Cross. 

Also  present:  R.  Plank,  International  Institute;  Virginia  Heck,  Young 
Women's  Christian  Association;  Ruth  W.  Kingman,  Berkeley  Community 
Chest;  Wilhelmine  Yoakum,  Oakland  International  Institute;  Lincoln  Kanai, 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association;  Henry  Tanis,  Japanese  American  Citizens 
League;  Curtis  Roberts,  Community  Chest  of  San  Francisco;  Helen  Musser, 
Travelers  Aid  Society;  Miss  Phoebe  Bannister,  Social  Security  Board;  Emma 
Gadbury,  American  Friends,  Service  Committee;  Gorman  Y.  Doubleday, 
Berkeley;  Mary  Coxnard,  Plymouth  Church,  Oakland. 

The  Chairman.  Mike  Masaoka. 



Mr.  Sparkman.  First,  will  you  give  your  name  to  the  reporter? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Just  to  show  you  how  Americanized  we  are,  I  have 
an  English  name  and  Japanese  tag-end  there.  Mike  Masaoka,  I  am 
the  national  secretary  and  field  executive  of  the  Japanese  American 
Citizens  League.  This  gentleman  is  Mr.  Dave  Tatsuno,  president  of 
the  San  Francisco  chapter  of  the  Japanese  American  Citizens  League. 
And  Mr.  Henry  Tani,  the  executive  secretary  of  our  group. 

May  I  make"a  few  statements  before  going  into  the  general  question? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Yes,  go  right  ahead.  'Be  seated,  if  you  wish. 
Your  prepared  statement  and  the  material  you  submitted  will  be 
inserted  in  the  record  at  this  point. 


On  behalf  of  the  20,000  American  citizen  members  of  the  62  chapters  of  the 
Japanese  American  Citizens  League  in  some  300  communities  throughout  the 
United  States,  I  wish  to  thank  the  Tolan  committee  for  the  opportunity  given 
me  to  appear  at  this  hearing.  The  fair  and  impartial  presentation  of  all  aspects 
of  a  problem  is  a  democratic  procedure  which  we  keeply  appreciate.  That  this 
procedure  is  being  followed  in  the  present  matter,  which  is  of  particularly  vital 
significance  to  us,  we  look  upon  as  a  heartening  demonstration  of  the  American 
tradition  of  fair  play. 

We  have  been  invited  by  you  to  make  clear  our  stand  regarding  the  proposed 
evacuation  of  all  Japanese  from  the  West  coast.  When  the  President's  recent 
Executive  order  was  issued,  we  welcomed  it  as  definitely  centralizing  and  coordi- 
nating defense  efforts  relative  to  the  evacuatioi  problem.  Later  interpretations 
of  the  order,  however,  seem  to  indicate  that  it  is  aimed  primarily  at  the  Japanese, 
American  citizens  as  well  as  alien  nationals.  As  your  committee  continues  its 
investigations  in  this  and  subsequent  hearings,  we  hope  and  trust  that  you  will 
recommend  to  the  proper  authorities  that  no  undue  discrimination  be  shown  to 
American  citizens  of  Japanese  descent. 

Our  frank  and  reasoned  opinion  on  the  matter  of  evacuation  revolves  around 
certain  considerations  of  which  we  feel  both  your  committee  and  the  general 
public  should  be  apprised.  With  any  policy  of  evacuation  definitely  arising  from 
reasons  of  military  necessity  and  national  safety,  we  are  in  complete  agreement. 
As  American  citizens,  we  cannot  and  should  not  take  any  other  stand.  But,  also, 
as  American  citizens  believing  in  the  integrity  of  our  citizenship,  we  feel  that  any 
evacuatioi  enforced  on  grounds  violating  that  integrity  shold  be    opposed. 

If,  in  the  judgment  of  military  and  Federal  authorities,  evacuation  of  Japanese 
residents  from  the  West  coast  is  a  primary  step  toward  assuring  the  safety  of  this 
Nation,  we  will  have  no  hesitation  in  complying  with  the  necessities  implicit  in 
that  judgment.  But,  if,  on  the  other  ham  ,  such  evacuation  is  primarily  a 
measure  whose  surface  urgency  cloaks  the  desires  of  political  or  other  pressure 
groups  who  want  us  to  leave  merely  from  motives  of  self-interest,  we  feel  that  we 
have  every  right  to  protest  and  to  demand  equitable  judgment  on  our  merits  as 
American  citizens. 

In  any  case,  we  feel  that  the  whole  problem  of  evacuation,  once  its  necessity  is 
militarily  established,  should  be  met  strictly  according  to  that  need.  Only  these 
areas,  in  which  strategic  and  military  considerations  make  the  removal  of  Japan- 
ese residents  necessary,  should  be  evacuated.  Regarding  policy  and  procedure 
in  such  areas,  we  submit  the  following  recommendations: 

1.  That  the  actual  evacuation  from  designated  areas  be  conducted  by  military 
authorities  in  a  manner  which  is  consistent  with  the  requirements  of  national 
defense,  human  welfare,  and  constructive  community  relations  in  the  future; 

2.  That,  in  view  of  the  alarming  developments  in  Tulare  County  and  other  com- 
munities against  incoming  Japanese  evacuees  all  plans  for  voluntary  evacuations  be 
discouraged ; 


_  3.  That  transportation,  food,  and  shelter  be  provided  for  all  evacuees  from  pro- 
hibited areas,  as  provided  in  the  Presidential  order; 

4.  That  thoroughly  competent,  responsible,  and  bonded  property  custodians  be 
appointed  and  their  services  made  available  immediately  to  all  Japanese  whose 
business  and  property  interests  are  affected  by  orders  and  regulations ; 

5.  That  all  problems  incidental  to  resettlement  be  administered  by  a  special 
board  created  for  this  purpose  under  the  direction  of  the  Federal  Security  Agen- 
cies ; 

6.  That  the  resettlement  of  evacuees  from  prohibited  areas  should  be  within 
the  State  in  which  they  now  reside; 

7.  That  ample  protection  against  mob  violence  be  given  to  the  evacuees  both 
in  transit  and  in  the  new  communities  to  which  they  are  assigned; 

8.  That  effort  be  made  to  provide  suitable  and  productive  work  for  all  evacuees; 

9.  That  resettlement  aims  be  directed  toward  the  restoration,  as  far  as  possible, 
of  normal  community  life  in  the  future  when  we  have  won  the  war; 

10.  That  competent  tribunals  be  created  to  deal  with  the  so-called  hardship 
cases  and  that  flexible  policies  be  applicable  to  such  cases. 

Although  these  suggestions  seem  to  include  only  the  Japanese,  may  I  urge  that 
these  same  recommendations  be  adapted  to  the  needs  of  other  nationals  and 
citizens  who  may  be  similarly  affected. 

I  now  make  an  earnest  plea  that  you  seriously  consider  and  recognize  our  Ameri- 
can citizenship  status  which  we  have  been  taught  to  cherish  as  our  most  priceless 

At  this  hearing,  we  Americans  of  Japanese  descent  have  been  accused  of  being 
disloyal  to  these  United  States.  As  an  American  citizen,  I  resent  these  accusa- 
tions and  deny  their  validity. 

We  American-born  Japanese  are  fighting  militarist  Japan  today  with  our  total 
energies.  Four  thousand  of  us  are  with  the  armed  forces  of  the  United  States,  the 
remainder  on  the  home  front  in  the  battle  of  production.  We  ask  a  chance  to 
prove  to  the  rest  of  the  American  people  what  we  ourselves  already  know:  That 
we  are  loyal  to  the  country  of  our  birth  and  that  we  will  fight  to  the  death  to  defend 
it  against  any  and  all  aggressors. 

We  think,  feel,  act  like  Americans.  We,  too,  remember  Pearl  Harbor  and  know 
that  our  right  to  live  as  free  men  in  a  free  Nation  is  in  peril  as  long  as  the  brutal 
forces  of  enslavement  walk  the  earth.  We  know  that  the  Axis  aggressors  must 
be  crushed  and  we  are  anxious  to  participate  fully  in  that  struggle. 

The  history  of  our  group  speaks  for  itself.  It  stands  favorable  comparison 
with  that  of  any  other  group  of  second  generation  Americans.  There  is  reliable 
authority  to  show  that  the  proportion  of  delinquency  and  crime  within  our  ranks 
is  negligible.  Throughout  the  long  years  of  the  depression,  we  have  been  able  to 
stay  off  the  relief  rolls  better,  by  far,  than  any  other  group.  These  are  but  two 
of  the  many  examples  which  might  be  cited  as  proof  of  our  civic  responsibility 
and  pride. 

In  this  emergency,  as  in  the  past,  we  are  not  asking  for  special  privileges  or 
concessions.  We  ask  only  for  the  opportunity  and  the  right  of  sharing  the  com- 
mon lot  of  all  Americans,  whether  it  be  in  peace  or  in  war. 

This  is  the  American  way  for  which  our  boys  are  fighting. 

Exhibit  A. — The  Japanese  American  Creed 
(Courtesy,  Japanese  American  Citizens  League) 

I  am  proud  that  I  am  an  American  citizen  of  Japanese  ancestry,  for  my  very 
background  makes  me  appreciate  more  fully  the  wonderful  advantages  of  this 
Nation.  I  believe  in  her  institutions,  idelas,  and  traditions;  I  glory  injier  heri- 
tage; I  boast  of  her  history;  I  trust  in  her  future.  She  has  granted  me  liberties 
and  opportunities  such  as  no  individual  enjoys  in  this  world  today.  She  has 
given  me  an  education  befitting  kings.  She  has  entrusted  me  with  the  responsi- 
bilities of  the  franchise.  She  has  permitted  me  to  build  a  home,  to  earn  a  liveli- 
hood, to  worship,  think,  speak,  and  act  as  I  please — as  a  free  man  equal  to  every 
other  man. 

Although  some  individuals  may  discriminate  against  me,  I  shall  never  become 
bitter  or  lose  faith,  for  I  know  that  such  presons  are  not  representative  of  the 
majority  of  the  American  people.  True,  I  shall  do  all  in  my  power  to  discourage 
such  practices,  but  I  shall  do  it  in  the  American  way — above  board,  in  the  open, 
through  courts  of  law,  by  education,  by  proving  myself  to  be  worthy  of  equal 


treatment  and  consideration.  I  am  firm  in  my  belief  that  American  sportsman- 
ship and  attitude  of  fair  play  will  judge  citizenship  and  patriotism  on  the  basis 
of  action  and  achievement,  and  not  on  the  basis  of  physical  characteristics. 

Because  I  believe  in  America,  and  I  trust  she  believes  in  me,  and  because  I  have 
received  innumerable  benefits  from  her,  I  pledge  myself  to  do  honor  to  her  at  all 
times  and  in  all  places;  to  support  her  constitution;  to  obey  her  laws;  to  respect 
her  flag;  to  defend  her  against  all  enemies,  froeign  or  domestic;  to  actively  assume 
my  duties  and  obligations  as  a  citizen,  cheerfully  and  without  any  reservations 
whatsoever,  in  the  hope  that  I  may  become  a  better  American  in  a  greater  America. 
— Mike  Masaoka.  (as  read  before  the  United  States  Senate  and  printed  in  the 
Congressional  Record,  May  9,  1941). 

Exhibit  B.— A  Declaration  of  Policy  by  the  Japanese  American  Citizens 


In  these  critical  days  when  the  policies  of  many  organizations  representing 
various  nationality  groups  may  be  viewed  with  suspicion  and  even  alarm  by 
certain  individuals  who  are  not  intimately  acquainted  with  the  aims,  ideals,  and 
leadership  of  such  associations,  it  becomes  necessary  and  proper,  in  the  public 
interest,  that  such  fraternal  and  educational  orders  as  the  Japanese  American 
Citizens  League  to  unequivocally  and  sincerely  announce  their  policies  and 

Now,  therefore,  in  order  to  clear  up  any  misconceptions,  misunderstandings 
and  misapprehensions  concerning  the  functions  and  activities  of  this  body,  the 
National  Board  of  the  Japanese  American  Citizens  League  issues  the  following 
statement  and  declaration  of  policy: 

We,  the  members  of  the  National  Board  of  the  Japanese  American  Citizens 
League  of  the  United  States  of  America,  believe  that  the  policies  which  govern 
this  organization  and  our  activities  as  their  official  representatives  are  fourfold 
in  nature  and  are  best  illustrated  by  an  explanation  of  the  alphabetical  sequence 
of  the  letters  J-A-C-L. 

"J"  stands  for  justice.  We  believe  that  all  peoples,  regardless  of  race,  color, 
or  creed,  are  entitled  to  enjoy  those  principles  of  "life,  liberty,  and  the  pursuit 
of  happiness"  which  are  presumed  to  be  the  birthright  of  every  individual;  to 
the  fair  and  equal  treatment  of  all,  socially,  legislatively,  judicially,  and  eco- 
nomically to  the  rights,  privileges,  and  obligations  of  citizenship.  To  this  end, 
this  organization  is  dedicated. 

"A"  stands  for  Americanism.  We  believe  that  in  order  to  prove  ourselves 
worthy  of  the  justice  which  we  seek,  we  must  prove  ourselves  to  be,  first  of  all, 
good  Americans— in  thought,  in  words,  in  deeds.  We  believe  that  we  must 
personify  the  Japanese  American  creed;  that  we  must  acquaint  ourselves  with 
those  traditions,  ideals,  and  institutions  which  made  and  kept  this  Nation  the 
foremost  in  the  world.  We  believe  that  we  must  live  for  America— and,  if  need 
be,  to  die  for  America.     To  this  end,  this  organization  is  consecrated. 

"C"  stands  for  citizenship.  We  believe  that  we  must  be  exemplary  citizens  in 
addition  to  being  good  Americans,  for,  as  in  the  case  of  our  parents,  one  may 
be  a  good  American  and  yet  be  denied  the  privilege  of  citizenship.  We  believe 
that  we  must  accept  and  even  seek  out  opportunities  in  which  to  serve  our 
country  and  to  assume  the  obligations  and  duties  as  well  as  the  rights  and  privi- 
leges of  citizenship.     To  this  end,  this  organization  is  committed. 

"L"  stands  for  leadership.  We  believe  that  the  Japanese  American  Citizens 
League,  as  the  only  national  organization  established  to  serve  the  American 
citizens  of  Japanese  ancestry,  is  in  a  position  to  actively  lead  the  Japanese  people 
residing  in  the  United  States.  We  believe  that  we  have  the  inspired  leadership 
and  membership  necessary  to  carry  into  living  effect  the  principles  of  justice, 
Americanism,  and  citizenship  for  which  our  league  was  founded.  We  offer 
cooperation  and  support  to  all  groups  and  individuals  sincerely  and  legitimately 
interested  in  these  same  aims,  but  we  propose  to  retain  our  independent  and 
separate  status  as  the  Japanese  American  Citizens  League.  To  this  end,  this 
organization  is  pledged. 

Summed  up  briefly,  the  Japanese  American  Citizens  League  is  devoted  to  those 
tasks  which  are  calculated  to  win  for  ourselves  and  our  posterity  the  status  out- 
lined by  our  two  national  slogans:  "For  better  Americans  in  a  greater  America" 
and  "Security  through  unity." 



Mr.  Masaoka.  I  would  like  to  say,  very  frankly,  that  my  colleagues 
and  I  represent  pretty  much  the  sort  of  dilemma  that  we  are  in.  We 
are  a  rather  young  group,  being  one  of  the  latest  of  all  the  immigrant 
groups  here.  Our  parents  are  old,  and  because  of  the  laws  of  the 
United  States  they  cannot  become  citizens  and  we,  their  children,  are 
citizens.     We  have  that  difficult  problem. 

Moreover,  we  have  the  difficult  problem  of  having  physical  charac- 
teristics which  cause  us  to  be  easily  singled  out  for  whatever  course 
certain  parties  may  deem  necessary.  Frankly,  I  woidd  like  to  say 
that  the  loyalty  of  our  group  has  been  questioned.  Perhaps  my  own 
loyalty  would  be  questioned.  In  that  respect  I  would  like  to  offer 
in  corroboration  the  fact  that  the  Honorable  Senator  Elbert  D.  Thomas 
of  Utah  in  the  Congressional  Record  for  Thursday,  May  8,  1941,  ex- 
plained something  of  my  background  and  had  printed  in  the  Congres- 
sional Record  the  Japanese- American  Creed,  which  was  long  before  the 
war,  and  still,  I  hope,  exemplifies  the  spirit  which  we  have  toward 
America.  I  have  letters  from  the  United  States  Senator,  Abe  Mur- 
dock;  another  again  from  Senator  Thomas.  I  have  a  letter  from  the 
Governor  of  the  State  of  Utah,  Herbert  B.  Maw.  I  have  another 
letter  from  the  mayor  of  Salt  Lake  City,  Ab  Jenkins.  I  have  a  letter 
from  the  United  States  District  Attorney  of  Utah,  Mr.  John  Borden. 
I  have  a  letter  from  the  Secretary  of  State  of  Utah,  E.  E.  Monson, 
who  was  president  of  the  American  Secretaries  of  States  Association. 
I  have  a  letter  from  Mr.  Douglas  O.  Woodruff,  who  was  executive 
secretary  of  the  University  of  Utah  Alumni  Association.  I  have  a 
letter  from  the  postmaster,  I.  A.  Smoot,  who  was  the  president  of  the 
National  Association  of  Postmasters  of  the  United  States.  I  have  a 
letter  from  the  president  of  the  chamber  of  commerce  of  Salt  Lake 
City,  Earl  J.  Glade.  I  have  another  letter  from  our  dean  of  school 
of  social  workers  and  professor  of  sociology  at  the  University  of  Utah, 
Arthur  L.  Beeley,  and  I  have  a  letter  also  from  the  State  superinten- 
dent of  education,  Charles  A.  Skidmore,  and  letters  from  other  people. 

These  are  merely  to  substantiate  the  fact  that  I  believe  I  am  a  loyal 
American.  And  when  anyone  doubts  that  loyalty,  I  feel  that,  as  an 
American  citizen,  I  am  entitled  to  say  what  I  believe  about  that. 


My  mother  was  born  in  Japan,  so  was  my  father.  My  father  was 
killed  when  I  was  9.  There  were  eight  children  in  the  family.  We 
struggled  through  that,  and  today,  out  of  that  family  of  eight,  one  is 
a  volunteer  in  the  armed  forces  of  the  United  States,  serving  I  know 
not  where;  two  more  of  us  are  1-A;  I  myself  am  ready  to  go.  I 
have  been  classified  as  1-A  and  this  may  be  my  last  appeal  on  behalf 
of  the  Japanese  Americans,  whom  I  believe  are  grossly  misunderstood. 

Frankly,  gentlemen,  when  this  committee  first  came  here  and  when 
we  heard  the  testimony  Saturday  afternoon  people  said  "Don't 
show  up,  Mike.  It  is  just  a  witch  hunt."  But  after  hearing  what 
has  gone  on,  after  talking  to  your  staff  I  know  that  you  gentlemen 
are  typical  of  the  fair  play  which  represents  the  American  system. 
And  so  I  want  to  say  in  all  fairness  that  we  present  to  you  the  facts 


which  we  feel  are  true  in  this  case,  realizing  always,  just  as  any  other 
American  citizen,  that  the  defense  of  our  country  is  paramount. 
But  I  would  like  to  offer  some  refutation  to  the  various  arguments 
offered,  because  I  feel  that  you  gentlemen  want  to  know  both  sides 
of  the  question.  My  colleagues  will  substantiate  the  claims  insofar 
as  they  regard  San  Francisco.  With  your  permission,  gentlemen, 
I  would  like  to  briefly  go  through  a  number  of  statements  which  were 

I  believe  that  you  would  be  interested  to  note  the  great  discrepancy 
which  occurs  in  statistics,  and  so  on,  which  all  goes  to  prove  that — 
well,  I  used  to  teach  debate,  for  example,  in  high  school.  When  we 
wanted  to  present  one  side  we  went  and  looked  at  isolated  cases  and 
just  presented  those  to  build  a  good  case.  On  the  other  side  we  would 
do  the  same  thing. 

Now,  gentlemen,  very  frankly  I  am  prejudiced.  I  am  prejudiced 
for  the  Japanese-Americans,  because  I  think  they  are  loyal.  I  know 
that  I  am.  I  know  that  the  great  majority  of  us  are.  I  think 
that  some  of  the  other  gentlemen  are  prejudiced  for  the  other  side. 
I  think  somewhere  between  the  two  lies  the  truth,  and  I  hope  and 
trust  that  you  gentlemen  will  be  able  to  find  that  truth. 

The  Chairman.  What  are  you  going  to  say  about  your  people  at 
Pearl  Harbor? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Very  frankly,  I  think  that  is  a  little  different  situa- 

The  Chairman.  I  am  asking  that  not  in  criticism  but  just  to  ask 
you  about  it. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  What  was  the  question  again? 

The  Chairman.  What  about  your  people  at  Pearl  Harbor?  Did 
they  remain  loyal  Americans? 


Mr.  Masaoka.  Well,  there  seem  to  be  some  conflicting  reports  as 
to  that.  In  other  words,  frankly,  Secretary  of  the  Navy  Knox  him- 
self admits  that  there  were  some  Japanese  who  turned  guns  on  the 
invaders.  Then,  on  the  other  hand,  the  reports  would  seem  to  indi- 
cate another  thing — sabotage.  But  I  would  like  to  make  this  a  point, 
which  I  think  ought  to  be  considered.  Here  in  the  United  States  of 
America  we  are  distinctly  the  minority  group.  We  can  be  singled 
out  because  of  our  characteristics.  In  the  Hawaiian  Islands  or  Philip- 
pine Islands  the  Japanese  are  either  in  the  majority  or  look  like  the 
majority,  and,  therefore,  I  think  they  could  hide  more  easily  in  the 
general  identity  of  the  mass  than  we  could  here. 

Furthermore,  I  think  we  are  further  removed  from  the  domination 
of  the  Imperial  Japanese  Government  and  I  think  that  most  of  us 
are  cognizant  of  the  things  which  America  has  to  offer. 

The  Chairman.  There  are  authentic  pictures  during  the  attack 
showing  hundreds  of  Japanese  old  automobiles  cluttered  on  the  one 
street  of  Honolulu  so  the  Army  could  not  get  to  the  ships.  Are  you 
conversant  with  those  things? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Only  insofar  as  the  general  public  is  also  informed, 
I  believe. 

The  Chairman.  I  am  just  thinking  out  loud  with  you  now,  don't 
you  see. 


Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes.  I  understand,  very  frankly,  the  situation  in 
which  you  gentlemen  are.  I  understand  the  terrific  spot  that  we  are 
in,  and  I  think  that,  as  announced  in  this  prepared  statement,  when 
the  military  decides  for  military  necessity  or  otherwise  we  should  go; 
we,  as  any  other  American  citizens  would  be  glad  to  cooperate  and  go' 
i  Jf  v?  believe  that  certain  facts  should  be  brought  out  relative  to 
the  California  situation. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.     You  may  proceed. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Before  you  start,  could  I  ask  you  if  your  league 
operated  in  Hawaii? 


Mr.  Masaoka.  No.  Our  association  is  incorporated  under  the 
laws  of  the  State  of  California  June  21,  1937.  We  have  absolutely 
no  members  m  Hawaii.  We  have  approximately  20,000  members 
and  have  chapters  in  300  communities  in  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Is  your  league  a  political  organization? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No.     It  is  nonpolitical,  nonsectarian. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Nonpolitical? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  believe  "nonpartisan' '  is  better  than  "non- 
political,"  because  we  do  encourage  our  members  to  vote,  to  urge  the 
franchise  and  do  anything  else  which  any  good  American  could  do. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  was  just  interested  in  reading  a  little  while  ago 
a  letter  that  was  addressed  to  this  committee  and  written  apparently 
by  a  Japanese  student.     I  noticed  this  paragraph  in  it  [reading]: 

I  do  not  know  what  weight  is  given  to  testimony  presented  by  representatives 
ot  the  Japanese  American  Citizens  League. 

That  is  your  league,  is  it  not? 
Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes. 
Mr.  Sparkman  (reading): 

However,  I  think  that  I  can  safely  state  that  many  thinking  people  have  con- 
demned that  organization  as  a  spokesman  for  the  Japanese  population  Its 
officials  are  notoriously  fearful  of  answering  questions  directly  or  formulating  upon 
policy  which  will  reflect  the  desires  and  opinions  as  well  as  actions  of  the  group 
which  they  are  purported  to  represent,  Moreover,  it  is  a  political  organization 
and,  hence,  cannot  be  representative  of  those  who  prefer  to  hold  their  own  political 
views.  *  ^ 

I  may  say  this:  that  the  writer  of  this  letter  made  a  statement  very 
much  akin  to  the  one  that  you  just  made,  that  if,  while  all  rights  were 
pleaded  for,  yet  in  the  decision  of  those  having  the  responsibility  it 
was  decided  that  it  was  necessary  to  evacuate  a  certain  area,  that,  of 
course,  loyal  Japanese  who  were  loyal  Americans  could  be  expected 
to  comply  with  those  orders  without  complaint  and  simply  count  it 
as  part  of  their  sacrifice  in  the  interest  of  national  security. 


Mr.  Masaoka.  I  think  that  letter  is  indicative  of  one  fact  and  an 
interesting  fact:  that  even  the  Japanese  people  themselves  here  in  this 
country  are  not  directed  from  above  and  entirely  unified  to  do  one 
great  thing.  In  other  words,  we  have  the  democratic  process  there, 
we  have  diversity,  we  have  contentions  within  our  own  group.     And 


I  personally  say  this:  we  are  the  largest  group  of  American  citizens  of 
Japanese  ancestry. 

Mr.  Spakkman.  What  is  the  size  of  your  group? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Approximately  20,000  members. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  In  California? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No;  throughout  the  United  States.  We  have  them, 
of  course,  largely  concentrated  in  the  Western  States,  but  we  have 
some  farther  east,  not  as  chapters,  but  as  members  who  moved  from 
San  Francisco  or  coastal  areas  to  eastern  points. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  How  old  is  the  organization? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  It  officially  was  incorporated  in  1937,  as  I  said  be- 
fore. The  beginnings  of  the  organization  were  about  1921  in  Seattle. 
Officially  the  first  convention  was  held  in  1930.  It  is  a  comparatively 
young  organization. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Is  it  made  up  only  of  citizens  of  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes.  Every  person  is  required  to  furnish  proof  of 
citizenship  before  being  permitted  to  become  a  member. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  limited,  of  course,  to  Japanese-American 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  you  have  no  organization  outside  of  the  con- 
tinental United  States? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  have  any  connection  whatsoever  with  the 
Japanese  Government? 

Mr  Masaoka.  No. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Or  with  any  agency  functioning  within  Japan? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  maintain  contacts  with  any  such  or- 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No.  We  have  been  repudiated  many  times  and 
denounced  in  the  past  by  many  pro-German  people  for  the  fact  that 
we  have  refused  to  cooperate  with  the  Japanese  Government  on  seem- 
ingly educational  projects. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  were  born,  of  course,  in  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Educated  here? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  College  degree. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Where  were  you  educated? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  University  of  Utah. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Let  us  go  back  of  that.  Where  did  you  do  your 
grammar-school  work? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  All  my  work  was  done  in  Salt  Lake  City.  I  was 
born  in  Fresno,  Calif.,  but  my  folks  moved  to  Nevada,  then  Idaho, 
and  then  Utah.  I  am  a  graduate  of  the  Westside  High  School  at 
Salt  Lake  City  and  also  the  University  of  Utah  of  Salt  Lake  City, 
and  I  have  spent  all  my  educational  career  there. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Have  you  ever  been  back  to  Japan? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No.  I  was  offered  a  trip  as  a  contest  winner,  and 
the  people  thought  maybe  I  would  enjoy  the  trip. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Now,  wait.  Who  offered  you  the  trip  as  a  contest 


Mr.  Masaoka.  The  whole  thing  is  that  every  year  they  select  what 
they  call  the  outstanding  Japanese  of  the  year;  Japanese- American. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Who  does? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  The  Young  People's  Chicago  group  that  Senator 
Thomas  is  cognizant  of,  as  well  as  Mrs.  Roosevelt.  Then  they,  in 
connection  with  this  trophy  that  they  offer  to  the  outstanding  Japanese- 
American  born  citizen  contemplate  a  trip  to  Japan. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Did  you  ever  attend  Japanese  schools  in  this 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Personally  I  did  not,  but  frankly 

Mr.  Sparkman  (interposing).  A  great  many  of  your  people  do? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Oh,  yes.     But  I  did  not. 


Mr.  Sparkman.  What  is  your  religion? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  To  show  you  how  American  I  am,  Latter  Day 
Saints,  Mormon. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Have  you  ever  served  as  a  missionary? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  For  the  Mormon  Church? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Only  as  a  block  missionary  within  Salt  Lake  City. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Within  Salt  Lake  City? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  have  any  adherence  whatsoever  to  the 
national  religion  of  the  Japanese  people? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Do  you  mean  I,  personally? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  or  other  members  of  your  family. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  None  in  our  family;  no. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Are  all  of  your  family  members  of  the  Latter  Day 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No.  Three  of  them  are.  Others  are  members  of 
the  Presbyterian  Church. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Three  of  them  are  members  of  the  Presbyterian 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No.  Three  are  members  of  the  so-called  Mormon 
Church  and  the  other  six  are  members  of  the  Presbyterian  faith. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  about  the  membership  of  your  organization? 
Could  you  say  what  percentage  of  them  have  received  at  least  a  part 
of  their  education  in  Japan? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Those  figures  are  rather  hard  to  get.  We  estimate 
approximately  20  to  30  percent,  which  I  think  is  a  rather  generous 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  wonder  if  you  could  give  us  some  estimate  as 
to  a  portion  of  your  membership  who  have  received  a  part  of  their 
education  in  Japanese  schools  in  this  country. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  That  would  be  large;  say  85  percent. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  That  is  more  or  less  characteristic,  is  it  not,  of  the 
Japanese  to  have  these  Japanese  schools? 


Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes.  It  is  characteristic,  but  at  the  same  time  I 
think  it  is  the  same  as  any  other  immigrant  group.     I  have  corre- 


spondence  here  which  we  will  file  to  show  that  we  have  attempted 
from  time  to  time  to  get  the  State  of  California  to  include  it  in  their 
public-school  curricula  and  other  evidence  of  the  sort. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Let  me  ask  you  this:  You  talk  about  including 
it  in  the  curricula  of  the  public-school  system.  What  is  your  under- 
standing as  to  what  is  taught  to  the  Japanese  in  these  schools? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  have  not  too  intimate  a  knowledge  because  I 
never  did  attend. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  understand  that. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  But  from  speaking  to  many  of  the  people,  they 
generally  attend  after  school,  and  they  attend  from  about  4  to  6 
three  times  a  week  or  something  of  the  sort.  Now,  they  are  rather 
tired  after  that.  Practically  none  of  them  go  to  Japanese  language 
schools  after  they  reach  the  junior  high  or  high  school  age.  They 
generally  go  in  order  to  converse  with  their  parents  or  because  they 
can  find  no  employment  among  other  groups  except  generally  the 
Japanese  or  the  civil  service. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  understand  the  school  systems  to  be  for 
the  purpose  of  teaching  the  language? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Some  schools;  yes.  Others  are  doubtful.  I  think 
that  the  proper  Federal  authorities  have  investigated  them,  and  I 
am  not  a  professional  man  in  that  respect  and  I  want  to  speak  frankly. 
I  don't  know. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  isn't  it  your  understanding,  though,  that  a 
great  deal  of  Japanese  nationalism  is  sought  to  be  instilled  into  the 
young  Japanese  of  these  schools? 


Mr.  Masaoka.  That  may  be  true.  You  understand,  of  course, 
that  they  are  all  closed  now,  not  by  mandate  of  the  Government,  but 
by  voluntary  action. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  appreciate  the  fact,  I  believe,  that  there  is  a 
great  difference  in  the  religion  and  nationalism  and  the  close  connec- 
tion between  religion  and  government  as  between  the  Japanese 
Government  and  the  United  States  Government,  do  you  not? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  By  that  do  you  mean  you  are  concerned  with  the 
Buddhist  Church? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Of  course,  in  this  country  we  have  long  advocated 
separation  of  state  and  church. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  just  the  opposite  is  true  in 
Japan,  is  it  not? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  am  not  cognizant  of  that  fact.  In  other  words, 
don't  know  too  much  about  Japan.     And  that  is  an  honest  statement. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  is  it  not  true  that  among  the  Japanese  there 
is  an  intense  nationalistic  feeling  generally? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No;  I  don't  think  so.  But,  first  of  all,  let  us  define 
"nationalism."  What  do  you  think  is  "nationalism"?  That  might 

Mr.  Sparkman.  When  I  speak  of  it  in  this  connection  I  think  of  it 
as  verging  very  closely  upon  and,  in  fact,  almost  merging  with  re- 



Mr  Masaoka.  Figures  might  be  helpful  there.  About  50  percent 
or  a  little  less  would  be  Buddhist.  I  think  a  little  more  in  America 
are  Christian  than  Buddhist.  It  is  noticeable,  too,  that  the  older  the 
children  become  they  tend  to  congregate  toward  the  Christian 
churches.  Furthermore,  the  Buddhist  churches  as  such  seem  to  be 
declining  in  popularity,  if  that  is  an  indication. 

I  feel  that  I  should  make  this  statement  at  this  time:  That  before 
Fearl  Harbor  many  of  us  had  been  teaching,  or  at  least  attempts  had 
been  made  to  teach,  concerning  the  honor  of  Japan  as  a  nation  But 
1  think  the  attack  at  Pearl  Harbor  demonstrated  to  those  who  were 
on  the  fence  that  there  wasn't  anything  honorable  in  that  and  I 
think  most  of  us  condemned  more  than  Americans  condemned  the 

fed  that7         g  WaS  d°ne  there'  and  *  think  the  first  generation 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  think  you  could  say  with  reference  to  the 
membership  of  your  organization  that  there  is  not  a  feeling  of  a 
definite  connection  and  loyalty  to  the  Emperor  of  Japan? 
t  Mr   Masaoka.  No.     I  don't  think  our  league  subscribes  to  that. 
1  don  t  think  the  great  membership  of  our  league  subscribe  to  that 
In  lact,  1  am  quite  sure. 

Mr  Sparkman.  Do  you  think  you  could  truthfully  and  sincerely 
say  thai  there  is  not  in  your  membership  a  feeling  of  pride  on  the 
accomplishments  of  the  Japanese  Empire? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Well  now,  there  are  a  lot  of  things  that  I  think  we 
ought  to  recognize  that  are  fine  about  Japan,  possibly  courtesy,  and 
so  on.  But  I  think  that  the  Japan  of  our  parents  is  certainly  not  the 
Japan  of  today,  and  I  think  there  that  we  may  have  been  misguided 
as  to  many  things  there,  too. 

The  Chairman.  I  would  like  to  ask  you  a  question.  Are  you  a 
full-time  secretary  for  the  Japanese  American  Citizens  League? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes.     I  was  the  first  paid  official  they  ever  had. 

Ihe  Chairman.  How  much  money  do  you  receive? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  $150  a  month. 

??e  pHAIRMAN-  When  did  you  become  a  full-time  secretary? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  The  1st  of  September  of  last  year 

The  Chairman.  1941? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  That  is  correct. 


The  Chairman.  And  prior  to  that  time  your  league  was  concerned 
more  or  less  with  social  events.     Isn't  that  true? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Well,  to  be  honest  with  vou  there  is  a  matter  of 
opinion  there.  The  officers  frankly  felt  that  we  were  doino-  verv 
constructive  work. 

The  Chairman.  Why  in  September  1941  were  you  put  in  as  full- 
tune  secretary,  and  why  did  you  start  increasing  the  enrollment  of 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Well,  it  was  felt  by  the  national  board,  which  is  the 
board  of  the  highest  officers,  who  represent  the  different  districts 
that  an  emergency  was  at  hand  and  that  in  order  to  do  our  best  as 


Americans  we  needed  an  integration  and  coordination.  Up  to  that 
point,  you  see,  we  had  very  little  coordination,  very  little  concerted 
action  along  a  definite  policy,  Americanism  policies,  if  you  please, 
and  they  felt  that  they  should  bring  me  in. 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  ever  received  any  literature  or  instruc- 
tions from  any  officials  or  people  in  Japan? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No. 

The  Chairman.  Never?     At  no  time? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  personally  have  never  received  such  a  thing. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  do  you  know  of  anyone  who  has? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Oh,  yes;  people  have  received  letters  and  books. 
As  to  other  information  I  wouldn't  be  cognizant  of  that.  Naturally 
they  would  try  to  hide  such  information  from  me. 

The  Chairman.  And  did  any  of  those  books  or  literature  give  you 
or  any  of  your  members  instructions  what  to  do? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Not  that  I  know  of.  In  other  words,  very  recently 
some  books  did  come  to  our  attention  which  I  turned  over  to  the  Naval 
Intelligence  without  even  looking  at  them  because,  frankly,  I  can't 
read  Japanese.  It  is  a  rather  difficult  language,  and  I  have  concen- 
trated more  or  less  on  English. 

The  Chairman.  But  you  could  get  somebody  to  read  it  for  you, 
couldn't  you? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Oh,  yes.     But  I  did  not. 

The  Chairman.  You  don't  read  Japanese  at  all? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Well,  very  frankly,  I  oftentimes  don't  even  recog- 
nize my  name  in  Japanese  print. 

The  Chairman.  You  can  certainly  speak  English  all  right. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Well,  I  was  brought  up  in  a  purely  American  com- 
munity, more  or  less — Salt  Lake  City — where  there  are  relatively  few 
Japanese.  And  my  professors,  well,  Senator  Thomas  was  one  of  my 
professors;  Governor  Maw  was  another  of  my  professors.  They  more 
or  less  looked  upon  me  as  a  prodigy,  and  I  have  often  visited  with 
them.     I  have  discussed  theories  of  government  with  them,  and  so  on. 

The  Chairman.  But  you  tell  this  committee  that  you  personally 
have  never  received  any  literature  or  books  or  anything  of  that 
character  from  Japan? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  That's  right. 

The  Chairman.  But  you  know  of  others  who  have  received  them? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Well,  I  should  assume  there  are  others  who  have 
received  them. 

The  Chairman.  Let  us  forget  about  the  assumption.  Do  you 
know  of  anybody  else  receiving  anything? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Who  have  received  letters  from  friends,  and  so  on? 

The  Chairman.  You  said  a  minute  ago  something  about  books 
that  you  turned  over  to  the  Naval  Intelligence. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes.     I  turned  them  over  to  the  Naval  Intelligence. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  What  comment  do  you  have  to  make  on  the  state- 
ment that  has  been  made  several  times  to  the  effect  that  no  Japanese- 
American  citizen  has  given  information  to  any  of  these  American 
agencies  seeking  to  get  information  bearing  upon  national  defense  and 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  believe  that  that  is  not  true.  In  fact,  I  know  that 
information  has  been  given,  but  I  believe  it  has  largely  been  given  to 
the  Federal  agencies,  notably  the  F.  B.  I. 

60396— 42— pt.  29 13 


Mr.  Sparkman.  Let  me  ask  you  this.  Of  course,  you  appreciate 
that  the  feeling  which  you  have  heard  expressed  here  does  exist? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes,  I  do.     I  certainly  do. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  acknowledge  that  fact.^  Do  I  understand 
that  it  is  your  attitude  that  the  Japanese-American  citizens  do  not 
protest  necessarily  against  an  evacuation?  They  simply  want  to 
lodge  their  claims  to  consideration? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  But  in  the  event  the  evacuation  is  deemed  neces- 
ary  by  those  having  charge  of  the  defenses,  as  loyal  Americans  you  are 
willing  to  prove  your  loyalty  by  cooperating? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes.     I  think  it  should  be 

Mr.  Sparkman  (interposing).  Even  at  a  sacrifice? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Oh,  yes;  definitely.  I  think  that  all  of  us  are 
called  upon  to  make  sacrifices.  I  think  that  we  will  be  called  upon  to 
make  greater  sacrifices  than  any  others.  But  I  think  sincerely,  if  the 
military  say  "Move  out",  we  will  be  glad  to  move,  because  we  recog- 
nize that  even  behind  evacuation  there  is  not  just  national  security 
but  also  a  thought  as  to  our  own  welfare  and  security  because  we  may 
be  subject  to  mob  violence  and  otherwise  if  we  are  permitted  to 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  it  affords  you,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  perhaps  the 
best  test  of  your  own  loyalty? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Provided  that  the  military  or  the  people  charged 
with  the  responsibility  are  cognizant  of  all  the  facts. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Certainly.     That  is  assumed. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  wanted  to  say  something,  Mr.  Tani? 


Mr.  Tani.  Yes,  please.  With  reference  to  the  line  of  questioning 
that  you  are  asking  Mr.  Masaoka,  about  the  influence  of  the  Japanese 
culture  in  us.  We  don't  walk  around  with  our  heads  bowed  because 
we  are  Japanese,  but  we  can't  help  being  Japanese  in  features.  My 
mother  left  Japan  over  30  years  ago,  and  the  Japan  of  which  she 
speaks  to  us  of  30  years  ago  is  not  the  Japan  of  today.  I  feel  it  is 
different  from  that  of  my  mother's  day.  And  so  in  the  culture  that 
she  instilled  in  us,  and  by  "culture"  I  mean  courtesy,  loyalty  to  the 
State  and  country  in  which  we  are,  obedience  to  parents,  those  are 
cultures  of  Japan  with  which  most  of  us  have  been  brought  up.  And 
I  don't  think  those  things  are  things  of  which  we  should  be  ashamed, 
those  things  which  we  should  ignore. 

As  for  influences  upon  us  today  I,  as  an  individual,  or  as  a  leader 
of  a  group,  have  never  been  approached  officially,  unofficially,  directly, 
or  indirectly  in  any  respect  in  all  my  years. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  were  born  in  this  country,  of  course? 

Mr.  Tani.  Right  here  in  this  city. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  where  did  you  receive  your  education? 

Mr.  Tani.  High  school,  grammar  school,  right  here  in  San  Fran- 
cisco.    My  college  degree  was  at  Stanford  University. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Have  you  ever  been  to  Japan? 


Mr.  Tani.  Never. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Did  you  attend  Japanese  schools? 

Mr.  Tani.  One  year  when  I  was  6  years  old,  when  I  lived  in  a  so- 
called  Japanese  area,  and  then  my  father  moved  in  the  so-called 
Baker  movement,  which  was  supposed  to  be  an  Americanization  pro- 
gram. We  moved  from  out  of  the  Japanese  area  where  our  closest 
Japanese  neighbor  was  3  or  4  miles  away. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  with  the  exception  of  that  1  year  you  did 
not  visit  Japanese  schools? 

Mr.  Tani.  None  other  than  what  my  mother  taught  me  at  home. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  May  I  ask  you  what  your  religion  is? 

Mr.  Tani.  I  am  Protestant.     My  sect  is  Evangelical  and  Reformed. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  feel  any  allegiance  whatsoever  to  the 
Emperor  of  Japan  or  the  Japan  Government? 

Mr.  Tani.  None  at  all. 

question  of  dual  citizenship 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  feel  that  he  or  his  government  has  any 
claim  upon  your  services  under  dual  citizenship? 

Mr.  Tani.  Personally  I  have  no  dual  citizenship. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Is  that  acknowledged  by  the  Japanese  Govern- 

Mr.  Tani.  I  don't  know  what  they  acknowledge. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  there  was  a  law  passed,  I  believe,  or  a  regula- 
tion established  by  the  Japanese  Government  that  would  allow  you  to 
deny  or  give  up  the  Japanese  citizenship. 

Mr.  Tani.  Let  us  put  it  this  way.  My  understanding  of  the 
procedure  of  obtaining  dual  citizenship  is  this:  I  was  born  here;  I  am 
an  American  citizen;  my  father  had  the  privilege  of  recording  me  in 
Japan  to  the  consulate  there  by  having  my  name  recorded  in  the 
Japanese  census  and  thereby  I  would  become  a  Japanese  subject. 
But  my  father  neglected  to  do  that.  Therefore,  as  far  as  the  Japanese 
Government  is  concerned,  I  don't  exist.  That  is  my  understanding. 
And  I  have  been  told  very  recently  that  the  law  in  Japan  says  that  if  I 
was  born  prior  to  1924 — I  may  be  mistaken  in  that — then  the  Japanese 
Government  may  have  some  claims  against  me.  But  if  they  have, 
they  have  never  done  anything  about  it. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  agree  with  Mr.  Masaoka  in  this  statement 
that  he  made,  that  if  it  is  finally  determined  by  those  having  the 
ultimate  responsibility^  of  defending  this  area,  that  even  Japanese- 
American  citizens  should  be  evacuated,  that  it  would  be  the  duty  of 
such  Japanese-American  citizens  to  comply  with  such  orders  without 

Mr.  Tani.  Yes;  I  agree. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  And  cooperate  wholeheartedly  to  that  effect? 

Mr.  Tani.  Yes;  definitely. 


(The  following  statement  was  submitted  subsequent  to  the  hearing:) 


The  Japanese  in  San  Francisco 

the  PEOPLE 

In  any  consideration  of  the  Japanese  people  on  the  Pacific  coast  there  is  the 
necessity  of  understanding  the  various  classifications  into  which  these  Japanese 
people  fall. 


There  is,  first,  the  real  immigrant  Japanese  group  which  made  its  main  appear- 
ance in  the  United  States  from  1890  to  1920.  Immigration  figures  will  reveal  the 
extent  of  this  movement  more  accurately.  The  important  observation  to  be  made 
at  this  time  is  the  fact  that  with  the  Immigration  Act  of  1924  the  flow  of  Japanese 
immigration  was  effectively  blocked. 

This  will  naturally  show  that  every  single  alien  Japanese  (with  the  exception 
of  a  few  merchants  and  ministers)  in  this  country  at  this  time  have  been  resident 
of  the  United  States  for  18  years  at  the  least.  It  also  follows  that  of  this  group 
that  is  remaining  in  this  country  at  this  time  practically  all  consider  themselves 
permanent  residents. 

One  speaks  of  this  first  group  as  the  first-generation  Japanese.  The  common 
term  used  to  describe  this  group  is  the  "Issei"  (pronounced  "iss-say,"  meaning 
"first  generation").  Our  laws  deny  naturalization  rights  to  these  aliens,  who 
otherwise  might  have  become  good  American  citizens.  Only  in  passing  might  it 
be  mentioned  that,  by  and  large,  the  Issei  have  been  law-abiding  and  respectful 
citizens,  and  that  they  had  contributed  largely  to  the  economic  wealth  of  their 


The  offspring  of  the  Issei  is  the  Nisei,  (pronounced  "nee-say,"  meaning  "second 
generation"),  who  are  born,  reared,  and  educated  in  the  American  culture  and 
are  inherently  American  in  all  manifest  ways,  except  that  there  are  occasional 
cultural  inclinations  showing  their  Japanese  home  influence. 

It  is  no  exaggeration  that  by  their  own  admission  the  Nisei  consider  themselves 
far  more  American  than  Japanese.  Testimonies  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding, 
school  teachers,  business  associates,  religious  leaders,  and  those  who  have  come 
to  learn  the  Nisei  in  their  normal  ways  of  life  will  add  their  evidence  to  this 
fact.  The  Nisei  is  a  citizen.  He  takes  his  citizenship  seriously.  He  meets  his 
obligation  to  society  by  cooperating  with  the  civic  authorities.  Physically  the 
Nisei  conform  more*  to  the  American  standards  than  do  their  parents — the  result 
of  the  vigorous  athletic  program,  the  diet,  and  the  relative  free  expression  usual 
to  American  growth. 


Of  the  Nisei  group,  there  is  within  them  but  yet  apart  from  them  another  group 
which  is  usually  referred  to  as  the  "Kibei"  (pronounced  "ki-bay,"  meaning  "those 
who  came  back").  Like  the  Nisei,  the  Kibei  was  born  in  the  United  States  and 
thus  is  entitled  to  citizenship  in  the  United  States.  Unlike  the  Nisei,  the  Kibei 
receives  his  education  in  Japan  and  is  therefore  more  culturally  Japanese. 

Of  course,  the  degree  to  which  the  Kibei  is  more  Japanese  than  American  de- 
pends largely  on  the  number  of  vears  and  the  age  during  which  he  was  in  Japan. 
Many  of  them  returned  to  Japan  with  their  family  at  a  young  age  and  returned 
to  America  in  their  late  teens.  It  is  unfair  to  classify  the  Kibei  in  one  large  group 
and  generalize  too  freely  with  them  since  the  variation  is  so  largely  dependent 
upon  the  many  factors  involved. 

These  things  can  be  said  of  them,  however:  That  their  English  is  relatively 
poor,  mainly  because  they  missed  the  American  schooling  which  their  Nisei 
brothers  and  sisters  got;  their  mastery  of  the  Japanese  language  is  definitely 
superior  than  what  little  Japanese  the  local  Nisei  got  in  the  language  schools  here; 
their  emotional  life  is  definitely  more  unstable  than  for  the  Nisei,  because  the 
Kibei  missed  the  family  life  which  the  Nisei  had. 



In  all  fairness  to  that  very  little  minority  within  the  Japanese  community,  one 
must  mention  the  few  individuals  who  were  born  in  Japan  and  came  to  this  coun- 
try with  their  parents  in  their  early  childhood.  Such  individuals  missed  out  in 
getting  their  United  States  citizenship  by  being  born  in  Japan,  but  otherwise  are 
Nisei  in  all  other  aspects.  This  group  is  culturally  American,  and,  though  tech- 
nically they  are  Issei,  they  are  so  only  because  of  their  birth  in  Japan. 


According  to  the  1940  United  States  census,  there  were  in  California  a  total  of 
93,717  Japanese,  of  which  33,569  were  aliens  and  60,148  were  citizens.  This 
makes  a  ratio  of  36  percent  alien  as  opposed  to  64  percent  citizens.  When  cast 
upon  the  whole  State  population,  which  is  6,907,387,  there  are  135  Japanese  for 
each  10,000  Californians. 

For  the  city  of  San  Francisco,  the  census  figures  show  2,276,  or  43  percent, 
aliens  as  against  3,004,  or  57  percent,  citizens,  making  a  total  of  5,280  Japanese 
out  of  the  city's  population  of  634,536.  The  ratio,  therefore,  in  San  Francisco 
of  Japanese  to  the  total  population  is  83  out  of  10,000. 


According  to  the  Nisei  survey  conducted  by  the  San  Francisco  Chapter  of  the 
Japanese  American  Citizens  League  in  October  1940,  a  further  break-down  of  the 
total  Nisei  group  revealed  that  73.5  percent  were  Nisei,  22.8  percent  were  Kibei, 
and  3.7  percent  were  Japan-born  Nisei.  This  is  true  of  San  Francisco  only  since 
the  metropolitan  area  reflects  the  greater  Kibei  element. 

Of  all  the  Nisei  who  are  18  years  of  age  and  over,  the  concentration  by  age 
showed  that  61  percent  of  the  total  were  between  the  ages  of  19  to  25,  inclusive, 
and  that  46  percent  were  between  the  ages  of  20  to  24,  inclusive.  This  substantiates 
the  fact  that  the  average  of  the  Nisei  is  21  years  old,  further  proved  by  the  fact 
that  the  birth  rate  of  Japanese  in  California  hit  its  peak  in  the  year  1921.  This 
can  also  be  verified  by  the  high  attendance  of  Nisei  students  in  our  universities 
at  this  time.     For  instance,  there  were  500  at  the  University  of  California  last  fall. 


That  the  Japanese  people  in  San  Francisco  are  concentrated  in  their  own 
Japanese  town  is  proven  by  the  fact  that  in  an  area  of  24  square  blocks  73.3  per- 
cent of  the  total  Nisei  in  San  Francisco,  according  to  the  Nisei  survey,  are  stated 
to  be  living  within  this  area. 


It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  Nisei  survey  showed  the  religious  affiliations 
distributed  as  follows:  42  percent  Protestant,  35  percent  Buddhist,  7  percent 
Catholic,  3  percent  others,  and  13  percent  none. 


It  is  true  that  the  Nisei  themselves  are  very  vague  about  their  dual-citizenship 
status  since  they  are  not  well  acquainted  with  the  many  laws  that  affect  their 
status.  However,  32  percent  seem  to  hold  this  dual-citizenship  status  to  the 
best  of  their  knowledge,  according  to  the  Nisei  survey.  This  figure  includes 
those  who  are  not  certain  of  their  status,  and  therefore  the  percentage  figure  is 
increased  thereby. 


It  is  safe  to  say  that,  according  to  the  best  reliable  sources,  there  is  practically 
no  crime  or  delinquency  record  involving  the  Japanese  in  San  Francisco.  It  is 
also  safe  to  say  that  relief  cases  (pre-war)  have  been  very  scarce  and  practically 
unknown  though  there  were  a  few  isolated  cases  now  and  then. 


The  number  of  selectees  in  the  United  States  Army  from  San  Francisco  has 
been  variously  estimated  as  being  between  175  to  200,  of  which  about  20  percent 


are  volunteers.     Of  the  total  Nisei  population,  it  is  further  estimated  that  3,000 
are  probably  in  the  United  States  armed  forces. 


The  community  chest  in  its  history  of  fund-raising  campaigns  have  always 
received  100-percent  response  from  the  Japanese  group.  The  usual  quota  for  the 
Japanese  community  has  been  between  $3,500  to  $4,000,  which  is  almost  a  dollar 
a  head.  Even  since  the  outbreak  of  war  the  Japanese  contribution  to  the  Red 
Cross  fund  exceeded  the  expectation  of  local  Red  Cross  officials. 


The  Chairman.  How  many  Japanese  have  you  in  California? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  have  exact  figures  on  that.  This  is  taken  from 
the  United  States  census  figures  for  1940.  In  continental  United 
States  in  April  1940  there  were  126,947  Japanese.  Out  of  that  group 
47,305  are  Japanese  nationals  and  79,642  are  American  citizens. 

Broken  down,  80  percent  of  all  the  Japanese  in  the  United  States 
reside  on  the  Pacific  coast.  California  alone  has  93,713  Japanese, 
or  73.8  percent  of  the  total. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  attach  any  significance  to  the  fact  that 
the  Lockheed  airplane  factory  at  Los  Angeles  is  surrounded  by 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Well,  I  am  not  particularly  familiar  with  that 
exact  set-up,  but  I  would  like  to  state  for  the  record  that  many  of 
these  places  were  purchased  long  before  the  airports  were  ever  there; 
long  before  that. 

The  Chairman.  You  have  approximately  93,000  Japanese  in 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes.     Almost  94,000. 

The  Chairman.  As  the  spokesman  for  the  Japanese  here  today, 
would  you  say  each  and  every  one  of  that  93,000  is  loyal  to  this 

r|Mr.  Masaoka.  No,  not  each  and  every  one.  I  think  that  would 
be  impossible  of  any  group.  But  I  agree  with  the  gentleman  who 
preceded  me.  We  are  also  interested  in  finding  those  people  out, 
because  if  we  don't  find  them  out  they  are  going  to  wreck  our  entire 
society.  We  American  citizens,  especially,  are  not  so  much  con- 
cerned with  ourselves  as  we  are  with  our  children.  We  would  like 
to  commend  you  officially,  publicly,  and  in  every  way  for  your  appre- 
ciation of  the  fact  that  after  this  is  all  over  we  must  once  again  live 
together  as  neighbors  and  fellow  Americans. 

The  Chairman.  What  do  you  think  about  the  statement  of  Attor- 
ney General  Warren  here  Saturday  to  the  effect  that  in  his  reports 
from  law-enforcement  officers,  and  he  contacted  several  hundred  of 
them,  that  he  knew  of  no  instance  where  a  Japanese  gave  any  of 
these  officers  any  information  as  to  a  disloyal  Japanese? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  don't  know  exactly  what  to  say  about  that.  I 
wouldn't  like  to  doubt  his  word,  and  yet  I  do  know  that  personally  a 
number  of  people  that  I  know  of  have  contributed  information. 

The  Chairman.  The  reason  I  am  asking  that  is  simply  this — to  give 
you  tbe  benefit  of  a  witness'  right  to  tell  you  what  has  been  said  here 
in  order  to  have  your  views  about  that. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes,  I  understand  that. 



Mr.  Tatsuno.  I  am  quite  sure,  many  of  the  Japanese-American 
citizens  do  not  know  of  any  case  that  should  be  turned  in  to  the 
authorities.  Let  us  take  my  case,  for  example.  I  reside  in  the  so- 
called  heart  of  Japan  Town  here  in  San  Francisco.  We  have  a  dry- 
goods  store.  It  has  been  in  existence  since  September  1902,  and  ever 
since  I  have  graduated  from  college  back  in  1936  I  have  been  working 
there.  . 

Most  of  our  trade  is  with  the  Japanese,  both  alien  and  citizens,  and 
naturally  I,  of  all  persons,  being  in  the  heart  of  the  Japanese  commu- 
nity, have  talked  with  them  heart  to  heart.  I  am  trusted.  Yet  the 
F.  B.  I.  agents  have  approached  me  on  a  number  of  occasions  and  I 
have  had  to  profess  that  I  don't  know  a  thing.  If  I  did,  I  would  be 
glad  to  say  so.  But  what  I  don't  know  I  can't  say,  because  it  would 
be  of  no  use. 


The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  this:  The  sabotage  at  the  time 
of  the  attack  of  Pearl  Harbor  and  the  disloyalty  of  the  Japanese 
there  was  so  widespread  that  the  details  have  never  as  yet  been  fully 
given  to  the  public.  Now,  what  I  would  like  to  get  from  you  is  this: 
Do  you  think  the  Japanese  of  Hawaii  stand  on  a  different  basis  than 
the  Japanese  in  California? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  Yes;  I  would  definitely  like  to  say  so.  Let  me  give 
you  an  example.  I  have  a  dry-goods  store.  We  carry  oriental  goods 
and  we  have  imported  some  directly  from  Japan  and  we  have  bought 
many  from  the  local  importers  here.  Yet,  naturally,  the  amount  we 
sell  of  the  native  Japanese  goods  is  very  small,  while  in  Hawaii  you 
will  find  that  their  dealings  in  Japanese  native  goods  are  a  number  of 
times  greater  than  those  on  the  mainland  here,  which  goes  to  show 
that  in  Hawaii  there  was  much  of  the  Japanese  influence  among  the 
Japanese  there.  Also  you  must  recognize  the  fact  that  one-third  of 
the  population  of  Hawaii  is  Japanese  whereas  over  here  we  are  a  very 
small  minority  and  we  are  not  affected. 

At  the  same  time  I  would  like  to  put  into  the  record  that  I  am  quite 
sure  that  the  attack  and  the  treacherous  attack,  much  of  it  was  com- 
mitted by  agents  of  the  Japanese  Government  who  came  in  different 
disguise.     I  am  quite  sure  of  that. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  know  of  any  of  those  agents  here? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  Pardon? 


The  Chairman.  Do  you  know  of  any  of  those  agents  in  California? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  I  do  not  know.  If  I  did  I  would  report  them  to  the 
F.  B.  I.  As  I  said,  since  I  am  in  the  heart  of  Japan  Town,  the  Naval 
Intelligence,  the  Army  Intelligence,  and  the  F.  B.  I.  make  the  rounds 
and  any  time  they  ask  questions  I  am  always  glad  to  help  them. 


The  Chairman.  You  sound  to  me  to  be  a  pretty  fair  witness,  but 
you  wouldn't  go  so  far  as  to  say  that  Japan  hasn't  these  agents  in 
California?     You  know  they  have;  don't  you? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  Well,  I  couldn't  say  because  I  don't  know.  As  one 
American  person  put  it,  in  total  war  that  we  have  today  there  is  a 
great  possibility — in  fact,  any  nation  that  hasn't  got  fifth-column 
activity  to  carry  on  a  war — well,  something  is  lacking. 

The  Chairman.  I  don't  think  Japan  lacks  it.  You  are  not  worried 
about  Japan  in  that  regard,  are  you? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  But  as  far  as  California  is  concerned,  as  I  say — and 
I  have  been  in  close  contact  with  the  alien  Japanese — since  I  have 
been  in  contact  with  the  many  travelers  from  Japan,  and  they  come 
into  our  store  regularly,  many  members  of  the  different  banks,  the 
import  and  export  houses  here  in  San  Francisco,  treaty  merchants 
sent  from  Japan.  I  may  be  pretty  ignorant  but  I  don't  know.  I 
haven't  had  any  signs. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Was  your  education  all  in  this  country? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  No.  I  was  in  Japan  away  back  in  1924  immediately 
after  the  earthquake  for  half  a  year.  I  attended  fourth-grade  gram- 
mar school  in  Japan  when  I  was  10  years  old. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Is  that  the  extent  of  the  time  you  spent  there,  just 
the  6  months? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  That  is  all. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  May  I  ask  your  religion? 


Mr.  Tatsuno.  I  am  an  elder  of  the  local  Presbyterian  Church. 
Before  that  I  was  a  deacon.  I  am  also  a  member  of  the  local  board  of 
management  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  and  also  last  night  I  spoke  at  the  First 
Presbyterian  Church  at  Van  Ness  and  Sacramento.  We  had  a  joint 
meeting  with  the  American  young  people. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  the  Japanese  have  a  Presbyterian  Church  of  their 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  We  have  a  church  of  our  own. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  belong  to  the  Japanese  Presbyterian  Church? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  Yes.  It  is  controlled  by  the  board  directly,  yes; 
the  national  board. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Is  it  organized  about  the  same  as  the  American 
Presbyterian  Church? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  It  is  typical.  The  only  thing  is  that  the  older 
people  did  not  understand  English  well  and  they  organized  this 
church.  In  fact,  in  our  church  we  had  a  very  earnest  man  working 
for  us,  Dr.  Sturge,  who  passed  away  in  1934.  He  spent  50  years 
among  the  Japanese  here  in  the  United  States  working  for  us,  and 
we  have  such  men  with  those  ideals  to  look  up  to. 

Mr.  Arnold.  He  was  an  American? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  Yes. 

Mr.  Arnold.  A  white  American? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  A  white  American. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Does  the  Presbyterian  Church  belong  to  the  same 
diocese  or  whatever  you  might  call  it? 


Mr.  Tatsuno.  Yes.  It  is  directly  connected  with  the  national 
Presbyterian  board.  Also  we  have  among  our  group  the  Young 
People's  Christian  Conference  groups.  Henry  was  chairman  of  the 
northern  California  chapter  of  the  Young  People's  Christian  Confer- 
ence in  1938  and  I  was  chairman  of  it  in  1937.  Therefore,  with  such 
a  background,  we  like  to  cooperate  as  much  as  possible. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  was  interested  in  your  saying  that  even  though  you 
are  a  merchant  and  come  in  contact  with  many  Japanese  customers 
and  others,  that  you  never  talked  to  each  other  about  anything  in 
connection  with  Japan  or  this  Government. 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  No;  I  didn't  say  that.  I  said  that  although  we  do 
have  heart-to-heart  talks  I  haven't  found  any  inkling;  any,  shall  I 
say,  evidence  of  fifth-column  activity  or  sabotage,  you  see. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  think  you  would  learn  of  it  if  it  existed 
among  those  with  whom  you  come  in  contact? 

Mr.  Tatsuno.  If  anybody,  I  should.  If  anybody,  I  am  right  in 
the  heart  there,  and  I  am  sure  that  most  of  them  trust  me.  You  see, 
Saturday,  Attorney  General  Earl  Warren  said  that  because  so  far 
there  hasn't  been  a  single  sign  of  fifth-column  activity  that  is  a  sign 
that  there  is  fifth-column  activity.  But  I  disagree  with  that.  I 
don't  think  that  is  real  logic. 


Mr.  Masaoka.  For  example,  I  would  like  to  challenge  the  conclu- 
sion drawn  by  the  gentleman  from  Tulare,  because  in  the  depression 
years  very  few  Japanese,  if  any,  went  on  the  relief  rolls  that  it  was 
an  indication  that  we  were  receiving  financial  assistance  from  others. 
I  think  that  is  an  attitude  of  thrift  and  simple  living  which  is  char- 
acteristic of  the  American  pioneers.  I  think  that  is  an  evidence  of 
Americanism.  We  have  a  wonderful  record  of  staying  out  of  jail. 
The  only  time  I  was  in  jail  was  on  the  night  of  December  7  when  I 
was  in  North  Platte  as  a  stranger  there.  They  got  me  for  vagrancy 
and  it  was  cleared  up  immediately  from  Washington.  That  was  the 
only  time  I  was  in  jail.  The  Japanese  have  a  fine  record,  I  believe, 
of  abiding  by  the  law.  We  stay  off  the  relief  rolls.  We  have  a 
wonderful  record  of  contribution  to  the  Community  Chest,  to  the 
Red  Cross,  and  other  civic  groups.  I  think  that  all  of  those  are  an 
indication  of  loyalty. 

The  Chairman.  You  have  a  wonderful  record  of  keeping  out  of 
jail.     Don't  you  think  that  is  smart? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes,  I  think  it  is  smart  for  anyone.  But  I  also 
think  that  it  is  a  sign  of  good  Americanism  that  you  have  been  taught 
to  do  that. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  have  two  questions  and  any  one  of  you  may  answer. 
Do  Japanese  aliens  or  their  children  have  any  feeling  of  animosity 
toward  the  Government  of  the  United  States  or  the  State  of  California 
because  such  aliens  are  deprived  of  the  right  to  own  property  in  this 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  think  it  is  possible  that  some  would  have.  I 
think  it  is  only  natural,  to  be  honest,  you  understand? 

Mr.  Arnold.  Some  aliens  and  some  of  their  children  feel  that? 


Mr.  Masaoka.  Possibly.     But  the  children  may  own  land. 

Mr.  Tani.  We  are  children.     We  can  own  land. 

Mr.  Arnold.  But  do  you  have  any  animosity  because  aliens  can't? 

Mr.  Tani.  It  wouldn't  exist  now  because  most  of  us  are  of  age  and 
can  handle  our  own  business.  So  if  there  was  animosity,  it  wouldn't 
exist  now. 


Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  know  of  any  instances  where  Japanese  aliens 
have  acquired  property  in  this  State  in  the  name  of  their  children  in 
order  to  avoid  the  property  laws? 

Mr.  Tani.  Sure.  My  father  bought  a  house  in  my  name  and  my 
sister's  name  and  he  had  a  lawyer  named  as  trustee.  That  was  the 
usual  procedure,  but  we  lived  in  that  house. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  would  like  to  say  that  the  California  Supreme 
Court,  I  understand,  in  two  cases — the  Fujita  and  Yano  cases — gave 
some  countenance  to  a  type  of  guardianship.  I  would  also  like  to 
say  that  a  number  of  people  tried,  in  fact  encouraged,  the  Japanese  to 
use  this  type  of  subterfuge. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Kido  is  the  president  of  your  league? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  He  is  an  attorney  and  he  is  ill  today.  He  has  an 
impacted  tooth. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  gentlemen,  it  is  getting  late.  However,  I 
would  like  to  say  this  to  you — that  you  are  speaking  now  to  part  of 
the  Congress  of  the  United  States. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  We  appreciate  that. 

The  Chairman.  I  would  like  to  ask  you  if  you  know  of  any  place 
in  Japan  or  the  Philippines  or  Wake  Island  where  any  agency  or  part 
of  the  Japan  Parliament  is  according  to  the  American  evacuees  or 
interns  a  hearing  such  as  this. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  No.  We  appreciate  that,  very  frankly.  That  is 
what  makes  us  like  Americans  more. 

The  Chairman.  So  you  think  that  we  can  go  back  to  Washington 
now  and  rest  absolutely  and  perfectly  safe  that  there  won't  be  any 
disloyalty  from  the  Japanese  on  this  coast? 

Mr.  Masaoka.  I  think  the  great  majority  won't. 

The  Chairman.  But  it  doesn't  take  many. 

Mr.  Masaoka.  Yes,  I  understand  that.  But  I  would  like  to  make 
this  request  of  you.  Just  as  I  pointed  out,  the  tension  is  increasing 
all  around  and  immediate  action  would  be  very  helpful,  I  think,  to 
all  concerned  to  protect  us  from  mob  violence,  to  protect  against 
sabotage,  which  may  come.  Now,  I  think  a  decision  will  permit  us 
to  inform  our  people  as  to  proper  procedure,  to  help  them  to  get 
ready  to  leave,  if  necessary;  to  contact  the  proper  Government 
agencies  and  otherwise.  But  I  do  not  think  it  should  be  voluntary 
evacuation  for  the  simple  reason  that  I  am  afraid  of  what  is  happening 
in  Tulare  and  other  counties.  If  they  just  go  voluntarily  out  without 
knowing  where  they  go,  they  may  not  only  inconvenience  the  com- 
munities to  which  they  go,  but  they  may  disrupt  those  communities. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much. 

The  committee  will  stand  in  recess  until  2  o'clock. 

(Whereupon,  at  12:45  p.  m.  a  recess  was  taken  until  2  p.  m.) 


MONDAY,  FEBRUARY  23,   1942 

afternoon  session 

House  of  Representatives, 
Select  Committee  Investigating 

National  Defense  Migration, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

The  committee  met  at  2  p.  m.  in  the  post  office  building,  San  Fran- 
cisco, Calif.,  Hon.  John  H.  Tolan  (chairman)  presiding. 

Present  were:  Representatives  John  H.  Tolan  (chairman),  of  Cali- 
fornia; Laurence  F.  Arnold,  of  Illinois;  and  John  J.  Sparkman,  of 

Also  present:  Dr.  Robert  K.  Lamb,  staff  director;  John  W.  Abbott, 
chief  field  investigator;  Leonard  A.  Thomas,  counsel;  and  F.  P.  Weber, 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  please  come  to  order. 

Mr.  Clark,  you  will  be  the  first  witness. 


The  Chairman.  Mr.  Clark,  will  you  please  give  your  full  name  to 
the  reporter.     This  is  for  the  purposes  of  the  record. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes.  My  name  is  Tom  Clark  and  I  appear  here  as 
Coordinator  of  the  Enemy  Alien  Control  for  the  Western  Defense 

The  Chairman.  That  is  the  Justice  Department? 

Mr.  Clark.  Department  of  Justice;  yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Congressman  Arnold  will  interrogate  you. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Mr.  Clark,  we  are  going  to  divide  our  questions  to 
you  into  two  groups,  the  first  dealing  with  the  evacuation  tomorrow 
and  the  previous  work  of  your  office  in  connection  with  this  problem, 
and  the  second  dealing  with  the  President's  Executive  order  of  last 

We  would  like  you  to  hold  yourself  in  readiness  to  appear  again  in 
about  10  days  in  Los  Angeles  to  testify  on  later  developments  arising 
from  this  Executive  order. 

Would  you  briefly  outline  for  us  the  functions  of  your  office  and 
what  your  office  has  done  on  the  alien  problem  on  the  west  coast  to 



Mr.  Clark.  Well,  that  is  a  pretty  big  job.  I  will  do  the  best  I 
can,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  All  right. 

Mr.  Clark.  I  came  into  this  4  weeks  ago  this  coming  Thursday. 
At  that  time  there  were  so  many  agencies  that  were  engaged  in  the 
work  of  trying  to  solve  the  problem  that  there  was  no  coordina- 
tion between  them.  Since  the  President,  in  his  Executive  order  of 
January  6  and  7,  I  believe  it  is,  appointed  the  Attorney  General  to 
designate  certain  areas  as  recommended  by  the  War  Department 
from  which  alien  enemies  might  be  evacuated,  and  since  the  duty  was 
upon  the  Attorney  General — he  had  written  several  of  the  other  civil 
agencies  requesting  their  cooperation  in  affecting  an  orderly  evacua- 
tion—it was  thought  that  someone  might  be  necessary  to  coordinate 
the  various  activities  of  the  various  civil  authorities  that  might  come 
into  the  picture.  I  have  been  out  here  for  a  couple  of  years  with  the 
Department  of  Justice  and  have  three  offices  out  here  in  the  vital 
areas.  So,  they  thought  that  possibly  I  might  be  the  fellow  to  do 
that  work  and  that  was  the  reason  I  was  selected  and  that,  I  think, 
outlines  in  a  general  way  the  functions  I  have  to  perform  and  the 
duties  that  I  have  attempted  to  perform  so  far. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Have  you  just  been  engaged  in  this  work  about  4  or 
5  weeks? 

Mr.  Clark.  As  1  stated,  4  weeks  next  Thursday. 

Mr.  Arnold.  In  your  opinion,  should  there  be  a  wholesale  evacua- 
tion from  the  military  areas  of  all  citizens  and  aliens  whose  origins  are 
in  enemy  countries? 

Mr.  Clark.  1  think  it  depends 

The  Chairman  (interposing).  May  I  interrupt,  Mr.  Clark  and 
Congressman  Arnold?  We  want  you  to  feel  absolutely  free,  Mr.  Clark, 
not  to  disclose  anything  to  this  committee  that  gives  comfort  to  the 
enemy  but  also  feel  free  to  go  as  far  as  you  can. 

Mr.  Clark.  I  appreciate  that.  If  any  question  like  that  comes  up 
you  can  depend  on  me  to  be  the  first  to  say  "I  am  sorry;  I  can't 
answer."  I  will  be  glad  to  talk  to  the  committee  about  other  matters 
that  I  find  it  not  possible  to  discuss  here  if  there  are  some  of  those 

As  far  as  the  question  you  just  asked  I  would  say  this:  If  the  military 
authorities,  in  whom  I  have  the  utmost  confidence  tell  me  it  is  neces- 
sary to  remove  from  any  area  the  citizens  as  well  as  the  aliens  of  a 
certain  nationality  or  of  all  nationalities  I  would  say  the  best  thing 
to  do  would  be  to  follow  the  advice  of  the  doctor.  Whenever  you  go 
to  a  doctor  if  he  tells  you  take  aspirin  you  take  aspirin.  If  he  tells 
you  to  cut  off  your  leg  so  you  can  save  your  body  you  cut  off  your  leg. 
So  I  think  it  is  is  up  to  the  military  authorities  to  decide  that  question. 

The  Chaieman.  Well,  it  is  not  only  up  to  them  but  we  all  have  to 
obey  them. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir.     That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  no  discretion  about  it. 

Mr.  Clark.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  But  we  thought  we  could  give  them  some  facts 
that  might  help  them.     That  is  the  reason  for  these  hearings. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 



Mr.  Arnold.  Now,  in  your  opinion,  is  it  necessary  to  remove  these 
evacuees  from  the  State  of  California  and,  in  fact,  from  the  entire 
west  coast?     If  so,  what  areas  do  you  think  they  should  be  placed  in? 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  from  my  study  up  to  date  I  would  say  that 
California  can  take  care  of  the  problem,  providing  the  military 
authorities  decide  what  the  strategic  military  areas  are,  and  if  we  know 
those,  then,  we  can  move  these  people,  such  persons  as  we  think 
should  be  evacuated  from  certain  areas.  We  could  establish  some 
place  where  they  might  be  able  to  go.  I  think  that  California  could 
solve  the  problem  without  much  interference  with  other  States. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  think  there  is  enough  area  in  California  away 
from  the  coast  to  take  care  of  the  situation? 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  Congressman,  I  would  say  this:  That  largely 
depended  upon  the  military  areas  that  might  be  created.  General 
DeWitt  asked  me  this  morning  if  I  might  release  to  the  committee 
and  to  the  press  some  of  his  ideas  about  the  matter.  He  said,  "You 
know,  Tom,  we  have  the  deadline  on  the  orders  of  the  Attorney 
General."  And  the  General  stressed  the  fact  that  these  orders  were 
still  in  effect  and  that  the  alien  enemies  that  were  in  the  areas,  or  the 
prohibited  areas  which  became  effective  tomorrow  night  at  midnight 
would  have  to  evacuate.  If  they  don't,  why,  we  intend  for  the 
Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  to  see  that  they  are  evacuated.  In 
the  meanwhile,  the  General  is  working  on  such  military  areas  as  he 
and  his  staff  deem  necessary. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Clark,  if  I  may  interrupt  there.  The  Attorney 
General  of  the  State  of  California,  Mr.  Warren,  testified  here  Saturday 
that  while  they  give  information  to  your  department  they  have  no 
return  information  as  to  who  are  enemy  aliens. 

Would  you  care  to  comment  on  that?  This  committee  thinks  that 
is  very,  very  important. 


Mr.  Clark.  Well,  the  only  comment  I  would  make  on  that, 
Congressman,  would  be  that  the  list  of  enemy  aliens,  of  course,  has 
not  been  prepared  as  yet.  For  example,  we  only  had  the  list,  had  the 
cards,  the  Form  22,  as  they  call  them,  on  the  night  of  February  9. 

The  Chairman.  Y  s. 

Mr.  Clark.  There  was  a  considerable  number  of  those  Form  22 's. 
In  fact,  in  these  eight  States  there  are,  I  would  say,  at  least  four  or 
five  hundred  thousand,  so  you  can  see  what  a  job  it  is  when  you  say 
"get  up  a  list."  I  am  satisfied  of  this:  That  the  Federal  Bureau  of 
Investigation  will  cooperate  with  any  enforcement  agency,  local  or 
otherwise,  in  order  to  solve  the  problem. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  made  reference  to  the  effective  date  of  this 
order,  tomorrow  night  at  midnight.     Isn't  that  tonight  at  midnight? 

Mr.  Clark.  No,  sir.  We  construed  the  last  order,  the  15th,  having 
come  on  Sunday,  as  being  effective  Monday  morning,  so  we  are  con- 
struing this  one  as  being  effective  at  midnight,  the  24th,  the  date  that 
is  stated  in  the  order  itself,  so  tomorrow  is  the  last  day. 



The  General  further  asked  me  to  state  that  he  was  hopeful  that  the 
enemy  aliens  in  these  areas  would  move  out  voluntarily.  He  thought 
that  they  would.  And  while  he  was  studying  the  problem  of  additional 
military  areas  that  he  would  create  under  the  Presidential  order,  or 
the  Executive  order,  he  hoped  that  the  alien  enemies  would  be  pre- 
paring themselves  to  evacuate  voluntarily. 

The  Chairman.  I  don't  think  all  of  the  American  people  recognize 
the  importance  of  the  time  element  in  this  matter.  Everything  has 
come  on  us  in  a  rush.  On  Saturday  we  were  with  General  DeWitt  for 
an  hour  and  a  half,  and  he  told  us  to  tell  the  public:  "There  will  be  no 
mass  evacuation.     Hardship  cases  will  be  taken  care  of." 

The  Executive  order  of  last  Friday  changed  everything.  So  the 
point  is  that  as  far  as  your  Justice  Department  is  concerned,  you  are 
going  to  cooperate  with  the  civil  and  local  enforcement  agencies  of  this 
State,  aren't  you? 

Mr.  Clark.  We  are  going  to  do  everything  that  General  DeWitt 
requests  us  to  do.  In  our  conference  this  morning,  he  asked  me  to 
see  about  coordinating  matters  much  in  the  same  way  that  we  had 
done  in  the  past.  Of  course,  the  primary  party  responsible  to  carry 
out  the  Executive  order  of  last  Friday  is  the  Army.  Personally,  I 
think,  like  I  am  sure  you  do,  sir,  and  like  the  other  congressmen  of 
California,  evidenced  in  their  statements  in  the  public  press,  that  the 
Army  is  the  proper  party  to  carry  this  out  because  they  are  the  only 
department  of  government  that  have  the  facilities  and  the  personnel 
with  which  to  do  it  in  an  effective  way. 

The  Chairman.  Yes;  but  the  reason  that  we  are  here,  Mr.  Clark, 
is  that  the  high  officials  at  Washington  thought  we  should  come  out 
here  and  get  the  opinion  of  the  coast  people  who  are  directly  involved, 
don't  you  see?     They  might  have  some  ideas  too. 

TVTt  C">t  at?.tc    ~±  gs  sir 

The  Chairman,  in  other  words,  we  are  not  telling  you  what  to  do 
but  we  can  give  you  some  facts  in  these  open  hearings? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  as  far  as  the  Army  is  concerned,  General 
DeWitt  told  us  Saturday  afternoon  that  he  has  never  been  so  pleased 
in  his  entire  army  life  as  he  is  with  the  work  that  your  department  is 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  that  pleases  me  very  much. 

The  Chairman.  But  still  you  are  human  and  therefore  not  a 
hundred  percent  perfect  as  far  as  this  is  concerned? 

Mr.  Clark.  That  is  right,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  to  live  in  this  country  after  this  war  is 
over  and  we  have  nationalities  no  other  country  has.  We  are  a 
melting  pot  of  the  world.  Maybe,  we  will  get  some  ideas  here.  But, 
at  least,  the  people  of  the  Pacific  coast  are  going  to  be  helped  anyway. 
We  are  not  telling  you  what  to  do  but  we  might  give  you  some  ideas. 

help  needed  to  solve  problem 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  I  might  say  on  that  we  certainly  do  need  some 
ideas.     We  need  your  help.     I  know  personally  I  would  welcome  it 


and  I  feel  certain,  although  I  haven't  talked  to  the  General,  that 
he  would  be  happy  to  have  them.  We  all  have  to  work  out  this 
problem  together.  I  told  that  to  the  State  defense  councils  I  had  the 
pleasure  of  meeting  with  over  the  State  during  the  past  couple  of 
weeks.  To  solve  this  problem  we  will  all  have  to  put  our  shoulders 
to  the  wheel. 

I  am  happy  to  see  your  committee  here,  sir.  I  am  sorry  I  couldn't 
be  here  Saturday,  but  I  only  left  Washington  Saturday  afternoon 
about  2  o'clock,  and  we  were  grounded  yesterday  morning  in  Denver 
and  only  arrived  here  last  night.  We  have  these  three  offices,  one  in 
Los  Angeles,  one  here,  one  in  Seattle.  They  are  staffed  by  experienced 
lawyers,  the  staff  we  have  gotten  in  the  past  2  years.  They  are  at  your 
disposal,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Now,  Mr.  Clark,  do  you  know  in  a  general  way  where 
the  people  moving  on  the  15th  of  February  have  gone? 

Mr.  Clark.  There  were  less  than  400  that  were  required  to  move 
from  those  specific  areas  on  that  day.  I  am  sure  that  several  groups 
moved  out  of  other  areas.  Mr.  Neustadt  could  give  you  that  infor- 
mation better  than  I.  I  understand  that  he  is  preparing  a  list  which 
will  be  available,  possibly,  in  a  couple  of  days  and  he  will  be  happy  to 
furnish  that  for  you. 

The  Chairman.  He  is  here  now. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir.  My  ideas  would  be  just  a  guess  and  if  you 
don't  mind  I  would  rather  not  guess  on  a  matter  like  that. 


Mr.  Arnold.  All  right.  Have  any  protests  been  received  by  your 
office  from  communities  which  do  not  wish  to  receive  evacuees? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  We  had  testimony  here  on  Saturday  to  the  effect  that 
the  citizens  of  Tulare  County  were  resisting  the  entrance  of  Japanese 
enemy  aliens  into  that  county.  If  this  be  true  what  action  is  your 
office  prepared  to  take  with  respect  to  this  situation? 

Mr.  Clark.  The  Tulare  citizens  have  wired  several  of  us  about  the 
problem  there.  They  say  that  it  would  be  better  for  the  community 
if  there  were  no  further  migration  of  Japanese  into  that  area.  Frankly, 
we  don't  have  any  idea  of  evacuating  any  Japanese  into  Tulare. 
But  if  any  of  them  happen  to  come  in  there,  why,  I  hope  the  patri- 
otism of  the  resident  will  be  longer  than  their  noses  and  that  they  will 
at  least  receive  them  until  we  can  find  a  little  better  place  in  which  to 
place  these  unfortunate  folks. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  not  think  this  arises  from  the  emphasis  placed 
to  date  on  the  machinery  for  evacuation  rather  than  for  locating  these 

8,067    ALIEN    ENEMIES   IN   AREAS 

Mr.  Clark.  The  best  statistics  that  we  had  on  the  areas  that  the 
Army  requested  the  Attorney  General  to  designate  showed  that  there 
were  8,067  enemy  aliens  within  all  of  the  areas.  Of  that  number  there 
were  only  about  2,800  of  Japanese  lineage.  Two  thousand  of  those 
live  around  the  municipal  airport  in  Los  Angeles.     So  after  consulting 


with  Mr.  Neustadt,  who  has  done,  by  the  way,  a  splendid  job  on  this 
whole  proposition 

The  Chairman  (interposing).  He  is  blushing  now  on  account  of 
that  compliment. 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  I  mean  that,  sir.  I  told  him  that  last  night,  and 
I  wired  him  from  Washington. 

Mr.  Arnold.  We  think  so,  too. 

Mr.  Clark.  The  Department  of  Agriculture,  likewise,  has  done  a 
splendid  job  in  telling  us  where  the  agricultural  areas  that  were  suited 
to  these  particular  types  of  people  are  located  and  where  labor  is 
needed  at  certain  periods  and  dates.  We  decided  that  these  2,800 
Japanese  could  be  easily  cared  for  in  different  areas  without  creating 
any  concentration  or  reservoir  place.  You  might  establish  a  registra- 
tion center.  We  proceeded  along  the  theory  that  those  8,000  could 
be  assimilated  easily  into  the  various  areas  of  California.  And  I  think 
our  position  has  been  proven  true. 


I  sent  a  man  around  to  the  Municipal  Airport  last  Friday  and  he 
telephoned  me  he  couldn't  find  any  Japanese  there.  I  think  that  we 
have  shown  that  they  can  be  evacuated  from  those  areas  that  have 
been  designated  by  the  Attorney  General  at  the  request  of  the  War 
Department,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Can  you  tell  us  how  much  of  the  movement  on  the 
15th  of  February  disrupted  the  employment  pattern  of  the  areas 

Mr.  Clark.  I  am  a  lawyer  and  I  don't  know  about  that.  How- 
ever, I  would  say  it  didn't  affect  it  at  all. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  know  if  any  of  these  people  have  found 

Mr.  Clark.  Mr.  Neustadt  can  tell  you  that.  I  don't  imagine  he 
has  that  information  in  his  head  but  he  can  get  it  from  his  records. 
But  the  whole  program,  sir,  was  predicated  on  the  proposition  that 
they  would  find  employment.  In  fact,  that  is  why  I  insisted  on  hav- 
ing Mr.  Neustadt  and  his  group,  because  the  United  States  Employ- 
ment Service  operates  in  California  and  Washington  and  Oregon. 

On  every  poster  we  put  up  in  an  area  and  on  every  piece  of  news- 
paper publicity  I  stated  that  these  enemy  aliens  should  go  to  their 
local  employment  office  and  Social  Security  Board,  not  only  for  infor- 
mation as  to  what  restricted  areas  were  created  and  whether  they 
lived  in  them  but  to  secure  advice  and  counsel  and  assistance  in 
evacuating  an  area. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  wonder  if  your  office  has  adequate  statistics  as  to 
the  age,  the  sex,  and  the  occupational  characteristics  of  those  who 
are  being  evacuated? 

Mr.  Clark.  No.     We  don't. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  know  whether  there  has  been  any  discussion 
of  using  evacuees  in  reclamation  work  or  on  strategic  military  roads 
or  farm  work? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir.  There  has  been.  Our  form  22  on  the  regis- 
tration will  have  all  that  information.  I  am  sure  Mr.  Neustadt's 
information  includes  all  that.     We  also  require  the  enemy  aliens  to 


secure  permission  from  the  district  attorney  before  they  can  move  so 
we  will  know  every  one  that  moves  and  where  they  have  moved  to. 
Then,  by  reference  to  form  22  we  could  give  you  the  information  that 
you  would  like  to  have. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Has  any  arrangement  been  worked  out  with  the 
United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  for  the  employment  in 
agriculture  in  California  of  evacuees? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir;  they  have  been  out  here.  Mr.  Dodd  came 
out  from  Washington.  Mr.  Thompson,  who  sits  here  [indicating], 
came  out  and  has  been  working  very  closely  with  the  war  boards  in 
all  the  counties. 


Mr.  Arnold.  We  understand  that  no  provision  has  been  made  for 
disposing  of  the  nonmovable  property  of  aliens  and  that  many  of  them 
are  sacrificing  it. 

Do  you  not  feel  a  custodianship  should  have  been  instituted  before 
the  evacuation  on  the  15th  of  February? 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  sir,  I  think  that  that  is  a  condition  that  should 
never  have  existed. 

And  it  is  rapidly  becoming  worse.  I  have  some  letters  indicating 
that  persons  not  informed  as  to  which  areas  are  being  and  to  be 
evacuated  have  sold  their  machinery  and  their  property  for  practically 
nothing.  Frankly,  I  think  that  if  your  committee  could  bring  about 
the  appointment  or  the  designation  of  the  proper  party  to  take  care 
of  the  property  of  these  unfortunate  people,  you  would  have  done  a 
splendid  day's  work.  In  fact,  it  would  be  well  worth  all  your  trip  out 
here  if  you  could  get  that  done  and  done  immediately. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  Mr.  Clark,  we  were  not  here  12  hours  when 
we  immediately  phoned  Washington  about  this  serious  proposition. 

Mr.  Clark.  That  is  fine,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  the  reason  for  the  delay  is  that  Washington 
is  3,000  miles  away.  They  still  don't  have  the  story  about  vulner- 
ability of  the  Pacific  coast.  We  found  it  was  a  question  of  jurisdic- 
tion. Then,  we  found  out  that  the  Treasury  Department  has  the 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  it  doesn't  matter  who  has  the  jurisdiction  just  so 
they  get  busy. 


The  Chairman.  We  have  to  have  a  regional  office  here  to  take  care 
of  the  property  of  aliens.     That  is  true,  isn't  it? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  We  have  got  to  do  it  at  once.     Isn't  that  true? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  it  should  precede  the  evacuation, 
is  that  right? 

Mr.  Clark.  I  think  that  would  have  been  the  orderly  process,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  just  returned  from  Washington,  Mr.  Clark. 
Do  you  know  if  there  are  any  plans  to  establish  such  an  office  or  make 

60396— 4L>— pt.  29 14 


other  arrangements  before  the  invocation  of  the  President's  recent 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  There  are  plans? 

Mr.  Clark.  There  are,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  know  whether  the  War  Department  plans  to 
call  on  the  Department  of  Justice  to  assist  in  the  evacuations  under 
the  President's  order? 

Mr.  Clark.  General  DeWitt  told  me  he  intended  to  do  that,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Do  you  know  whether  the  Federal  Security  Agency 
plans  to  call  on  the  Department  of  Justice  to  assist  in  evacuations 
under  the  President's  order? 

Mr.  Clark.  I  don't  know.     Mr.  Nuestadt? 

Mr.  Neustadt.  If  the  Army  wants  us  to  help  or  the  Department 
of  Justice  wants  us  to  help  they  call  on  us. 

all  agencies  must  cooperate 

Mr.  Clark.  Under  the  President's  order  the  General  can  call  on 
any  governmental  agency. 

Mr.  Arnold.  In  other  words,  you  intend  to  all  cooperate? 

Mr.  Clark.  I'll  say  we  do. 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  do  the  job  to  the  best  of  your  ability? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Arnold.  We  understand  that  the  enemy  aliens  evacuated 
bear  the.  expense  of  movement.  Are  any  plans  contemplated  for 
changing  this  arrangement  under  the  President's  recent  order? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes;  the  order  provides  for  it. 

The  Chairman.  From  under  what  appropriation  will  that  money 

Mr.  Clark.  That  is  what  I  have  been  wondering  about.  I  talked 
to  some  of  your  good  colleagues.  They  told  me  they  would  be 
happy  to  request  an  appropriation  for  this  purpose.  The  War  De- 
partment is  taking  care  of  that. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  it  is  being  taken  care  of  through  the 
emergency  fund. 

Mr.  Clark.  The  President  gave  Mr.  McNutt,  who  is  Mr.  Neu- 
stadt's  boss,  a  half  million  to  take  care  of  this  emergency  that  we  have. 

Mr.  Arnold.  I  realize  you  can't  commit  yourself  on  the  size  of 
future  evacuations.  However,  Mr.  Neustadt  testified  that  at  present 
no  Federal  agencies  are  equipped  to  handle  the  evacuation  of  a  large 
number  of  aliens  or  citizens. 

Would  you  agree  with  this  statement? 


Mr.  Clark.  Well,  I  don't  think  that  there  is  going  to  be  any  mass 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  don't  think  there  will  be  any  mass  evacuations? 

Mr.  Clark.  Just  as  Congressman  Tolan  said  a  moment  ago.  Gen- 
eral DeWitt  doesn't  intend  to  have  any  mass  evacuations.  Frankly, 
I  think  it  is  just  a  question  of  our  being  able  to  tell  these  people 


where  they  can  go.  Then  those  that  don't  go,  will  be  evacuated. 
But  the  Army  can  take  care  of  that  without  any  trouble. 

Mr.  Arnold.  You  don't  know  of  any  plans  for  organizing  a  new 
agency  to  take  care  of  this? 

Mr.  Clark.  No,  sir;  there  are  no  plans. 

The  Chairman.  May  I  interrupt  at  this  point.  I  am  trying  to 
think  this  thing  out,  as  we  go  along. 

The  Army  is  working  on  this  problem.  We  have  the  civilian  defense 
organizations  in  cities.  We  have  a  Justice  Department;  we  have  the 
Social  Security. 

Should  there  be  some  place,  on  the  Pacific  coast,  a  sort  of  a  clearing 
house,  a  central  body  that  checks  in  to  see  how  you  folks  are  getting 
along,  to  make  contacts  with  the  law  enforcement  agencies  of  Oregon, 
Washington,  and  California?  Do  you  think  that  something  like  that 
would  be  helpful? 

Mr.  Clark.  I  don't  believe  so,  sir.  Well,  it  all  depends  on  the 
jurisdiction  that  you  gave  them  and  the  size  of  the  agency  and  just 
what  their  function  would  be.  Frankly,  I  think,  we  have  gotten 
along  a  hundred  percent. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  that  is  really  your  job,  anyhow,  isn't  it? 

Mr.  Clark.  That  is  what  I  have  been  doing. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  You  are  a  clearing  house  for  those  agents? 

Mr.  Clark.  I  have  been  clearing  them  24  hours  a  day.  It  is  hard 
on  my  wife  but  it  is  not  so  hard  on  me. 

The  Chairman.  Yes;  you  are  clearing  the  people  out. 

Mr.  Clark.  No.  I  talk  to  Mr.  Neustadt  and  he  talks  to  his  folks 
and  his  lawyer,  and  I  get  together  with  them  and  we  talk  over  his 
problems.  Mr.  Thompson  and  I  got  together  every  time  I  was  in 
Washington.  Mr.  Dodd  came  out,  and  I  talked  to  him.  He  is  an 
agricultural  commissioner.  We  have  talked  to  the  W.  P.  A.  Mr. 
Hunter  was  out,  and  he  sent  Mr.  Nicholson  from  Salt  Lake  City. 
I  talked  to  Earl  Warren  two  or  three  times.  I  talked  to  Mayor 
Bowron  down  in  Los  Angeles,  where  our  trouble  is,  and  Mr.  Allen, 
who  is  in  charge  of  my  office  here  in  San  Francisco  and  up  north.  He 
contacted  people  up  there. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  right  there,  Mr.  Clark:  The  mayor 
of  Oakland,  or  the  mayor  of  Berkeley  he  can't  come  over  here  and  see 
General  DeWitt. 

Mr.  Clark.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  He  is  busy  and  he  can't  talk  to  your  boss,  Mr. 
Hoover.     They  have  got  certain  ideas.     Now,  where  can  they  go? 

Mr.  Clark.  They  have  been  coming  to  me,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  They  have  been  coming  to  you? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir;  or  to  my  office.  Of  course,  when  I  am  not 
here  my  office  goes  on. 

The  Chairman.  I  want  to  ask  another  question.  Do  you  think 
the  Justice  Department  knows  any  more,  for  instance,  as  to  who  the 
disloyal  citizens  of  Oakland  or  Berkeley,  Calif.,  are  than  the  local 
police  officers? 

Mr.  Clark.  I  think  that  is  a  problem  for  all  of  us  to  consider,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  do  you  pay  any  attention  to  them? 

Mr.  Clark.  To  the  local  police? 



The  Chairman.  Yes,  to  the  local  police. 

Mr.  Clark.  I  do,  yes  sir.  They  have  been  very  helpful  in  our 
various  raids  that  you  no  doubt  read  about  in  the  newspapers. 

The  Chairman.  They  have  been  very  helpful? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  now,  I  just  wanted  to  get  that  thought  over 
to  the  people  over  there.  I  wanted  to  get  that  thought  over.  Who 
do  they  go  to?  Do  they  go  to  you,  or  do  they  go  to  DeWitt;  do 
they  go  to  give  information? 

Mr.  Clark.  They  have  been. 

The  Chairman.  Have  you  got  a  clearing  house 

Mr.  Clark  (interposing).  They  have  been  coming  to  me.  And 
the  General,  whenever  anybody  contacts  him,  has  been  sending  them 
to  me.  He  gets  letters,  of  course,  and  usually  sends  them  over  if  he 
thinks  that  is  anything  to  it  at  all. 

We  have  an  office  here  that  takes  care  of  that.  Then,  Mr.  Harring- 
ton, of  my  office,  is  in  Los  Angeles,  and  Mr.  Burdell  takes  care  of 
Seattle  and  Portland. 

We  are  lawyers.  We  don't  presume  to  know  much  about  some  of 
the  problems  that  are  involved  here.  We  think  that  is  largely  a  mili- 
tary problem.  We  are  trying  in  an  emergency  that  came  up  very 
suddenly,  as  you  have  already  stated,  to  fill  in  a  gap.  It  is  going  to 
be  a  program  that  is  going  to  take  a  long  time  to  work  out. 

I  think  your  over -agency  idea  would  be  all  right,  or  that  one  such 
agency,  other  than  the  Justice  Department,  should  be  designated, 
such  as  the  Social  Security,  for  example.  You  have  here  a  resettle- 
ment problem.     We  are  not  resettlement  people,  we  are  lawyers. 

Mr.  Arnold.  Have  plans  been  made  in  connection  with  the  Farm 
Security  Administration  and  the  Work  Projects  Administration  to 
assist  in  the  forthcoming  evacuations  out  of  prohibited  areas? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir.  I  talked  to  Baldwin.  He  is  head  of  the 
Farm  Security,  and  to  Mr.  Hunter  of  the  W^ork  Projects  Adminis- 

Mr.  Arnold.  And  they  are  going  to  cooperate  in  this  movement? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  There  isn't  presently  any  alien  property  custodian 
out  here,  is  there? 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  the  Federal  Reserve  bank,  through  Mr.  Hale,  as 
I  understand  it,  has  charge  of  what  you  might  call  the  stop  accounts  or 
the  frozen  accounts  in  banks.  I  don't  think  there  is  any  other  agency. 
When  I  left  Washington  last  Saturday  there  was  no  other. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Clark,  you  are  familiar,  of  course,  with  the 
Executive  order  of  the  President  issued  last  Friday? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  And  you  took  part  back  in  Washington  in  the 
conversations  in  relation  to  that  Executive  order,  is  that  true? 

Mr.  Clark.  That  is  true;  sir. 


The  Chairman.  Will  you  state  briefly  for  the  record  and  for  the 
people  here  what  you  understand  that  Executive  order  to  mean? 


Mr.  Clark.  I  think  the  Executive  order  simply  places  in  the 
Secretary  of  War  the  authority  that  is  vested  in  the  President  under 
his  war  powers  to  create  such  military  zones  as  the  Secretary  of  War 
or  any  commander  designated  by  the  Secretary  of  War  may  think  is 
necessary  to  protect  any  part  of  the  United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Clark,  the  congressional  delegations  of  Oregon, 
Washington,  and  California  met  almost  daily.  That  Executive  order 
followed  the  recommendation  of  this  Pacific  coast  delegation. 

Mr.  Clark.  I  think  you  did  a  swell  job. 

The  Chairman.  So  far  I  haven't  heard  one  single  complaint  about 
j^our  Department  or  General  DeWitt. 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  that  is  mighty  nice. 

The  Chairman.  But  I  still  think  that  the  local  enforcement  agencies 
ought  to  get  into  this  picture  a  little  bit  more  and  be  heard. 

Whether  or  not  you  are  going  to  be  the  clearing  house  for  them  to 
come  to,  we  don't  care.  But  there  should  be  some  place  and  some- 
where that  this  could  be  done.  We  have  got  to  back  it  up — this  work, 
with  the  men  and  women  of  California  and  Oregon  and  Washington. 

Now,  let  me  tell  you  something  further.  It  is  admitted  in  Wash- 
ington that  the  most  vulnerable  part  of  the  United  States  is  the  Pacific 
coast.  They  tell  us  there  that  the  West  coast  can  be  bombed  and 
probably  will  be  bombed,  so  we  haven't  any  time  to  lose.  We  are 
here  as  a  sort  of  a  sounding  board  to  get  the  opinions  of  you  people. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  First  I  think  an  alien  property  custodian  should  be 
appointed  at  once  so  that  we  don't  hurt  any  more  people  out  here 
than  we  have  to.  Secondly,  I  think  the  enforcement  officers  in  these 
cities  should  have  a  clearinghouse  to  go  to — either  to  you,  or  to  who- 
ever has  that  capacity. 

POSITION    OF    F.    B.    I.    IN    EVACUATION 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  I  agree  with  you  on  the  first  point.  On  the 
second,  the  President  in  his  Executive  order,  issued  2  or  3  days  after 
Pearl  Harbor,  designated  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  and 
called  upon  all  law  enforcement  officers  and  other  persons,  citizens  or 
otherwise,  to  report  to  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation  itself  and 
various  offices  over  the  United  States  any  matter  that  they  thought 
would  be  of  benefit  to  insure  the  proper  enforcement  of  our  laws  and 
the  prevention  of  sabotage  and  espionage  in  the  United  States. 

Frankly,  Mr.  Hoover,  has,  I  think,  one  of  the  finest  organizations 
that  has  ever  been  set  up  of  this  type. 

The  Chairman.  We  agree  with  you. 

Mr.  Clark.  I  think  you  have  to  have  an  over-all  picture  of  the 
United  States.  I  grant  you  that  you  have  a  peculiar  situation  in 
California,  but  we  have  to  look  at  it  on  a  broad  plane.  If  these  law- 
enforcement  agencies  will  report  and  cooperate  with  the  Federal 
Bureau  of  Investigation  I  think  you  have  the  answer  to  your  prob- 
lem. But  that  is  out  of  my  line.  I  am  not  an  investigator.  I  am 
under  the  Attorney  General  of  the  United  States;  those  matters  are 
entirely  up  to  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation.  They  have  been 
doing  a  swell  job,  as  I  think  you  will  agree. 

The  Chairman.  Absolutely. 


Mr.  Clark.  Now,  if  these  local  officers  or  any  citizens  will  report 
any  matter  that  they  think  the  F.  B.  I  should  know,  they  will  find 
that  prompt  attention  will  be  given  to  it  and  absolute  cooperation. 


Mr.  Sparkman.  You  would  have  been  interested  in  hearing  the 
testimony  of  the  panel  of  officials  from  the  East  Bay  area  this  morn- 
ing. They  were  not  particularly  complaining  but  they  did  mention 
some  things  that  might  easily  be  smoothed  out. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Such  things  as  this:  For  instance,  when  the  seizure 
of  alien  property  began — cameras,  radios,  and  so  forth — they  said  the 
only  information  they  ever  had  of  that  was  through  the  newspapers 
and  the  radio.  They  stated  that  aliens  brought  their  property  in  and 
that  they  had  had  no  instructions  whatsoever  from  anybody  in  the 
Federal  Government,  asking  them  to  receive  that  property,  or  telling 
them  what  to  do  with  it,  or  how  to  handle  it. 

It  seems  to  me  that  cooperation  is  a  matter  that  works  both  ways 
and  that  in  all  fairness  to  those  local  officials  they  should  have  re- 
ceived some  definite  instructions  or  requests  from  some  agency  of  the 
Federal  Government  as  to  how  to  operate. 

Here  is  another  thing  they  mentioned.  In  picking  out  some  of 
these  defense  areas  and  strategic  military  areas,  the  local  officials, 
who  know  a  great  deal  more  about  their  own  community  than  some 
of  the  outside  people  can  possibly  know,  were  never  consulted  and  the 
result  was  that  some  very  peculiar  situations  developed.  In  one  of 
the  East  Bay  cities  it  was  stated  that  the  most  important  military  area 
had  not  been  designated  as  a  restricted  or  prohibited  area,  whereas, 
other  areas  of  much  less  importance  had  been  so  designated. 

I  am  just  wondering  whether  in  your  capacity  as  coordinator  some- 
thing can't  be  done  to  let  these  local  people,  who  feel  their  responsi- 
bility to  report  irregularities  and  cases  of  disloyalty  to  the  F.  B.  I., 
also  participate  in  the  whole  program? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir;  I  think  that  is  a  good  suggestion.  As  to  the 
cameras,  that  order  was  entered  back  in  December.  As  I  stated,  I 
didn't  come  into  this  picture  until  about  3  or  4  weeks  ago.  I  found 
out  then  that  some  of  the  material  that  had  been  picked  up  was  being 
kept  in  various  offices,  so  I  got  Washington  to  enter  an  order  requiring 
everybody  to  turn  it  over  to  the  United  States  marshal  so  we  could 
have  it  one  place. 

F.    B.    I.    IN    CHARGE    OF    EVACUATION 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  to  make  it  more  recent,  they  say  this  evacua- 
tion order  is  going  into  effect  tomorrow  but  not  one  word  has  been 
said  to  the  law-enforcement  officers  with  reference  to  moving  the 
people  out  of  these  areas. 

Who  is  going  to  move  them  out? 

Mr.  Clark.  The  F.  B.  I. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Without  the  cooperation  of  local  officials? 

Mr.  Clark.  Oh,  they  will  ask  for  that  when  it  is  necessary.  The 
local  officials,  in  fact,  posted  those  whole  areas  for  us. 


Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  now,  that  is  contrary  to  these  mayors  and 
chief  of  police  this  morning. 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  the  civil-defense  boards  did. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  believe  we  even  had  some  of  those  here  too  and 
they  said  not. 

Mr.  Clark.  They  have  been  very  cooperative.  All  we  did  was  to 
have  the  posters  printed  and  then  called  in  the  local  defense  board 
chairmen.  They  had  them  distributed  and  posted  in  the  various 
areas.  It  was  most  effective  in  southern  California  particularly. 
We  have  done  the  same  thing  up  here. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  hope  when  the  testimony  of  the  morning  session 
becomes  available  you  will  read  particularly  what  these  gentlemen  said 
from  over  in  that  area  because  it  did  give  a  picture  of  lack  of  coordi- 
nation and  lack  of  cooperation,  even  though  they  were  anxious  to 

Mr.  Clark.  I  will  be  happy  to  get  that  testimony.  Everybody 
knows  where  the  areas  are;  the  local  defense  board  posted  them. 

As  far  as  evacuation  is  concerned,  frankly,  I  don't  think  we  are 
going  to  need  anybody  to  evacuate  them  other  than  the  F.  B.  I. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  now,  that  is  true,  probably,  on  this  particular 
evacuation  but  as  other  areas  are  set  up  and  the  people  are  moved 
farther  and  farther  inland,  it  seems  to  me  that  you  are  probably 
going  to  have  to  change  from  a  voluntary  evacuation  to  one  of  actual 
moving  of  the  people. 


Mr.  Clark.  I  think  so,  too.  I  think,  in  that  instance  the  Army 
would  be  charged  with  that  responsibility  and  if  they  decide,  like  the 
F.  B.  I.  has  in  the  past,  to  call  upon  local  officials.  I  am  sure  they  will. 
We  have  found  local  officials  not  only  anxious  but  willing  to  cooperate 
in  every  request  that  we  have  made. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  these  gentlemen  signified  their  willingness 
and  their  desire. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  But  I  did  gather  from  their  statements  that  there 
was  a  feeling  of  lack  of  instructions,  lack  of  knowledge,  and  lack  of 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  I  am  sorry  that  they  have  that  feeling. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  just  wanted  to  call  your  attention  to  that.  I 
thought  it  would  be  of  interest  to  you.     That  is  all. 

Mr.  Clark.  I  appreciate  that  very  much. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Clark,  I  just  have  one  or  two  questions  to  ask 
you.  We  don't  want  you  to  get  the  idea  that  we  are  here  in  criticism 
of  you.  We  think  you  have  done  a  fine  job.  General  DeWitt  thinks 
so  too.     What  is  the  number  of  your  staff? 

Mr.  Clark.  We  have  31  lawyers  and  about  15  stenographers. 

The  Chairman.  And  what  area  do  you  cover? 

Mr.  Clark.  We  cover  three  States. 

The  Chairman.  How  many  people  are  involved  in  this  evacuation, 
would  you  say? 


8,000    TO    BE    EVACUATED 

Mr.  Clark.  In  the  evacuations,  up  to  date,  around  8,000. 

The  Chairman.  8,000. 

Dr.  Lamb.  Does  that  include  the  evacuation  effective  on  tomorrow, 
the  24th? 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  think  your  staff  is  sufficient? 

Mr.  Clark.  I  spoke  to  the  Attorney  General  about  that  and  we 
are  increasing  the  staff,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  How  much? 

Mr.  Clark.  He  told  me  to  put  on  any  number  I  thought  was 
necessary.  I  don't  think  we  are  going  to  need  very  many  more. 
The  Army  has  indicated  that  they  have  plenty  forces  to  help.  Frankly 
we  don't  need  lawyers  to  do  this  type  of  work. 

The  Chairman.  Congressman  Sparkman's  questions,  I  think,  hit 
the  heart  of  the  whole  tiling  and  that  is  the  coordination  between 
the  local  enforcement  agencies  and  you. 


Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir.  I  just  received  a  note  from  Mr.  Allen,  who 
manages  this  area  up  here.  He  tells  me  the  East  Bay  area  was  posted 
by  the  Civil  Defense  Council  of  Alameda  County,  that  the  city 
manager  and  the  Civil  Defense  Board  of  Antioch  posted  them.  The 
sheriff  posted  them  along  the  coast  points  and  the  Oregon  State 
police  posted  them  in  Oregon  and  the  highway  police  posted  them  in 

Now,  there  are  a  lot  of  these  people  that  are  anxious  to  help  and 
we  are  anxious  to  get  them  to  help.  But  when  you  get  too  many  it 
just  creates  confusion,  so  we  have  called  upon  those  whom  we  think 
are  best  suited  geographically  or  otherwise  to  do  the  work  that  we 
have  in  hand  at  that  particular  time  and,  frankly,  we  have  gotten  a 
hundred  percent  cooperation. 

The  Chairman.  But  have  you  been  designated  by  Washington  as 
a  sort  of  a  clearing  house  for  the  contacts  with  the  local  officials  or  have 
you  just  taken  that  authority  and  are  doing  the  best  you  can? 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  I  think  the  people,  possibly  from  the  newspaper 
stories,  decided  they  would  call  somebody  and  they  began  calling  me. 
In  fact,  I  had  to  move  my  hotel  because  they  called  me  so  much. 

The  Chairman.  Take  the  city  of  Oakland.  If  they  have  a  situation 
there  or  have  some  ideas  about  the  areas  or  who  should  be  evacuated, 
who  are  loyal  and  who  are  disloyal,  who  would  they  go  to? 


Mr.  Clark.  The  Army  has  designated  all  of  the  areas  and  they  have 
picked  those  areas  from  a  military  standpoint.  Personally,  I  wouldn't 
quarrel  with  them  from  a  military  standpoint. 

The  Chairman.  We  can't.     They  have  the  jurisdiction. 

Mr.  Clark.  They  know  where  the  defense  areas  are;  they  know 
where  the  defense  plants  are.  They  know  what  their  problem  is. 
I  am  not  going  to  quarrel  with  them  about  that.  I  have  had  several 
protests  which  I  have  taken  up  with  the  general  and  he  has  had  investi- 


gations  made  by  his  staff.  Of  course,  what  you  must  remember  is 
that  these  original  designations  are  just  beginning  in  an  effort  to  solve 
the  problem.  It  is  a  progressive  problem.  It  is  one  that  you  can't 
solve  overnight. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Clark.  So  the  general,  in  designating  these  areas,  was  desig- 
nating those  that  he  thought  were  the  most  strategic  and  that  should 
be  evacuated  as  soon  as  possible.  Later  he  is  going  to  add  additional 

The  Chairman.  I  am  satisfied  about  that  area  proposition  because 
we  can't  do  anything  about  it.  That  is  up  to  the  military  authorities. 
Let's  not  waste  any  time  on  that. 

Whom  do  the  local  enforcement  officers  go  to  in  Oakland  to  report 
cases  of  loyalty  and  disloyalty? 

Mr.  Clark.  The  F.  B.  I. 

Dr.  Lamb.  On  that  point,  Mr.  Clark,  it  isn't  a  question  of  loyalty  or 
disloyalty.  As  far  as  this  evacuation  is  concerned  it  is  a  question  of 
alien  or  citizen.  You  evacuate  them  because  they  are  in  a  certain 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir. 

Dr.  Lamb.  Appeal  at  this  time  makes  no  difference. 

The  Chairman.  Oh,  yes,  Doctor. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Not  yet. 

The  Chairman.  Oh,  yes;  it  does.  There  is  absolutely  going  to  be 


Dr.  Lamb.  I  would  like  to  ask  Mr.  Clark  that  question  with  respect 
to  the  24th. 

Is  it  true,  Mr.  Clark,  that  so  far  there  have  been  no  exceptions  made 
on  the  basis  of  appeals  because  the  person  is  said  to  be  loyal? 

Mr.  Clark.  It  has  not  been  based  on  that  at  all.  There  are  no 
exceptions  for  that. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Not  yet. 

Mr.  Clark.  Under  the  new  order  it  is  a  different  proposition. 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  Let's  get  down  to  brass  tacks  now.  The 
wording  of  the  Executive  order  is  such  as  to  include  the  evacuation  of 
all  citizens.  Well,  it  won't  mean  exactly  that  in  practice;  we  know 
that.  It  is  going  to  be  put  on  a  registration  permit  basis  with  dis- 
tinction made  between  loyal  and  disloyal.  It  has  not  been  set  up 
yet.  It  will  be  set  up  because  we  discussed  that  for  days  back  in 
Washington.     There  is  no  question  about  that. 

But  what  I  would  like  to  know,  who  do  those  people  go  to?  Do 
they  go  to  you? 

Mr.  Clark.  You  see,  the  Doctor  is  talking  about  the  old  order  that 
the  Attorney  General  had  jurisdiction  over,  while  you  are  talking 
about  the  Executive  order  of  the  President.     Is  that  right? 

Dr.  Lamb.  I  had  reference  to  the  fact  that  to  date  there  is  no 
machinery  set  up  for  such  decision. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes.  Now,  of  course,  under  the  President's  order, 
that  is  up  to  General  DeWitt. 

The  Chairman.  Oh,  yes,  we  agree  on  that;  it  has  not  been  set  up 


Mr.  Clark.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  But  I  am  still  thinking  in  terms  of  how  these  local 
officials  act?     Who  do  they  go  to,  what  agency? 


Mr.  Clark.  Well,  sir,  under  the  order  of  the  President  of  last 
Friday,  they  will  go  to  whatever  agency  General  DeWitt  tells  them 
to  go  to. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Clark.  He  is  getting  up  that.  He  is  working  night  and  day 
on  the  areas  and  on  what  agencies. 

The  Chairman.  He  is  doing  a  good  job. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes,  sir;  a  splendid  job.  I  think  the  people  of  the 
west  coast  should  be  thankful  for  having  him  here.  They  are  very 

The  Chairman.  You  see  why  we  are  puzzled  about  that.  We  get 
puzzled  in  Washington.     There  are  so  many  agencies  we  get  lost. 

Mr.  Clark.  The  thing  about  this  order,  he  can  pick  his  agencies. 
He  doesn't  have  to  have  all  of  them.  He  can  say  "I  want  you  to  do 
this  and  you  that." 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  This  is  Dr.  Lamb's  question,  if  you  care  to 
answer.  There  are  no  definite  steps  yet,  or  are  there,  in  regard  to 
this  evacuation,  under  the  new  Executive  order  of  the  President? 

Mr.  Clark.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  To  be  absolutely  fair  with  you,  Mr.  Clark,  Gen- 
eral DeWitt  told  us  Saturday  afternoon  that  he  had  not  received 
definite  instructions  under  the  Executive  order  as  yet.  So  that  is 
correct,  is  it? 

Mr.  Clark.  No;  the  general  has  got  his  instructions  and  he  is 
working  on  them,  sir,  but  I  frankly  can't  discuss  his  plans. 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  Supposing,  Mr.  Clark,  as  long  as  we  are 
talking  man  to  man,  that  there  was  an  attack  on  the  Pacific  coast. 
If  it  comes,  undoubtedly  it  will  come  quite  soon.  Japan  has  got  to 
win  this  war  quickly  or  she  hasn't  got  a  chance  at  all;  we  all  know 
that.  Well,  suppose  there  is  a  mass  evacuation  of  the  Pacific  coast 
people — where  would  they  go? 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  I  don't  know.  If  they  have  to  go,  I  don't  think 
the  Pacific  coast  is  going  to  get  panicky  about  it.  I  have  been  out  here 
a  couple  of  years.  I  am  very  much  sold  on  the  folks  out  here.  I 
was  here  in  the  first  black-out.  During  the  second  or  third  one  I 
was  trying  a  case  here  in  Judge  St.  Sure's  courtroom  and  I  didn't 
notice  any  change.  The  people  here  are  not  the  panicky  type.  If 
there  had  to  be  an  evacuation  I  imagine  they  would  go  inland.  Of 
course,  we  would  be  glad  to  have  them  down  in  Texas.  We  are  the 
same  kind  of  folks. 

The  Chairman.  For  instance,  the  city  of  Los  Angeles,  or  the 
county  there.  I  do  not  know  how  many  people  they  have  got  there. 
I  used  to  know  years  ago.     They  had  a  couple  of  million  then. 

Mr.  Clark.  That  is  just  south  of  your  town,  Congressman.  They 
have  extended  the  limits  so  far  that  it  has  practically  got  in  your 
town  now.     You  ought  to  know  about  that. 


The  Chairman.  But,  you  know,  England  had  the  very  fond  hope 
that  they  wouldn't  have  to  evacuate.  We  heard  in  Washington 
Malcolm  MacDonald,  the  son  of  the  late  Premier  Ramsay  MacDon- 
ald.  He  told  us  about  the  evacuation  there  and  the  way  they  handled 
it.  I  thought  it  was  wonderful.  They  have  gone  out  in  the  country 
and  they  have  taken  these  old  English  mansions.  They  had  to  evacu- 
ate. The  reason  I  asked  that  question  was  to  look  into  that  in  case 
something  like  that  did  happen,  you  see.  Of  course,  you  haven't 
gone  quite  that  far. 

Mr.  Clark.  Well,  sir,  I  would  say  this — I  am  sorry  that  I  have  to 
keep  on  referring  to  this  but  it  is  my  opinion:  I  think  evacuation  is  a 
military  problem.  I  think  that  is  a  problem  which  should  have  been 
solved  in  France  so  that  they  wouldn't  have  been  troubled  the  way 
they  were.  I  think  the  general  has  got  that  in  mind;  he  is  pretty  far- 

As  far  as  Walter  Lippmann's  article  was  concerned,  I  think  they  are 
going  to  have  a  lot  of  hurdles  before  they  get  to  fighting  here  in 
California.  Mr.  Lippmann  doesn't  think  so.  I  think  so,  and  I  think 
General  DeWitt  has  plans.     In  fact,  I  know  he  has. 

The  Chairman.  So  do  we. 

Mr.  Clark.  I  don't  think  we  have  to  talk  so  much  about  the 
evacuation.  I  think  it  is  well  to  think  of  it,  to  have  some  plan.  I  am 
sure  the  general  has  something  along  that  line  if  it  becomes  necessary. 

The  Chairman.  All  right;  thank  you,  Mr.  Clark,  very  much. 

Mr.  Clark.  Yes.     Any  time  I  can  serve  you  just  let  me  know,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Clark,  the  two  exhibits  you  submitted  will  be 
inserted  in  the  record  at  this  point. 

(The  exhibits  referred  to  are  as  follows:) 

Exhibit  A. — Typical  Letters  of  Hardship  Cases 

Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation, 

111  Sutter  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 

Gentlemen:  After  watching  nay  mother  worrying  and  suffering  for  several 
weeks  over  the  thought  of  being  separated  from  the  rest  of  her  family  due  to  alien 
moving  act,  I  write  this  appeal  to  your  sense  of  justice  to  consider  her  case  to 
determine  if  any  other  adjustments  are  possible.  In  a  brief  summary  of  our 
family  history,  I  will  attempt  to  show  you  why  I  am  making  this  appeal  to  you. 

In  1920,  after  my  father,  •  ■  — — — ,  had  been  living  in  McCloud,  Calif., 
for  10  years,  my  mother  arrived  from  Italy.  They  were  married  the  same  year, 
and  in  1921  I  was  born  and  followed  later  by  a  brother  and  sister,  all  born  in 

From  McCloud  we  moved  to  Richmond  in  1924  where  my  father  has  been  work- 
ing in  factories  since.     At  present,  my  sister  is  attending  high  school,  and  my 

brother  has  been  working  for  the ■ ■ since  his  graduation  last  month. 

Since  1930  my  mother  has  been  managing  a  combination  grocery  store-gasoline 

station  (which  incidentally  has  been  serving  the  owners  of  our  neighbor, — 

Co.,  for  years)  in  the  front  portion  of  our  home.  Closing  of  the  store,  with  unpaid 
balances  on  some  of  the  equipment,  will  be  necessary  if  my  mother  is  required  to 
move.  As  for  myself,  I  am  in  my  fourth  year  of  study  in  mechanical  engineering 
at  the  University  of  California  and  am  in  the  process  of  applying  for  appointment 
as  ensign,  — • — ■ — •,  United  States  Naval  Reserve. 

Since  my  folks  received  very  little  education  in  Italy  due  to  impoverished  con- 
ditions and  since  they  have  always  worked  here,  it  made  it  very  difficult  for  them 
to  obtain  their  citizenship  here.  However,  my  father,  beginning  by  learning  the 
alphabet,  studied  enough  so  that  he  was  able  to  obtain  his  citizenship  over  a 
year  ago. 


After  my  father  was  naturalized,  we  children  taught  our  mother,  and  she  made 
her  application  for  her  second  papers  last  December.  Since  then,  in  addition 
to  our  teaching  her,  she  has  been  closing  the  store  to  attend  school.  She  hopes 
to  be  called  for  her  test  soon. 

Since  her  arrival  here,  my  mother  has  always  done  her  best  to  do  what  a  good 
citizen  should.  As  soon  as  war  broke  out,  she  invested  a  good  portion  of  her 
life's  savings  to  buy  $1,100  of  defense  bonds,  and  my  father  is  buying  them  through 
weekly  deductions  in  his  wages. 

If  you  desire  any  further  information,  please  let  us  know.     We  would  feel 
deeply  obligated  if  after  consideration  of  this  letter  you  would  make  any  sugges- 
tions as  to  a  more  adaptable  plan. 
Sincerely  yours, 

February  6,  1942. 
Attorney  General, 

Seventh  and  Mission  Street, 

San  Francisco,  Calif. 
Your  Honor:  I  am  a  widow  who  unfortunately  haven't  got  my  final  papers. 

I  now  live  in  Monterey.     I  came  here  because  my  son  — — was  stationed 

here  at  the  Presidio  of  Monterey.     My  son  has  been  in  the  Army  a  little  over  5 
years.     I  as  a  widow  had  to  give  my  consent  and  I  gladly  gave  it.     I  have  a 

daughter who  works  at at  the and  she  is  my 

only  child  living  with  me.  I  also  rent  out  a  room  to  a  young  lady  a  citizen.  Now 
I  hear  and  read  that  all  enemy  aliens  have  to  leave  Monterey  which,  I  believe, 
includes  me.  I  went  to  the  police  station  here  to  try  to  find  out  officially  what  one 
has  to  do  and  where  one  can  live  at  and  the  sergeant  told  me  he  did  not  know 
officially  and  that  maybe  there  will  be  a  change  in  the  rules  later  on.  I  would  like 
to  know  just  what  to  do  because  it  will  be  hard  to  make  a  move  at  the  last  moment 
because  of  the  great  confusion  which  will  be  on  hand,  because  if  all  the  enemy 
aliens  in  Monterey  will  move  at  the  last  moment  I  know  I  won't  be  able  to  find  a 
place  to  live.  I  am  a  stranger  here.  Someone  also  told  me  that  if  one  stays  at 
home  and  does  not  leave  their  homes  at  any  time  that  one  can  stay  where  they 
now  reside.  I  would  be  very  glad  and  happy  to  do  that  if  I  could.  If  you  could 
give  me  any  information  I  would  appreciate  it  very  much  and  if  you  can't  will  you 
please  tell  me  who  can.  Thanking  you  a  lot  and  awaiting  your  answer,  I  remain, 
Yours  truly, 

February  9,  1942. 
Office  of  Mr.  Tom  C.  Clark, 

Alien  Coordinator,  San  Francisco. 
Re  request  for  curfew  extension. 

Gentlemen:  The  undersigned  had  to  leave  Germany  in  1933  because  he  saw 
no  possibility  to  continue  his  studies,  being  of  Jewish  race.  For  this  reason  he 
went  to  Italy  and  in  1938  was  forced  to  leave  the  old  country,  when  Italy  declared 
her  scheme  of  racial  persecution. 

At  the  present  time  I  am  employed  with  the and  working  at  the 

,  Street.     My  regular  working  hours  are  from  4  p.  m.  to  12  m., 

and  it  takes  me  approximately  45  minutes  to  get  to Boulevard,  where  I' 

live  with  my  parents. 

I  would  be  more  than  grateful,  if  you  could  extend  the  curfew  in  my  particular 
case  till  1a.m.,  because  that  would  mean  that  I  could  hold  my  present  job,  and 
it  would  keep  me  from  becoming  unemployed. 

I  arrived  in  the  United  States  on  May  8,  1939,  and  took  out  my  first  papers  on 
September  6,  1939,  here  in  San  Francisco. 

I  was  deferred  in  the  draft,  and  put  in  class  4-F,  due  to  a  serious  heart  ailment, 
contracted  in  connection  with  a  septic  pneumonia,  I  had  in  November  1940.  My 
brother  is  serving  with  the  United  States  Army. 

As  personal  references  I  might  mention  Mr. ,  attorney, 

Building,  San  Francisco,  and  Mr. , Building,  San  Francisco, 

both  of  whom  have  known  me  and  my  family  for  a  number  of  years. 

I  enclose  a  statement  from  my  employer  and  have  sent  a  copy  of  both  letters 
to  the  Federal  Bureau  of  Investigation.  San  Francisco. 

Hoping  to  receive  a  favorable  reply,  I  am 
Sincerely  yours, 


Eureka,  Calif.,  February  6,  19^2. 
Earl  Warren, 

Attorney  General,  Sacramento  Calif. 

Dear  Sir:  In  view  of  the  present  alien  situation  I  doubt  whether  this  letter 
will  reach  you  personally,  but  I  do  wish  I  could  have  my  questions  answered  if 

In  writing  this  letter  I  am  speaking  of  my  mother  and  father  who  are  con- 
sidered enemy  aliens.  They  were  both  born  in  Austria  in  the  late  1880's.  My 
mother  came  to  the  United  States  in  1923  and  I  was  born  a  year  later.  My 
mother  and  father  lived  on  the  edge  of  the  woods  in  Eureka  for  the  next  11  or 
12  years.  My  father  worked  on  a  ranch  that  was  below  our  home  and  my  mother 
did  the  work  at  home.  There  were  only  2  children  in  the  household;  me  and  my 
bigger  sister.  In  1930  my  younger  sister  was  born.  My  mother  never  got  a 
chance  to  speak  to  many  English-speaking  people  and  my  dad  was  at  home  little 
of  the  time  to  talk  English  himself.  About  7  or  8  years  ago  we  moved  to  a  place 
closer  to  the  town.  We  bought  the  place  and  had  a  mortgage  on  it  for  several 
years.  My  father  was  employed  as  a  dishwasher  in  a  local  restaurant,  and  there 
bit  by  bit  learned  to  talk  better  English.  My  mother  still  couldn't  speak  good 
English  but  had  a  better  chance  to  learn  as  there  were  many  English  friends  living 
around  us.  In  1940  or  1939  they  both  applied  for  their  citizenship  papers,  with 
the  understanding  that  they  would  have  to  learn  to  read  and  write  by  the  time 
their  2  years  was  up  for  their  second  papers.  They  had  never  gone  to  school 
in  the  old  country  so  they  could  neither  read  nor  write  their  home  language. 
This  made  it  more  difficult  for  them  to  learn,  but  my  mother  started  to  go  to  school 
for  the  foreign  born.  She  had  a  hard  time  of  it,  but  now  she  had  come  to  the 
point  where  she  could  read  a  considerable  amount.  My  father  did  not  have 
much  of  a  chance  to  learn  as  he  had  to  work  at  night  and  sleep  during  the  day 
and  do  his  work  at  home  that  I  did  not  do. 

I  am  a  senior  in  the  Eureka  Senior  High  School  and  I  was  looking  forward  to 
get  a  job  in  some  defense  industry  when  I  graduate  in  June  and  help  out  my 
mother  and  father.  They  have  always  been  poor  and  have  had  a  hard  time  of  it. 
My  father  only  makes  $3.50  a  day  and  this  has  to  support  a  family  of  four. 
Under  this  new  alien  ruling  my  father  who  has  work  in  a  restaurant  approximately 
200  feet  into  restricted  area.  Unless  my  father  gets  a  permit  to  get  into  this 
area  for  his  work  and  back  he  will  be  forced  to  work  elsewhere.  Now  an  alien 
would  have  a  hard  time  to  find  a  job  other  than  what  he  is  fitted  for.  There  are 
not  many  other  restaurants  in  which  he  could  work  if  the  job  at  which  he  is  work- 
ing now  is  taken  away.  They  are  known,  that  is  my  mother  and  father,  by  many 
people  in  town  who  are  respectable  citizens  and  hold  important  offices.  They 
are  known  by  most  of  the  law-enforcing  officers  of  the  city.  They  have  never 
been  in  trouble  of  any  sort  and  have  always  complied  with  the  laws  of  our  city. 
We  have  an  acre  and  a  half  of  land  and  own  cattle  and  fowl. 

With  the  information  told  above  I  would  like  you  to  answer  the  following  ques- 
tions for  me  if  it  is  possible. 

Due  to  the  fact  that  they  are  Austrians  and  are  under  the  Axis  domination 
would  that  mean  that  he  would  be  restricted  from  this  work  which  is  only  200 
feet  or  so  from  the  boundary? 

Would  it  mean  that  I  could  not  get  a  job  in  a  defense  industry  or  hold  a  govern- 
ment job? 

Is  there  any  danger  of  them  having  to  evacuate  under  any  condition  for  any 
reason  that  I  have  stated  above? 

Could  he  get  a  pass  to  go  to  his  work  and  back  if  the  verification  of  the  people 
I  mentioned  was  stable  enough? 

Would  the  Government  offer  any  job  to  him  if  he  was  unable  to  find  a  different 
one  in  this  city? 

If  you  have  any  other  information  that  might  relieve  me  in  my  anxiety  and 
worry  for  their  safety,  please  let  me  know.     I  would  like  to  receive  an  answer 
before  February  25  if  possible. 
Respectfully  yours, 


Exhibit  B. — Petitions  of  Italian  Aliens  Requesting  To  Remain  in  Mili- 
tary Areas  and  Continue  in  Present  Occupation 

petition  of  and  , ,   for  permission  to 

continue  to  live  in  their  homes  which  are  within  the  so-called  re- 
stricted area 

,  29  years  of  age,  born  in  Italy,  has  lived  in  Santa  Cruz,  Calif., 

continuously  for  23  years,  and  has  petitioned  for  naturalization  to  become  a 

citizen  of  the  United  States.     His  wife,  ,  is  a  native-born  citizen  of  the 

United  States.  They  were  married  in  June  1937  and  have  three  children  aged  4, 
2,  and  2  months,  respectively. 

He  lives  in  property  owned  by  them  at '-  Avenue,  Santa  Cruz,  Calif. 

,  59  years  of  age,  a  widow,  born  in  Italy,  has  lived  in  the  United 

States  continuously  for  23  years  and  now  resides  in  property  owned  by  herself, 

at  Street,  Santa  Cruz.     Her  two  sons  and  are  her  sole 


Brother  and  son,  respectively,  of  petitioners, ,  is  a  citizen  of  the 

United  States,  and  is  now  in  the  United  States  Navy.  Previous  to  entering 
service,  the  two  brothers  conducted  a  retail  fish  market  on  the  municipal  pier  at 

Santa  Cruz,  the  ownership  of  the  same  being  vested  in  the  name  of ., 


None  of  the  family  has  ever  been  arrested  or  accepted  public  or  private  charity. 
They  are  all  stanch  believers  in  the  form  of  government  of  the  United  States, 
sincerely  attached  to  the  principles  of  the  Constitution  of  the  same,  and  pray 
that  it  may  survive. 

If  petitioner ,  is  required  to  leave,  it  will  work  a  great  hardship 

on  the  family,  as  citizen  wife,  minor  children,  and  dependent  mother,  have  no 
means  of  support  other  than  from  his  brother's  business  conducted  by  himself. 
They  pray  that  their  petition  may  be  granted. 



,  74  years  of  age,  born  in  Italy,  has  continuously  resided  in  the 

United  States  since  1900  and  in  Santa  Cruz,  Calif.,  since  1908  and  has  declared 
his  intention  to  become  a  citizen  of  the  United  States.  He  is  blind  in  one  eye 
and  has  not  been  employed  for  the  past  9  years. 

,  58  years  of  age,  born  in  Italy,  has  continuously  resided  in  the 

United  States  since  1913  and  has  declared  her  intention  to  become  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States.     She  is  an  invalid  and  under  the  care  of  a  physician. 

They  have  four  adult  (two  native-born)  children;  three  sons,  who  are  married, 
and  one  daughter  also  married,  and  all  are  living  apart  from  them. 

They  reside  in  property  owned  by  them  at Street,  Santa  Cruz,  Calif., 

where  they  have  lived  for  the  past  10  years. 

None  of  the  family  has  ever  been  arrested  or  accepted  public  or  private  charity, 
the  children  having  provided  for  and  supported  petitioners.  They  are  all  stanch 
believers  in  the  form  of  government  of  the  United  States,  sincerely  attached  to 
the  principles  of  the  Constitution  of  the  same,  and  pray  that  it  may  survive. 

If  petitioners  are  required  to  leave  their  home,  it  will  work  a  great  hardship  on 
them  because  of  their  advanced  age  and  physical  condition. 

They  pray  that  their  petition  may  be  granted. 

PETITION     OF    AND     WIFE,    — ,     FOR     PERMISSION    TO 

CONTINUE     TO     LIVE     WITH     THEIR     CHILDREN,     AND     THAT    BE 


-,  58  years  of  age,  born  in  Italy,  has  continuously  resided  in  the 

United  States  since  1903,  and  has  declared  his  intention  to  become  a  citizen 
thereof. arrived  in  the  United  States  in  1908,  was  married  im- 
mediately thereafter  on  January  12,  1909,  and  has  never  departed  from  the 
United  States. 

Since  their  marriage  they  have  resided  in  Santa  Cruz,  Calif.,  and  now  live  at 

■ Street  on  property  which  they  own.     They  have  six  children.     Two  sons, 

and ,  enlisted  in  the  United  States  Navy,  and  their  son,  , 

enlisted  in  the  United  States  Army,  and  all  three  are  now  in  active  service. 
These  sons  were  the  support  of  the  family.  Three  daughters,  ages  29,  18,  and  14, 
respectively,  are  now  living  at  home. 


has  a  tumor  in  her  eye,  and  has  been  receiving  medical  treat- 
ment at  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  regularly. 

owns  his  own  boat  and  has  been  a  commercial  fisherman,  having 

been  assisted  by  his  sons,  who  are  now  in  military  service.  He  has  no  other 
means  of  support  for  his  family  at  home. 

None  of  the  family  has  ever  been  arrested  or  accepted  public  or  private  charity. 
They  are  all  stanch  believers  in  the  form  of  government  of  the  United  States, 
sincerely  attached  to  the  principles  of  the  Constitution  of  the  same,  and  pray 
that  it  may  survive. 

If  they  are  required  to  leave  their  home,  there  will  be  no  one  to  care  for  and 
support  their  three  daughters,  nor  have  they  any  means  of  support  unless  the 

father,   ,    can   resume   his   lifelong   occupation   as   a   commercial 


They  pray  that  their  petition  may  be  granted. 



is  an  Italian  national  who  has  been  the  subject  of  United  States 

immigration  proceedings  on  account  of  his  being  a  seaman  who  has  been  forced 
to  remain  in  the  United  States  on  account  of  the  seizure  of  the  vessel  upon  which 
he  arrived,  said  seizure  by  Federal  action. 

After  due  consideration  of  all  the  facts,  the  central  office  of  the  United  States 
Immigration  Service,  at  Washington,  D.  C,  authorized  his  release  on  bond  in 
the  sum  of  $500. 

Mrs ,  citizen  of  the  United  States,  is  the  aunt  of . 

She  resides  at Street,  Santa  Cruz,  Calif.,  with  her  family  of  American-born 

children.     One  of  her  sons  has  been  in  the  United  States  Navy  since  May  1941, 

and  another  is  ready  to  enlist.     It  is  evident  that  the  privilege  accorded 

was  granted  only  upon  the  relationship  and  moral  and  financial  standing 

of  Mrs. 

has  now  been  in  the  United  States  for  nearly  2  years,  and  his 

association  with  his  relatives  who  are  citizens  of  the  United  States  and  his  famili- 
arity now  with  the  system  of  government  of  the  United  States,  etc.,  have  brought 
him  to  the  conclusion  that  he  will  be  as  loyal  to  said  Government  as  are  his  rela- 
tives with  whom  he  resides.  At  some  future  time  he  hopes  to  be  permitted  to 
become  a  legal  resident  of  the  United  States  and  become  a  citizen  thereof. 

Reference  is  made  to  file  No. of  the  central  office  of  the  United  States 

Immigration  Service,  Washington,  D.  C. 



-,  46  years  of  age,  born  in  Italy,  has  continuously  resided  in  the 

United  States  since  her  arrival  with  her  husband, ,  who  is  a  citizen 

of  the  United  States,  having  been  naturalized  on  May  4,  1927.  She  petitioned 
for  citizenship  in  September  1941,  and  has  just  been  notified  to  appear  for  examina- 
tion by  the  United  States  Naturalization  Service  at  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  so  that 
she  might  complete  her  naturalization  in  the  near  future. 

She  resides  at Street,  Santa  Crus,  Calif.,  in  their  own  property.     They 

have  twin  sons,  20  years  of  age,  who  will  automatically  become  citizens  of  the 
United  States  on  August  4,  1942. 

She  is  a  firm  believer  in  the  form  of  government  of  the  United  States,  sincerely 
attached  to  the  principles  of  the  Constitution  of  the  same,  and  prays  that  it  may 

If  petitioner  is  required  to  leave  her  home,  it  would  work  a  great  hardship  on 
her  to  be  separated  from  her  family. 

She  prays  that  her  petition  may  be  granted. 



I  am  53  years  of  age;  born  in  Italy.  I  came  to  the  United  States  in  May  1914 
and  have  never  departed  therefrom.  I  have  filed  my  petition  for  naturalization 
to  become  a  citizen  of  the  United  States. 


My  wife, ,  is  a  citizen  of  the  United  States.     We  were  married 

on  November  4,  1916,  and  have  seven  children.     My  oldest  son, ,  enlisted 

in  the  United  States  Navy  in  May  1941,  and  is  now  at .     My  next 

two  sons,  aged  20  and  18,  respectively,  are  ready  to  join  the  United  States  armed 
forces  when  called.  My  son-in-law  has  applied  for  entlisment  in  the  United  States 
Navy,  and,  when  accepted,  my  daughter  will  be  compelled  to  reside  at  my  home. 
My  wife  has  been  under  medical  treatment  with  a  spinal  injury  for  the  past  3  years. 

We  own  our  own  home  at Street,  Santa  Cruz,  Calif,  in  which  city  we 

have  lived  for  the  past  26  years,  20  years  at  the  present  address.  At  present  our 
household  consists  of  wife  and  self,  and  five  children. 

I  own  two  registered  fishing  boats  and  have  been  a  commercial  fisherman  for 
many  years  and  until  recently  deprived  of  the  privilege. 

Neither  I,  nor  any  member  of  my  family,  have  ever  been  arrested,  nor  have  we 
accepted  public  or  private  charity.  I  am  a  firm  believer  in  the  form  of  govern- 
ment of  the  United  States,  sincerely  attached  to  the  principles  of  the  Constitution 
of  same,  and  pray  that  it  may  survive. 

If  I  am  required  to  be  separated  from  my  family  and  also  continue  to  be  deprived 
of  an  opportunity  to  engage  as  a  commercial  fisherman,  it  will  work  a  hardship  on 
us  which  I  feel  sure  it  is  not  the  desire  of  the  Government  to  impose. 

I  pray  that  my  petition  may  be  granted. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Mr.  Goldblatt. 


Mr.  Sparkman.  Mr.  Goldblatt,  will  you  give  your  name  and 
official  capacity  in  which  you  appear  to  the  reporter. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  My  name  is  Louis  Goldblatt.  I  am  secretary  of 
the  California  State  industrial  Union  Council,  affiliated  with  the 
Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Mr.  Goldblatt,  you  did  not  supply  us  with  a 
prepared  statement.  Will  you  just  make  your  statement  as  you 
see  fit? 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  Yes;  I  would  like  to. 

Mr.  Chairman  and  members  of  the  committee,  I  have  several 
notes  jotted  down  here  and  I  would  like  to  supplement  them  as  I 
go  along.  I  can  also  submit  a  written  copy  later  on.  Is  that 

Mr.  Sparkman.  If  you  will,  we  will  appreciate  it  and  be  glad  to 
have  it. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  As  I  understand,  you  made  a  request  that  you  be 
heard  by  the  committee. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  We  would  be  very  glad  to  have  you  make  your 
offhand  statement  and  then  give  us  such  prepared  statement  as  you 
care  to  submit. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  This  is  a  sort  of  semiprepared  statement.  I  will 
also  give  you  a  finished  copy. 

The  attitude  of  the  California  State  Industrial  Union  Council  on 
the  establishment  of  restriction  governing  the  movements  and  work 
of  aliens  of  enemy  nationalities  stems  from  the  basic  policies  of  the 
Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations,  which  is  committed  to  the 
speedy  and  successful  prosecution  of  the  war.  The  touchstone  of 
this  policy  is  the  belief  that  democracy  can  wage  ar  all-out  war  against 
the  Axis  Powers  and  that  the  forces  generated  by  a  system  of  free 
government  can  and  will  triumph  over  facsism. 


As  labor-union  members  we  recognize  the  urgent  need  for  discipline, 
responsibility,  and  loyalty  by  all  the  people  and  support  of  their 
Government  in  the  conduct  of  the  war.  Labor  organizations,  per- 
haps more  than  other  civic  bodies,  know  the  dangers  and  inade- 
quacies of  individual  action  in  times  of  crises.  Consequently  we 
support  the  relegation  of  matters  dealing  with  sabotage  and  espionage 
to  the  proper  Federal  agencies.  Regulation  of  Axis  aliens  is  regarded 
in  the  same  light. 


I  might  add  here,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  the  unions  have  a  particular 
interest  in  this  entire  question  of  migration  of  workers  as  a  result  of 
these  evacuation  orders  because,  naturally,  that  would  directly  affect 
labor  supply,  the  question  of  replacement  of  certain  people,  and  an 
adequate  backlog  of  labor,  where  that  is  necessary,  in  order  to  keep 
defense  production  going. 

So  our  purpose  in  appearing  here  is  on  several  scores,  one,  of  course, 
to  follow  the  entire  proceedings  and  to  try  to  get  an  idea  how  ex- 
tensive this  entire  movement  will  be,  so  that  we  in  turn  can  see  what 
labor  can  do  to  help  to  see  to  it  that  there  aren't  whole  strings  of 
difficulties  and  hardships  created  within  the  defense  production 
program  or  related  to  the  production  programs. 

Secondly,  we  want  to  express  some  opinions  on  the  entire  matter  of 
evacuation  because  it  is  not  only  the  questions  that  arise  now.  The 
crux  of  the  matter  eventually  will  be  how  extensive  shall  the  evacua- 
tion become.  And  in  that  regard  we  believe  that  some  of  the  opinions 
we  hold  may  be  of  value  in  the  committee's  mind. 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  Let  me  make  a  suggestion  to  you.  You 
forget  about  that  paper  there.  You  just  go  ahead  and  talk  the  way 
you  are  talking  now.  We  have  a  lot  of  witnesses  here  that  we  have 
got  to  hear  and  finish  tonight. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  Surely. 

denounces  racial  antagonism 

The  Chairman.  Why  don't  you  get  those  points  right  off  the  reel 
to  us?     We  will  permit  you  to  put  the  entire  statement  in  the  record. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  Surely.  We  naturally  go  along  and  concur  with 
all  the  recommendations  that  the  Government  deems  necessary  to 
safeguard  this  territory.  We  feel,  however,  that  a  good  deal  of  this 
problem  has  gotten  out  of  hand,  Mr.  Tolan,  inasmuch  as  both  the 
local  and  State  authorities,  instead  of  becoming  bastions  of  defense, 
of  democracy  and  justice,  joined  the  wolf  pack  when  the  cry  came  out 
"Let's  get  the  yellow  menace."  As  a  matter  of  fact,  we  believe  the 
present  situation  is  a  great  victory  for  the  yellow  press  and  for  the 
fifth  column  that  is  operating  in  this  country,  which  is  attempting  to 
convert  this  war  from  a  war  against  the  Axis  Powers  into  a  war  against 
the  "yellow  peril."  We  believe  there  is  a  large  element  of  that  partic- 
ular factor  in  this  present  situation. 

I  am  referring  here  particularly  to  the  attack  against  the  native-born 
Japanese,  an  attack  which,  as  far  as  we  can  find  out,  was  whipped  up. 
There  was  a  basis  for  it  because  there  has  always  been  a  basis  on  the 

60396— 42— pt.  29 15 


Pacific  coast  for  suspicion,  racial  suspicion,  which  has  been  well  fos- 
tered, well  bred,  particularly  by  the  Hearst  newspapers  over  a  period 
of  20  to  25  years. 

Well,  the  result  is  that  during  this  present  situation  local  authorities 
simply  ran  out  on  the  problem.  We  are  happy  to  see  the  Federal 
Government  step  in  and  handle  it.  We  are  happy  to  see  your  com- 
mittee here,  because,  frankly,  to  date  we  haven't  seen  either  civic  or 
State  leadership  that  is  competent  to  handle  the  problem  or  that  has 
shown  a  great  enough  degree  of  impartiality  to  merit  being  even  as- 
signed the  problem. 

So  that,  in  addition  to  the  fact  that  this  entire  alien  matter  is 
naturally  one  that  belongs  in  the  province  of  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment, it  is  particularly  important  at  this  time  because,  frankly,  I 
think  the  only  people  who  have  shown  a  semblance  of  decency  and 
honesty  and  forthrightness  in  this  whole  situation  are  the  second- 
generation  Japanese  who,  on  then  own  accord,  have  made  the  state- 
ment— some  of  these  people  are  members  of  our  unions — that  in  their 
opinion  the  thing  they  ought  to  do  is  get  out  of  here.  They  are  in 
accord  with  evacuation  now,  not  in  accord  in  principle  but  in  accord 
simply  because  they  realize  that,  perhaps,  the  only  thing  they  can  do 
now  to  avoid  vigilantism,  mob  rule,  and  hysteria,  beatings,  and  riots 
is  to  evacuate.  Of  course,  that  doesn't  speak  very  well  for  either  our 
State  or  local  authorities  that  such  a  situation  was  permitted  to  arise. 

WHERE    WILL    IT    END? 

What  we  are  concerned  with,  Mr.  Chairman  is  this:  That  if  this 
is  to  become  the  index  of  our  dealings  with  the  alien  problem — in  other 
words,  that  if  we  are  not  to  deal  only  with  aliens  but  also  with  the 
descendants  of  aliens — then  there  is  no  limit  to  this  problem  and  the 
program,  and  tins  vitally  affects  our  unions.  It  affects  the  principles 
upon  which  we  stand,  affects  the  nature  of  our  work,  our  entire  job  in 
the  administration  of  contracts  and  everything  else,  because  once 
this  policy  of  making  distinctions  or  determining  espionage  or  sabotage 
along  racial,  national  lines,  has  begun  there  is  no  end.  You  know,  I 
am  sure,  and  I  am  positive  the  military  authorities  know  that  neither 
Hitler  nor  Mussolini  will  hesitate  a  moment  to  sacrifice  any  Germans 
or  Italians  in  tins  country  if  that  will  suit  their  purpose  in  an  all-out 

So  that  we  can  expect,  I  think,  that  if  this  campaign  of  isolating  the 
Japanese  is  successful  the  next  step  will  be  for  several  incidents  to 
occur  winch  involves  Germans  or  Italians;  then  the  whole  of  the  wolf 
pack  will  scream  to  the  moon  again  and  tins  time  it  will  be  "Evacuate 
all  Italians,  evacuate  all  Germans."  The  principle  will  have  been  set; 
the  pattern  will  have  been  cut  as  it  has  been  by  the  Hearst  press,  by 
the  rabid,  hysterical  elements. 

The  Chairman.  Suppose  you  were  General  DeWitt  or  the  head 
of  the  Justice  Department  on  the  Pacific  coast  and  you  had  120,000 

How  would  you  determine  the  loyalty  and  disloyalty  of  these 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  In  exactly  the  same  way  I  would  proceed  to  tell 
who  was  a  loyal  or  disloyal  Italian  or  German. 

The  Chairman.  Where  would  you  get  the  information? 


INFORMATION    GIVEN    TO    F.    B.    I. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  From  many  sources.  I  take  it  for  granted  that 
the  Federal  authorities  that  are  entrusted  with  this  job,  such  as  the 
F.  B.  I.,  the  Governmental  Intelligence  Service,  and  so  forth,  have,  for 
over  a  period  of  years  been  at  work  and  undoubtedly  have  gathered  a 
great  deal  of  information.  For  instance,  I  know  that  the  unions  I 
myself  am  personally  familiar  with  have  turned  over  to  the  F.  B.  I., 
documents  that  involve  Japanese  espionage,  particularly  down  along 
the  coastal  sections  of  California.  We  got  information  on  the  activi- 
ties of  the  German  Bund  at  the  Consolidated  Aircraft  Manufacturing 
Co.     That  was  all  turned  over  to  the  F.  B.  I. 

We  are  sure  that  after  all  a  department  of  this  sort  that  has  been 
working  over  a  period  of  years  has  gathered  its  files. 

We  suggest  in  addition,  if  there  is  anything  they  believe  we  can 
do — and  our  unions  are  patriotic  organizations — let  them  give  us  our 
instructions  and  we  will  go  to  work  and  do  anything  we  possibly  can. 

The  Chairman.  We  had  our  F.  B.  J.  in  Honolulu,  yet  they  had 
probably  the  greatest,  the  most  perfect  system  of  espionage  and 
sabotage  ever  in  the  history  of  war,  native-born  Japanese.  On  the 
onlv  roadway  to  the  shipping  harbor  there  were  hundreds  and  hundreds 
of  automobiles  clogging  the  street,  don't  you  see?  There  they  sought 
to  distinguish  the  Japanese  in  Pearl  Harbor  from  our  American 


Do  you  think  there  is  a  distinction  yourself?  Do  you  think  we  can 
trust  them? 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  The  Japanese? 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  I  think  that  the  second  generation  of  Japanese 
in  this  Nation  should  not  be  distinguished  from  the  second  generation 
of  any  other  nationality. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  Unless  the  F.  B.  I.  or  the  military  authorities 
have  documents  and  facts  to  indicate  differently.  In  that  case  we 
would  naturally  want  to  know.  I  am  sure  the  public  would  want  to 
know.  Where  can  this  thing  end?  Let  us  say  that  the  first  case 
is  successful  insofar  as  those  people  who  want  to  disunite  this  Nation 
are  concerned.  They  succeed  in  two  things.  No.  1,  driving  a 
big  wedge  in  the  direction-  of  their  entire  program  which  is,  at  least, 
as  far  as  the  Hearst  press,  the  ex-American  firsters,  who  still  are  the 
same  thing,  which  is  to  convert  this  war  from  a  war  against  the 
Axis  Powers  into  a  war  against  this  elusory  "yellow  peril."  Lot's 
say  they  succeed  in  doing  that,  Mr.  Tolan.  They  take  their  next 
step.  The  next  step  is  a  simple  one,  in  my  opinion.  They  have  a 
few  Italians  or  a  few  Germans  commit  sabotage.  After  all,  I  am  sure 
that  .neither  Hitler  nor  Mussolini  cares  an  awful  lot  what  the  conse- 
quences are  to  a  few  Germans  or  Italians  in  this  country. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  something  about  the  Italians  and 
the  Germans.  An  Italian,  for  instance,  has  lived  here  for  30  or  40 
years,  has  a  family.  That  man  is  very  easily  checked  up.  But  now 
supposing  you  have  100  Japanese  and  you  are  the  enforcement  officer; 


you  are  the  F.  B.  I.  man.  How  are  you  going  to  check  them?  The 
attorney  general  of  this  State  told  us  Saturday  that  at  no  time  have 
they  ever  received  any  information  as  to  the  disloyalty  of  a  Japanese 
from  a  Japanese.  They  have  with  the  Germans;  they  have  with  the 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  All  I  can  say,  it  certainly  doesn't  speak  very 
well  of  our  attorney  general's  office,  that  is  all. 

The  Chairman.  Uh-huh. 


Mr.  Goldblatt.  Because  we  have  had  information  and  we  have 
offered  this  information  time  and  time  again,  offered  it  to  various  local 
district  attorneys,  offered  it  to  the  F.  B.  I.  We  have  given  informa- 
tion. There  are  local  Japanese  here  who  have  given  information. 
There  is  every  indication  that  at  various  times  certain  companies  that 
have  employed  Japanese,  such  as  the  Van  Camp  interests  in  southern 
California,  have  made  it  their  business  to  completely  isolate  the  Jap- 
anese, also  to  see  to  it  that  the  Japanese  have  no  contacts  with  various 
local  agencies  of  governmental  law  enforcement.  We  know  those 
things  are  true.  Shall  we,  therefore,  blame  those  local  Japanese  for 
th,e  activities  of  the  company? 

The  Chairman.  I  get  your  idea  exactly.  You  are  of  the  firm 
Opinion  there  is  no  race,  including  the  Japanese,  100  percent  wrong. 
That  is  your  thought,  is  it  not? 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  Well,  of  course. 

The  Chairman.  What  we  are  trying  to  worry  about,  how  are  we 
going  to  discover  those  who  are  wrong? 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  That  is  the  same  problem  with  everyone.  There 
are  a  bunch  of  small-fry  fishermen  out  here.  They  are  looking 
around  for  a  bunch  of  little  fishermen  right  now.  That  is  all  they  are, 
just  small  fry.  We  let  the  big  fishes  get  away  such  as  Andriano 
Sylvester,  a  man  who  is  registered  as  a  governmental  agent  of 
Mussolini,  and  we  allow  him  to  serve  on  the  draft  board  in  San 
Francisco,  a  man  who  has  had  a  connection  with  every  Fascist  agency 
in  this  city,  a  man  who  has  been  in  constant  contact  with  Mussolini, 
a  man  who  has  spoken  of  him  proudly  all  the  way. 

There  is  the  editor  of  the  D 'Italia,  who  wrote  a  book  praising 
Mussolini,  who  received  all  sorts  of  decorations  from  Mussolini,  who 
said  it  would  be  a  mistake  to  send  an  expeditionary  force,  including 
Italian  boys.  They  are  known  all  over  as  great  patriots  while  we  are 
going  against  the  little  fry. 

The  Chairman.  So  you  are  not  worried  about  Japan.  They  seem 
to  be  winning  a  good  many  battles  over  there. 

doesn't  want  to  see  nation  divided  against  itself 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  We  are  worried  about  Japan,  deeply  worried 
about  it.  Insofar  as  we  are  concerned,  we  pledge  here  now  that  we 
want  every  single  possible  step  that  can  be  taken  by  the  Govern- 
ment to  be  taken  and  we  offer  our  fullest  cooperation  to  the  Govern- 
ment in  their  efforts  to  detect  espionage  and  saboteurs,  not  only 
among  Japanese  but  among  Italians  and  among  Germans,   among 


Americans,  among  any  source,  no  matter  where  it  be,  no  matter  what 
their  wealth  is,  no  matter  what  their  political  position,  or  no  matter 
what  they  happen  to  know.  We  are  not  concerned  where  a  spy  came 
from.  We  don't  care  if  he  came  over  on  the  Mayflower  or  came  out 
of  the  humblest  Japanese  home;  we  don't  care  where  he  came  from. 
Get  him  and  we  will  help  out.  But  we  don't  want  to  see,  in  the 
course  of  this  program,  a  situation  arise  where  this  country  will  be 
divided  against  itself,  where  one-half  the  Nation  will  be  standing  on 
guard  over  the  other  half. 

Where  is  this  to  end,  Mr.  Tolan?  Italians  will  be  the  next  to  be 
evacuated,  then  the  Germans.  Why  stop  with  the  Germans?  Ac- 
cording to  the  present  Federal  order  Hitler  could  stay  in  San^Fran- 
cisco  in  a  prohibited  area  and  one  of  German  nationality  would  have 
to  leave  because  Hitler  is  an  Austrian.  So  it  will  extend  to  Austrians. 
It  will  go  to  Hungarians,  to  Bulgarians,  to  Finns,  to  Danes.  These 
are  countries,  many  of  them,  which  have  declared  war  on  us.  "Where 
is  the  mark  to  be  drawn? 

And,  Mr.  Tolan,  if  we  follow  such  a  procedure  we  can  land  in  only 
one  place.  We  will  do  a  perfect  job  for  those  who  want  to  sabotage 
the  war  effort.  We  will  have  the  American  people  at  each  other's 
throats.  I  know  mining  camps  that  are  split  right  down  the  middle 
between  nationalities,  where  you  have  a  group  of  Poles  at  one  end  of 
the  camp  and  a  group  of  Germans  at  the  other.  You  will  have  them 
fighting  in  the  streets  against  each  other.  You  have  Italians  in  the 
mining  camps  alongside  of  Welshmen. 

Where  is  this  going  to  wind  up?  This  country  is  a  nation  made  up 
of  nationalities.  The  so-called  American  is  only  a  product.  He 
came  out  of  a  crystal  into  which  has  been  poured  the  peoples  of  all 
the  world.  We  forget  what  was  written  on  the  Statue  of  Liberty. 
I  have  the  words  here.     I  would  like  to  read  them. 

The  Chairman.  I  don't  think  you  better.  Did  you  ever  intend  to 
run  for  Congress? 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  No ;  I  never  intended  to  run  for  Congress. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  you  would  make  a  very  dangerous  talker 
the  way  you  are  going  here  today.     I  think  you  are  wonderful. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  May  I  make  some  specific  proposals  that  we  have 
in  mind  on  antisabotage  and  antiespionage? 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  The  C.  I.  O.  stands  ready  and  willing  to  give  its 
full  cooperation  to  the  proper  Federal  agencies  in  their  efforts  to 
detect  sabotage  and  espionage  and  provide  safeguards  against  these 

I  would  like  to  have  any  questions  on  that,  Mr.  Tolan,  because  we 
would  like  to  be  perfectly  clear  and  not  be  misunderstood.  We  realize 
that  I,  as  representing  the  State  C.  I.  O.,  am  not  taking  a  popular 
position.  I  will  be  much  more  popular  if  I  get  my  wolf's  clothing 
on  and  join  the  pack  and  start  hollering  for  the  nearest  Japanese 
scalp^  because  that  is  popular. 


Mr.  Sparkman.  Do  you  think  you  are  taking  a  realistic  attitude? 
Mr.  Goldblatt.  I  think  I  am.     Let's  get  this  clear.     I  think  the 
Japanese  have  to  evacuate  here.     I  think  there  is  no  choice.     But  it 


is  not  round  one  for  us,  by  Americanism  or  by  decency  or  honesty  or 
justice;  it  is  round  one  for  the  opposition.  All  we  want  of  your 
congressional  committee  is  a  recognition  that  this  is  a  victory  won  by 
the  opposition  and  that  it  cannot  be  the  pattern  for  the  future.  Let 
it'  be  the  pattern  for  the  future  and  you  can  stop  the  war  against 
Japan  because  we  will  be  too  busy  here  fighting  among  ourselves. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  It  seems  to  me  you  completely  disregard  the  fact 
that  it  was  the  action  of  the  Japanese,  both  native-born  and  second- 
generation  Japanese,  in  Hawaii  that  very  largely  caused  this  present 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  Oh,  now,  let's  get  this  point  clear.  That  may  be 
absolutely  true.  The  only  point  I  am  making  is  that  there  doesn't 
happen  to  be  large  groups  of  Italians  or  Germans  or  Bulgarians  or 
Finns  or  Rumanians  in  the  Hawaiian  Islands.  They  haven't  settled 
there.  If  this  pattern  is  used  here  it  will  automatically  extend.  It 
won't  extend  because  you  and  I  want  it.  It  will  extend  because  there 
are  forces  powerful  enough  in  this  country,  the  America  First  forces, 
the  Hearst  press,  people  like  Dies,  people  li,ke  Hamilton  Fish,  and  his 
tie-up  with  Viereck  and  the  rest  of  them.  These  forces  are  strong 
enough  to  see  to  it  that  this  policy  extends  because  that  is  the  one 
weapon  by  which  they  can  beat  America.  They  can  divide  it  against 
itself.  That  is  what  we  are  concerned  with  because  then  what  will 
happen?     People  will  be  fighting  at  each  other's  throats. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Of  course,  you  are  entitled  to  that  view  but  I 
think  that  it  is  not  at  all  a  proper  view  or  a  correct  view.  I  don't 
believe  that  there  are  such  forces  in  America  that  are  playing  for  the 
defeat  of  America  as  you  have  pictured  them  and  I  believe  that  had 
the  Germans  or  had  the  Italians  pulled  upon  us  the  same  stunt  that 
the  Japanese  pulled  at  Hawaii  this  country  would  rightfully  be  just 
as  indignant  toward  them,  but  they  have  not  done  such  a  thing.  And 
I  believe,  regardless  of  what  our  feelings  may  be  with  reference  to  the 
native-born  American  citizens,  that  we  need  to  be  realistic  about  this 
thing  and  realize  that  the  situation  exists,  and  then  try  to  see  what  the 
best  solution  is  that  we  can  find  for  it. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  Congressman,  may  I  ask  you  a  question?  From 
the  reports  of  your  committee,  you  have  done  a  very  good  job  and  I 
have  the  highest  esteem  for  the  work  that  your  committee  has  done — 
I  think  it  has  been  splendid — do  you,  in  your  opinion,  believe  that 
there  is  a  higher  percentage  of  espionage,  or  rather  of  spies  or  saboteurs 
among  the  second-generation  Japanese  than  there  are,  let  us  say, 
among  the  second-generation  Germans  in  Yorkville,  N.  Y.? 

Mr.  Sparkman.  Well,  the  only  thing  I  can  go  by  is  what  seems 
to  be  the  case  thus  far — we  know  that  we  have  lost  ground  so  far 
because  of  the  espionage,  the  sabotage  conducted  by  the  Japanese 
whom  we  trusted  to  a  certain  extent  in  Hawaii. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  But  that  is  only  because  in  the  particular  case 
that  we  are  speaking  of,  in  the  case  of  Hawaii  you  had  only  a  single 
one  of  those  groups  to  deal  with;  in  this  case  it  was  Japanese. 

Mr.  Sparkman.  I  realize  that  is  true.  That  is  the  reason  I  am 
arguing  that  we  ought  to  face  the  situation  realistically. 

Mr.  Goldblatt.  You  are  giving  substance  to  the  only  argument  I 
am  trying  to  make  and  that  is  this:  The  reason  that  you  think  these 
Japanese  ought  to  be  evacuated  is  because  they  really  knifed  us  in  the 


back  with  the  help  of  local  residents  in  Hawaii.  Correct?  All  right. 
Mussolini  and  Hitler  will  arrange  to  see  that  we  are  knifed  in  the  back 
by  some  local  Italians.  Then,  people  will  ask  you  "Why  don't  you 
do  the  same  with  Italians  and  Germans  here  as  you  did  with  the 
Japanese?"  And  away  we  will  go  and  what  a  merry-go-round  that 
will  be  because  it  won't  come  out  any  place;  it  will  just  bog  down. 


We  believe  the  efforts  of  the  Federal  Government  should  not  be 
based  on  making  distinctions  by  race,  nationality,  or  citizenship. 
We  favor  a  campaign  that  will  detect  sabotage  no  matter  what  its 
source  and  from  which  there  will  be  no  immunity  by  virtue  of  wealth, 
political  connections,  or  position  in  society. 

We  support  the  inclusion  of  aliens  of  enemy  nationality  from  re- 
stricted military  and  strategic  areas.  We  favor  the  speedy  establish- 
ment of  governmental  machinery  to  provide  for  fair  hearings  and 
examination  to  expedite  the  segregation  of  anti-Facsist  from  Fascist 

Something,  I  believe,  has  been  mentioned  here  before  on  the 
Japanese  question.  We  recognize  that  this  problem  falls  within 
Federal  jurisdiction  and  believe  the  Federal  Government  and  military 
authorities  should  assume  full  responsibility  in  providing  adequate 
safeguards  for  the  Japanese,  both  alien  and  citizen. 

We  urge  protection  of  personal  property  and  real  property  from 
seizure.  It  must  be  the  obligation  of  the  Federal  Government  to 
prevent  land  grabbing,  raiding  of  homes  or  racketeering  at  the  expense 
of  the  Japanese  ana  other  aliens  who  are  evacuated  by  military  order. 

The  Government  should  be  responsible  for  providing  humane  treat- 
ment in  the  course  of  evacuation  and  for  the  settling  of  Japanese 
where  they  can  perform  useful  work  for  the  Nation.  Under  no  cir- 
cumstances should  families  be  broken  up.  This  may  be  accomplished 
through  the  establishment  of  cooperative  farms  or  placing  Japanese 
in  various  industries.  It  is  most  important  that  Japanese,  particu- 
larly the  second-generation  Japanese  Americans,  be  given  the  fullest 
opportunity  to  demonstrate  their  loyalty  to  this  Nation  in  the  per- 
formance of  useful  work. 

No  concentration  camps  or  forced  labor  should  be  imposed  upon 
Japanese  or  other  aliens.  Following  their  removal  from  military  and 
strategic  areas,  tribunals  should  provide  for  examination  and  an 
opportunity  to  establish  loyalty.  Those  Japanese  who  are  enemy 
agents,  or  where  there  is  reasonable  doubt  of  their  loyalty,  should  be 
interned  and  others  should  be  accorded  full  civil  liberties,  the  right 
of  movement  outside  restricted  areas,  and  the  right  to  work  and 
perform  service  to  this  country. 

The  same  principles  apply — I  will  skip  most  of  them.  I  should  like 
to  mention  one  point.  In  cases  where  aliens  of  enemy  nationality 
must  perform  night  work  arrangements  should  be  made  either  to 
switch  them  to  day  shifts  or,  where  this  is  impossible,  grant  them  per- 
mits to  move  to  and  from  work  during  restricted  hours. 

We  also  suggest  in  the  case  of  certain  aliens  like  Italian  fishermen 
that  there  be  speedy  hearings  because  those  men  are  vital  for  industry, 
to  determine  their  loyalty  and  availability  within  the  community. 



One  other  point  we  would  like  to  stress  before  the  committee,  Mr. 
Tolan.  There  has  been  very  widespread  discrimination  against  aliens 
of  friendly  nations.  We  are  referring  to  Norwegians,  Chinese,  and 
Latin  Americans,  in  addition  to  very  harsh  discrimination  against 
Filipinos,  who,  although  not  aliens  are  also  not  citizens,  they  are  in 
this  middle  zone.  These  people  are  actually  helping  in  the  war. 
Lots  of  them  are  doing  the  fighting.  We  know  the  percentage  of 
sacrifices  they  have  made.  These  people  are  fighting;  they  are  not 
being  given  a  break  in  this  country. 

We  urge  upon  your  committee  to  see  to  it  that  these  people  are 
given  a  break  and  allowed  to  contribute  here  locally. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Goldblatt.  We  will  have  your 
entire  statement  inserted  in  the  record.  If  there  is  anything  addi- 
tional that  you  want  to  insert  in  the  record  we  will  be  glad  to  have  it. 

(The  statement  referred  to  above  is  as  follows:) 


The  attitude  of  the  California  State  Industrial  Union  Council  on  the  establish- 
ment of  restriction  governing  the  movements  and  work  of  aliens  of  enemy  national- 
ity stems  from  the  basic  policies  of  the  Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations, 
which  is  committed  to  the  speedy  and  successful  prosecution  of  the  war.  The 
touchstone  of  this  policy  is  the  belief  that  democracy  can  wage  an  all-out  war 
against  the  Axis  Powers,  and  that  the  forces  generated  by  a  system  of  free  govern- 
ment can  and  will  triumph  over  fascism. 

As  labor-union  members  we  recognize  the  urgent  need  for  discipline,  responsi- 
bility, and  loyalty  by  all  the  people  in  support  of  their  Government  in  the  conduct 
of  the  war.  Labor  organizations,  perhaps  more  than  other  civic  bodies,  know  the 
dangers  and  inadequacies  of  individual  action  in  times  of  crisis.  Consequently 
we  support  the  relegation  of  matters  dealing  with  sabotage  and  espionage  to  the 
proper  Federal  agencies.     Regulation  of  Axis  aliens  is  regarded  in  the  same  light. 

To  say  there  is  no  danger  of  fifth-column  activity  by  espionage  or  sabotage  is  to 
ignore  criminally  one  of  the  most  important  lessons  of  this  war.  The  collapse  of 
many  of  the  European  countries  is  attributable  in  large  part  to  the  activities  of 
enemy  agents  who  assisted  the  Axis  Powers  by  espionage,  fifth-column  work,  and 
sabotage  during  the  moments  of  great  crisis.  There  are  no  facts  to  indicate  this 
country  will  be  immune  to  this  type  of  attack. 

The  California  State  Industrial  Union  Council  endorses  and'supports  a  policy 
of  vigorous  precautions  against  fifth-column  activity.  We  urge  a  diligent, 
energetic  campaign  by  Federal  and  military  authorities  to  ferret  out  the  enemy 
agents  within  our  boundaries.  We  pledge  our  cooperation  and  assistance  to  this 

When  the  first  restriction  on  movements  and  work  of  aliens  of  enemy  nation- 
ality were  issued,  the  California  Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations  officially 

"Because  we  are  a  democratic,  liberty-loving  nation,  because  our  labor  unions 
have  been  the  most  militant  crusaders  for  the  rights  of  all  Americans,  citizens  and 
noncitizens,  we  regret  any  hardships  which  the  Nation's  crisis  must  inflict  on  these 
aliens  of  Axis  extraction  and  their  families.  Yet  it  is  for  these  very  reasons  that 
we  must  support  the  measures  necessary  to  protect  American  freedom  and  what  is 
left  of  world  democracy  against  the  tyrants  and  butchers  of  Tokyo,  Berlin,  and 
Rome.  *  *  *  Firmness  must  be  matched  with  fairness,  vigilance  with  good 
sense.  The  Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations  will  support  all  the  action 
necessary  for  a  democratic  victory ;  it  will  be  on  guard  to  see  that  all  these  actions 
actually  strengthen  democracy  and  contribute  to  victory." 

We  assumed  that  the  exclusion  of  aliens  of  enemy  nationality  from  specified 
military  areas  was  based  upon  information  in  the  hands  of  the  Government  and 
performed  as  part  of  a  general  program  against  fifth-column  danger.     Almost 


immediately  following  the  initial  moves  against  aliens  of  enemy  nationality  came 
a  widespread  campaign  demanding  the  removal  from  coastal  areas  of  all  Japanese, 
whether  alien  or  born  in  this  country.  The  old  flames  of  racial  suspicion  were 
fanned  to  full  blaze.  Publicity  seekers  spouted  ill-considered  and  vigilante- 
inciting  epithets  against  the  Japanese  born  in  this  country.  The  Hearst  press 
found  new  field  for  its  rantings  about  the  "yellow  menace."  Politicans  saw  a 
good  occasion  to  garner  publicity.     Soon  the  wolf  pack  was  in  full  cry. 


Let  it  be  said  that  within  this  State  there  was  heard  but  one  voice  of  reason  and 
understanding.  It  came  from  second-generation  Japanese,  some  of  them  members 
of  our  unions.  They  proposed  the  evacuation  of  all  Japanese,  both  alien  and 
citizen.  Their  proposal  did  not  come  from  agreement  with  those  who  were  leading 
the  pack.  It  rose  out  of  a  realization  that  the  forces  of  hysteria  and  vigilantism 
had  won  out  over  decency  and  government. 

It  is  well  that  the  Federal  Government  has  stepped  into  this  situation,  because 
the  problem  is  national  in  scope  and  because  there  has  been  convincing  demon- 
stration that  State  and  local  authorises  are  not  qualified  to  act  in  this  matter. 
Most  of  our  State  and  local  officials,  rather  than  standing  as  bastions  of  justice 
and  equal  protection  under  law,  have  joined  the  hue  and  cry  against  the  Japanese 
native-born.  In  the  light  of  these  developments  no  choice  remained  for  the 
thousands  of  loyal  Americans  of  Japanese  parentage  but  to  agree  to  general 
evacuation.  To  remain  was  to  invite  lawlessness  and  mob  violence,  to  become  a 
source  of  constant  irritation. 

As  some  of  these  Japanese  express  it:  "We  want  to  leave.  Perhaps  that  is  the 
greatest  contribution  we  can  make  right  now  to  the  war.  Maybe  people  will 
settle  down  to  fighting  the  enemy  instead  of  us  and  go  after  the  real  fifth  colum- 
nists." At  this  reading  these  men  and  their  families  stand  ready  to  comply  with 
all  recommendations  and  regulations  established  by  the  Federal  Government. 
All  they  ask  is  fair  treatment  and  a  chance  to  show  their  loyalty  and  devotion 
to  our  Nation  by  contributing  to  and  participating  in  the  war  effort. 

This  entire  episode  of  hysteria  and  mob  chant  against  the  native-born  Japanese 
will  form  a  dark  page  of  American  history.  It  may  well  appear  as  one  of  the 
great  victories  won  by  the  Axis  Powers.  Surely  it  is  a  battle  won  by  those 
isolationist  and  America  First  Committee  forces  who  have  labored  since  the  out- 
break of  hostilities  to  convert  this  into  a  war  against  the  "yellow  menace." 
They  won  this  round.  All  of  us  who  failed  to  speak  in  time  contributed  to  this 
victory  of  the  isolationist  fifth  column  in  America. 


The  words  of  Woodrow  Wilson  bear  repetition:  "Are  we  preserving  freedom  in 
this  land  of  ours,  the  hope  of  all  the  earth?  Have  we,  inheritors  of  this  con- 
tinent and  of  the  ideals  to  which  the  fathers  consecrated  it,  have  we  maintained 
them,  realizing  them,  as  each  generation  must,  anew?  Are  we,  in  the  conscious- 
ness that  the  life  of  man  is  pledged  to  higher  levels  here  than  elsewhere,  striving 
still  to  bear  aloft  the  standards  of  liberty  and  hope;  or,  disillusioned  and  defeated, 
are  we  feeling  the  disgrace  of  having  had  a  free  field  in  which  to  do  new  things 
and  of  not  having  done  them? 

"The  answer  must  be,  I  am  sure,  that  we  have  been  in  a  fair  way  of  failure — 
tragic  failure.  And  we  stand  in  danger  of  utter  failure  yet,  except  we  fulfill 
speedily  the  determination  we  have  reached,  to  deal  with  the  new  and  subtile 
tyrannies  according  to  their  deserts.  Don't  deceive  yourselves  for  a  moment 
as  to  the  power  of  the  great  interests  which  now  dominate  our  development. 
They  are  so  great  that  it  is  almost  an  open  question  whether  the  Government 
of  the  United  States  can  dominate  them  or  not.  Go  one  step  further,  make 
their  organized  power  permanent,  and  it  may  be  too  late  to  turn  back.  The 
roads  diverge  at  the  point  where  we  stand." 

Yes,  the  roads  diverge  at  the  point  where  we  stand.  Shall  the  persecution 
and  hounding  of  the  Japanese  be  the  mark  of  our  future  policy?  Shall  we  follow 
in  the  footsteps  of  Hearst  and  turn  our  war  effort  into  an  illusory  battle  against 
the  "yellow  menace"?  Shall  we  desert  our  Allies  of  the  United  Nations  and 
desert  the  cause  to  which  we  have  dedicated  our  work  and  our  lives — the  obliter- 
ation of  world  fascism?  Shall  the  persecution  of  minorities  rise  in  place  of  the 
standard  of  democracy? 


If  our  treatment  of  the  Japanese  becomes  the  index  of  the  future,  we  can  readily 
foresee  the  course  of  America.  Hitler  and  Mussolini  will  not  hesitate  to  sacrifice 
the  Italians  and  Germans  in  this  country  if  it  suits  their  policy  of  total  war. 
New  incidents  will  occur,  in  which  Americans  of  Italian  and  German  descent 
are  involved.  Then  the  fifth  column  in  America  will  demand  the  evacuation 
of  all  Germans  and  Italians. 

And  this  is  not  the  end.  What  of  the  other  European  nations  that  are  coop- 
erating with  the  Axis  Powers,  some  of  which  have  declared  war  upon  us?  Austria, 
Rumania,  Hungary,  Finland,  Bulgaria,  Denmark — right  down  the  list  of  Fascist 
satellite  states.  If  we  do  not  call  a  halt — and  call  it  now — America  will  be  a 
nation  divided  against  itself.  It  will  be  an  armed  camp  with  half  the  population 
guarding  the  other  half. 


No  matter  how  great  our  resources,  no  matter  how  strong  our  manpower,  this 
country  of  ours  can  never  withstand  the  pressure  of  internal  conflict  arising  out 
of  this  policy  of  hunting  down  saboteurs  and  spies  by  race,  nationality,  or  creed. 

During  a  period  of  hysteria  there  are  always  those  who  think  they  can  save  their 
own  skins  by  joining  in  the  persecution  of  another  minority  group.  When  it  comes 
their  turn  to  be  kicked  around  it  is  too  late  to  reconsider. 

The  great  need  of  America  is  the  unity  of  its  people.  Much  damage  has  already 
been  done  to  this  unity  by  such  practices  as  discrimination  against  Negroes  and 
minority  groups,  the  refusal  of  officeholders  to  drop  their  political  bias  and  work 
for  the  general  welfare,  and  the  rejection  by  employers  of  all  offers  of  labor  cooper- 
ation. If  to  these  is  to  be  added  a  policy  of  demarcation  of  Americans  by  race 
and  nationality,  national  unity  will  be  nothing  but  a  tragically  empty  phrase. 

The  American  emerged  from  a  crucible  into  which  had  been  poured  people  from 
all  nations  of  the  world.  We  are  a  nation  of  nationalities.  Our  system  of  govern- 
ment rests  upon  the  civil  liberties  and  freedom  of  all  races,  creeds,  and  colors 
within  our  boundaries.  Out  of  the  unity  of  these  people  has  sprung  our  system 
of  government.  The  inscription  on  the  Statue  of  Liberty  is  as  much  a  part  of 
our  American  tradition  as  the  Constitution  and  the  Bill  of  Rights: 

"Give  me  your  tired,  your  poor, 
Your  huddled  masses,  yearning  to  breathe  free, 

The  wretched  refuse  of  your  teeming  shore: 

Send  these,  the  homeless,  tempest-tossed,  to  me: 

I  lift  the  lamp  beside  the  golden  door." 

We  think  it  is